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£ ing given for en- very nature disappointing, is in constant fiarch Grandmother 900

18000 largement upon of care, solicitude, remorse, and confusion. Qwn 1000 each

3000 common fame,
we may lawfully
· Mr. Spectator,

Jan. 14, 1712
Total 61,000 pass for 30,000l.

Am a young woman, and have my fortune fortunes.

to make, for which reason I come constant.

ly to church to hear divine service, and make * In prospect of this, and the knowledge of

conquests : but one great hindrance in this • their own personal merit, every one was con my design is, that our clerk, who was once temptible in their eyes, and they refused those

a gardener, has this Christmas so over-decked • offers which had been frequently made them. " the church with greens, that he has quite < But mark the end : the mother dies, the fa spoiled my prospect, insomuch that I have other is married again and has a son, on him • scarce seen the young baronet I dress at these

was entailed the father's, uncle's, and grand- three weeks, though we have both been very "mother's estate. This cut off 42,000l. The constant at our devotions, and do not sit above

maiden 'aunt married' a tall Irishman, and three pews off., 'The church, as it is now with her went tlie 6000l. The widow died, equipped, looks more like a green-house than

and lest but enough to pay her debts and bury ' a place of worship: the middle isle is a very • her; so that there remained for these three pretty shady walk, and the pews look like fo. • girls but their own icocl. They had by this many arbours on each side of it. The pulpit

time passed their prime, and got on the itself has such cluiters of ivy, holly, and rose

wrong side of thirty; and must pass the re mary about it, that a light tellow in our pew "mainder of their days, upbraiding mankind (tock occasion to say, that the congregation • that they mind nothing but money, and be-i heard the word ont of a buih, like Moses. "wailing that virtue, sense, and modesty, are Sir Anthony Love's pew in particular is so • had at present in no manner of estimation.' well hedged, that all my batteries have no ef.

I mention this case of ladies before any other, - fect. I am obliged to shoot at random among becaufe it is the most irreparable : for though the boughs, without taking any manner of youth is the time less capable of reflection, it aim. Mr. Spelator, unless you will give oris in that sex the only season in which they "ders for removing these greens, I Mall grow, can advance their fortunes. But if we turn a very awkward creature at church, and soon our thoughts to the men, we see such crowds have little elle to do there but to say my of unhappy from no other reason, but an ill

prayers. I am in hafte, grounded hope, that it is hard to say which they

Dear Sir, rather deserve, our pity or contempt. It is not

" Your most obedient fervant, unpleasant to see a fellow, grown old in at

6. Jenny Simper,' tendance, and after having passed half a life in fervitude, call himself the unhappiest of all men, aní pretend to be disappointed because 1B 283: THURSDAY, JAN. 24. courtier broke his word. He that promises himfelf any thing but what may naturally arise from his own property or labour, and goes

Magister "artis & largitor ingeri

Perl, Prolog. ver. 10, beyond the desire of poffefling above two parts in three even 'of that, lays up for himself an Necessity is the mother of inyention. increafing heap of affliction and disappointments.

English Proverb,

UCIAN rallies the philosophers in his time, ing by other men, and these are by being ei. who could not agree whether they should ther agreeable or considerable. The generality admit riches into the number of real goods, of mankind do all things for their own fakes ; the professors of the severer fects threw them and when you hope any thing from persons quite out, while others as resolutely inserted above you, if you cannot say, I can be, thus them. agreeahle or thus serviceable, it is ridiculous to I ain apt to believe, that as the world grew pretend to the dignity of being unfortunate more polite, the rigid doctrines of the first were when they leave you; you were injudicious, wholly discarded ; and I do not find any one in hoping for any other than to be neglected to hardy at present as to deny that there are for such as can come within these descriptions very great advantages in the enjoyment of a of being capable to please or serve your patron, plentiful fortune. Indeed the best and wiseft 'when his humour or interests call for their ca- of men, though they may possibly defpise a pacity either way.

good part of those things which the world calls It would not methinks be an useless compari- pleasure, can, I think, hardly be insensible of son between the condition of a man who suns that weight and dignity which a moderate Thare all the pleasures of life, and of one who makes of wealth adds to their characters, counsels, it his business to pursue them. Hope in the re and actions, cluse makes his austerities comfortable, while We find it is a general complaint in profeffions the luxurious man gains nothing but unealiness and trades, that the richest members of them from his enjoyments.. What is the difference are chiefly encouraged, and this is falsely imin the liappiness of him who is macerated by puted to the ill.nature of mankind, who are abstinence, and his who is forfeited with ex ever bestowing their favours on such as least cefs ? He who resigns the world, has no temp want thenı : whereas if we fairly consider their tation to envy, hatred, malice, anger, but is in proceedings in this case, we shall find them constant poffeffion of a serene mind; he who founded on undoubted reason ! fince fuppofing Tollows the pleatures of it, which are in their both equal in their natural integrity, I cught,

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in common prudence, to fear foul play from an But besides these ordinary forms of growing indigent perfon, rather than from one whose cir- rich, it must be allowed that there is room for cumstances seem to have placed him above the genius as well in this as in all other circuma bare temptation of money.

Itances of life. :-1!!! This reason also makes the common wealth Though the ways

of getting money were long regard lier richest subjects, as those who are since very numérous, and though fo many new most concerned for her 'quiet and intereft, and ones have been found out of late years, there is consequently fit:eft to be intrusted with her certainly still remaining fo large a field for inven. highest enjoyments. On the contrary, Cati-, tion, that a man of an indifferent head might line's saying to those men of despcratc tortures,' eafily fit down and draw up such a plan for the who applied themselves to him, and of whom conduct and support of his life, as was never he asterwards composed his army, that " they yet once thought of. C had nothing to hope for but a civil war," was We daily sec methods put in practice by huntoo true not to make the impresion's tre de- gry and ingenious men, which demonstrate the fired.

power of invention in this particular. I believe I need not fear but that what I have

It is reported of Scaramouche, the first fasaid in praise of money, will be more than fuf mous Italian comedian, that being at Paris ficient with most of my readers to excuse the and in great want, he' bethought himfelf of subject of my present paper, which I intend as constantly plying near the door of a noted peran effay on the ways to raise a man's fortune, fumer in that city, and when any one came out “ or the art of growing rich.",

who had been buying smuff, never failed to deThe first and most infallible method towards fire a taste of them : when he had by this the attaining of this end is thrift: all men are means got together a quantity made up of fenot equally qualified for getting money;' but it veral different forts, he fold it again at a lower is in the power of every one alike to practise rate to the fame perfumer, who finding out this virtue ;' and I believe there are very leiv the trick, called it " Tabac de mille fleurs, or perfons, who, if they please to reflect on their 66 snuff of a thoufand flowers."

The Atory paft lives, will not find that had they faved all farther tells us, that by this means he got a those littie fums which they liave spent unne very .confortable subsistence, until making too cella rily, they might at present have been mar- much halte to grow rich, he one day took such cers of a competent fortune. Diligence justly an unrealonable pinch out of the box of a claims the next place to thrift: I find both 'Swiss officer, as engaged him in a quarrel, and these excellently well recommended to common obliged him to quit this ingenious way of life. ufe in the three following Italian proverbs. Nor can I in this place omit doing justice

to a youth of my own country, who, thougų « Never do that by proxy which you can do he is scarce yet twelve years old, has with great “ yourself.

industry and application aitained to the art of " Never defer that until to-morrow which beating the grenad er's march on his chin. I you can do to-day.

'am credibly informed that by this means he “ Never neglect small matters and expences.” does not only maintain himseli and his mother,

but that he is laying up money every day, with A third instrument in growing rich, is me a design, if the war continues, to purchase a thod in bufinels, which, as well a, the tivo drum at least, if not a pair of colours. foriner, is also attainable by peitons of the I thill conclude these instances with the demcanest capacities.

vice of the famous Rabelais, when he was at The famous De Wit, one of the greatest a great distance from Paris, and without mo. statesmen of the age in which he lived, being ney to bear his expences thither. This ingeniasked by a friend, how he was able to dispatch cus author being thus Marp set, got together that multitude of affairs in which he was en a convenient quantity of brick-dust, and hay. gaged ? replied, 'That' his whole art confifted ing disposed of it in different papers, writ upon in doing one thing at once. If, fays le, I have one, poison, for Monsieur," upon a second, any necessary dispatches to make, I think of “ poison for the Dauphin, and on a third, nothing else until those are finished ; if any « poison for the King." Having made this domestic affairs require my attention, I give provision for the royal family of France, he myself up wholly to them until they are set in laid his papers so that his landlord, who was order.

an inquisitive man, and a good subject, might In short, we often see men of dull and phleg- get a light of them. matic tempers, arriving to great eftates, by The plot succeeded as he desired : the host making a regular and orderly disposition of their gave iminediate intelligence to the secretary of business, and that without it the greatest parts state. The secretary presently sent down a spe. and most lively imaginations rather puzzle their cial messenger, who brought up the traitor'to affairs, than bring them to an happy issue, court, and provided him at the King's expence

From what has been said, I think I may lay with proper accommodations on the road. it down as a maxim, that every man of good soon as he appeared, he was known to be the common senife may, if he pleases, in his para celebrated Rabelais, and his powder upon exaticular tation of life, most certainly be rich. mination being found very innocent, the jest The reason why we fometimes see that men of was only laughed at; for which a less eminent the greatest capacities are not so, is either be- droll would have been sent to the gallies. cause they defpife wealth in comparison to Trade and commerce might doubtless be still something elfe; or, at least are not content to varied a thousand ways, out of which would be girting an estate, unless they may do it in their arise fuch branches as have not yet been touched, own way, and at the same time enjoy all the The famous Doily is still fresh in every one's pleasurcs and gratifications of life.

memory, who raised a fortune by finding out 5



materials for such ituffs as might at once be to scandal of her acquaintance, and has never cheap and genteel. I have heard it affirmed, attention enough to hear them coinmended. that had not he discovered this frugal method of This affectation in both sexes makes them vain gratifying our pride, we should hardly have been of being useless, and take a certain pride in able to carry on the last war.

their insignificancy, I regard trade not only as highly advantageous Opposite to this folly is another no less unto the commonwealth in general, but as the reasonable, and that is the impertinence of be. most natural and likely method of making a ing always in a hurry. There are those who man’s fortune, having observed, since my be- visit ladies, and beg pardon, before they are ing a Spectator in the world, greater estates got well seated in their chairs, that they juft called about 'Change, than at Whitehall or St. James's. in, but are obliged to attend butinefs of imI believe I may also add, that the first acquisi- portance elsewhere the very next moment: thus tions are generally attended with more satis- they run from place to place, profefiing that faction, and as good a conscience.

they are obliged to be still in another company I must not however close this essay, without than that which they are in. These persons who observing that what has been said is only intend are just going somewhere else Tould never be ed for persons in the common way of thriving, detained ; let all the world allow that business and is not designed for those men who from low is to be minded, and their affairs will be at an beginnings puih themselves up to the top of end. Their vanity is to be importuned, and fates, and the most considerable figures in life. compliance with their multiplicity of affairs My maxim of saving is not designed for such would effectually dispatch them. The travel as these, since nothing is more usual than forling ladies, who have half the town to see in thrift to disappoint the ends of ambition; it an afternoon, may be pardoned for being in a being almost impossible that the mind should be constant hurry; but it is inexcusable in men to intent upon trifles, while it is at the same time come where they have no business, to profess forming some great design.

they absent themselves where they have. It may therefore compare these men to a great has been remarked by some nice observers and poet, wlio, as Longinus says, while he is full critics, that there is nothing discovers the true of the most magnificent ideas, is not always at temper of a person so much as his letters, I leisure to mind the little beauties and niceties have by me two epistles, which are written by of his art.

two people of the different humours above. I would however have all my readers take mentioned. It is wonderful that a man cannot great care how they mistake themselves for un. observe upon liimself when he fits down to common geniuses, and men above rule, since it write, but that he will gravely, commit him. is very ealy for them to be deceived in this par- self to paper the same man that he is in the ticular.

x freedom of conversation. I have hardly seen a

line from any of these gentlemen, but spoke

them as absent from what they were doing, as No 284. . FRIDAY, JAN. 25.

they profess they are when they come into com

pany. For the folly is, that they have perfuadPoftbabui tamen illorum mea seria ludo.

ed themselves they really are busy. Thus their

Virg. Ecl. 7. V. 17. whole time is spent in suspence of the present Their mirth to share, I bid my business wait.

moment to the next, and then from the next to

the succeeding, which to the end of life, is to N unaffected behaviour is without question pass away with h pretence to many things, and

a very great charm; but under the notion execution of nothing. of being unconstrained and disengaged, people take upon them to be unconcerned in any duty ISIR, of life. A general negligence is what they af. 'HE post is just going out, and I have fume upon all occasions, and set up for an aver

many other letters of very great imporlion to all manner of business and attention. tance to write this evening, but I could not “ I am the careleseft creature in the world, I • omit making my compliments to you for your “ have certainly the worst memory of any man s civilities to me when I was last in town. It

living,” are frequent expressions in the mouth • is my misfortune to be so full of business, that of a pretender of this fort. It is a professed 'I cannot tell you a thousand things which I maxim with these people never to think ; there I have to say to you. I must desire you to comis something so folemn in reflection, they, for omunicate the contents of this to no one living; footh, can never give themselves time for such but believe me to be, with the greatest fide. a way of employing themselves. It happens lity, Sir, often that this sort of inan is heavy enough in

r Your most obedient, his nature to be a good proficient in such

• humble servant, matters as are attainable by industry ; but alas!

• Stephen Courtier.' he has such an ardent desire to be what he is not, to be too volatile, to have the faults of a of , that

of all ; cation. When this humour enters into the head I told I ought not to ufe my eyes so much, I of a female, the generally professes fickness up • cannot forbear writing to you, to tell you I on all occasions, and acts all things with an in have been to the last degree hipped since I saw disposed ait ; me is offended, but her mind is you. How could you entertain such a thought : too lazy to raise her to anger, therefore the as that I should hear of that silly fellow with

lives only as actuated by a violent spleen and " patience ? Take my word for it, there is nogentle scorn, 'She has hardly curiofity to listen thing in it, and you may believe it when so





moftungi mari si ving for any manner of appli- : I though it is met drank the waters, and am


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lazy a creature as I am, undergo the pains to
assure you of it, by taking pen, ink, and pa N° 285. SATURDAY, JAN. 26.
per in my hand. Forgive this, you , know I
Thall not offend in this kind. I am very much Ne, quicunque Deus, quicunque adbibebitur beros,
- Your servant,"

Regali confpe&tus in auro nuper & otro,
Bridget Eitherdown. Migret in obfcuras humili fermone tabernas :

Aut, dum vitat bumum, nubes & inania captets

Hor. Ars Poet. ver, 227. • The fellow is of your country, pr’ythee send me word however whether he has so great an

But then they did not wrong themselves fo « estate.'


To make a god, a hero, or a king,
Mr. Spectator,

Jan. 24, 1712.

(Stript of his golden crown, and purple robe)

Descend to a' mechanic dialect ;
Am clerk of the parish from whence Mrs.

Nor (to avoid such meanness) Toaring high,
Simper sends her complaint, in your yes-

With empty sound, and airy notions, fly. terday's Spectator. I must beg of you to

publish this as a public admonition to the
aforesaid Mrs. Simper, otherwise all my ho Aving already treated of the fable, the cha-
neft care in the disposition of the greens in the
church will have no effect : I Thall therefore Loft, we are in the last place to consider the lan-
with your leave lay before you the whole guage;, and as the learned world is very much
matter. I was formerly, as the charges me, divided upon Milton as to this point, I hope
for several years a gardener in the county of they will excuse me if I appear particular in
Kent : but I must absolutely deny, that it is any of my opinions, and incline to those who
out of any affection I retain for my old em- judge the most advantageously of the author.
ployment that I have placed my greens fo li. It is requisite that the language of an heroic

berally about the church, but out of a parti- poem should be both perspicuous and sublime.
• cular (pleen I conceived against Mrs. Simper, in proportion as either of these two qualities
' and others of the same fisterhood, some time are wanting, the language is imperfect. Per.'

ago. As to herself, I had one day set the {picuity is the first and most necessary qualifica• hundredth psalm, and was singing the first tion ; insomuch that a good-natured reader some6 line in order to put the congregation into the times overlooks a little Nip even in the gram.

tune, she was all the while curtfying to Sir mar or syntax, where it is impossible for him to
Anthony, in so affected and indecent a man- mistake the poet's senfe. Of this kind is that
ner, that the indignation I conceived made me passage in Milton, wherein he speaks of Satan :

forget myfelf so far, as from the tune of that
• psalm to wander into Southwell tune, and -God and his Son except,

from thence into Windsor tune, still unable to Created thing nought valu'd he nor fhunn'd.

recover myself, until I had with the utmost s confusion set a new one. Nay, I have often And that in which he describes Adam and Eve. < seen her rise up and smile, and curtsy to one

at the lower end of the church in the midst of Adam the goodliest man of men since born:

a gloria patri; and when I have spoke the af His sons, the fairest of her daughters Evé. s sent to a prayer with a long Amen, uttered s with a decent gravity, she has been rolling her It is plain, that in the former of these passages

eyes about in such a manner, as plainly Mew according to the natural fyntax, the divine pered, however she was moved, it was not to. fons mentioned in the first line are represented wards an heavenly object. In fine, the ex as created beings; and that, in the other, Adam

tended her conquests so far over the males, and and Eve are confounded with their fons, and « raised such envy in the females, that what daughters. Such little blemishes as there, when « between love of those, and the jealousy of the thought is great and natural, we should with

these, I was almost the only person that look. Horace, impute a pardonable inadvertency, or Sed in a prayer-book all church-time. I had to the weakness of human nature, which can• several projects in my head to put a stop to not attend to each minute particular, and give

this growing mischief ; but as I have long the last finishing to every circumstance in ro • lived in Kent, and there often heard how the long a work. The ancient critics therefore, who • Kentish men evaded the conqueror, by carry were acted by a spirit of candour, rather than

ing green boughs over their heads, it put me that of cavilling, invented certain figuies of « in mind of practising this device against Mrs. speech, on purpose to palliate little errors of this s Simper. I find I have preserved many a young nature in the writings of those authors who had

man from her eye-shot by this means: there- so many greater beauties to atone for them.
• fore humbly pray the boughs may be fixed, If clearness and perspicuity were only to be
s until the chall give security for her peaceable consulted, the poet would have nothing else to
s intentions.

do but to clothe his thoughts in the most plain Your humble servant, and natural expressions. But since it often Francis Sternhold.' happens that the most obvious phrases, and

those which are used in ordinary conversation, become too familiar to the ear, and contract a kind of meanness by passing through the mouths of the vulgar; a poet should take particular care to guard himself against idiomatic ways of speaking. Ovid and Lucan have many poorpesies of expresion upon this account, as ta

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ing up with the first phrases that offered, with. Greek forms of speech, which the critics call out putting themselves to the trouble of looking Hellenisms, as Horace in his odes abounds with after such as would not only have been natural, thein much more than Virgil. I need not menbut also elevated and sublime. Milton has but ţion the several dialects which Homer has made few failings in this kind, of which, however, use of for this end. Miltop, in conformity with you may mect with some instances, as in the the practice of the ancient pocts, and with Afollowing passages :

ristotle's rule; has infused a great many Latin

isms, as well as Græcisms, and sometimes HeEmbrios and id ots, eremites and friers

braisms, into the language of his poem; as toWhité, black, and gray, with all their trumpery,

wards the beginning of it. Here pilgrims roamA while discourse they hold,

Nor did they not perceive the evil plight No fear left dinner cool; when thus began

In-which they were, or the fierce pain not feel. Our author

Yet to their gen?ral's voice they foon obey'd Who of all ages to succeed, but feeling

---Who Thall tempt with wand'ring. Ieet The evil on him brought by me, will curse The dark unbottom'd infinite abyss. My head, ill fare our ancestor impure,

And through the palpable at jcure find out For this we may sbank Adam.

His uncouth way, or spread his airy fight.

Upborn with indefatigable wings The great masters in compofition know very

Over the vas abrupt ! well that many an elegant phrose becomes in. propen for a poet or an orator, wlien it has been

5.6---So both afcend debased by cominon vse. For this reason tlie. 1. In the visions of God---

Book 2. works of ancient authors, which are written in dead languages, have a great advantage over Under this head may be reckoned the placing those which are written in languages that are the adjective after the lubstantive, the tranfpofipow spoken. Were there any mean phrases or tion of words, the turning the adjective into a idioms in Virgil and Homer, they would not fubftantive, with several other foreign modes of mo k the ear of the most delicate modern read fpeech which this poet - has naturalized to give er, fo much as they would have done that of his verse the greater sound, and throw it.out of an old Greek -or Roman, because we never heart profe. W them pronounced in our streets,' or in ordinary The third method mentioned by Aristotle is conversation,

what agrees with the genius of the Greek lanIt is not therefore sufficient, that the language guage more than with that of any other tongue, of an epic poem be perspicunus, kunichs, it be and is therefore more used by Komer than by allo sublime.' To this end it ought to deviate any other poet: I mean the lengthening of a from the common forms and' ordinary phrases phrase by the addition of words, which may of fpeech. The judgment of a pett very much either be inserted or omitted, -as also by the exdiscovers itself in thunning the common roads tending or contracting of particular words by of expresfioni, without falling into fuch ways of the infertion or omission of certain syllables. specch as may seem stiff and unnatural; he Milton las put in practice this method of raising mast nor Tweli into a false sublime, by endea- his language, as far as the nature of our tongue vouring to avoid the other extreme. Among will permit, as in the paffage above-mentioned, the Greeks, Æschylus, and sometines Sopho- Eremite, fir wliat is herinit, in common dira cles, were guilty of this fault; among the La- course. If you observe the meature of his tins, Claudian and Statius; and among our verse, he has with great judgment suppreffed a own countrymen, Shakespear and Lee. In syliable in several words, and shortened those these authors the affectation of greatness often of two fyllables into one, by which method, hurts the perspicuity of the file, as in many besides the above-mentioned avantage, he has others the endeavour after perspicuity prejudices given a greater variety to his numbers. But its greatness.

this practice is more particularly remarkable in Ariftotle has obferved, that the idioinatic stile the names of persons and of countries, as Beelmay be avoided, and the sublime formed, by zelüb, Hegeben, and in many other particulars; che following methods. Firft by the use of me. wherein he has either changed the name, or made Japhors : such as those of Milton :

use of that which is not the most commonly

known,'tliat he might the better depart from the Imparadis’d in one another's arms,

language of the vulgar. And in his hand a reed

The fame reason recommended to him feveral Stood waving tipt with fire.--..

old words, which also makes his poem appear The graffy clods now calvd.--

the inore venerable, and gives it a greater air of Spangled with eyes...


I muri likewise take notice, that there are in In these and innumerable other instances, the Milton several words of his own coining, as metaphors are very bold but juft; I must how- cerberean, miscreated, bell-dooin'd, Embryon atoms, ever observe that the inetaphors are not so thick and many others. If the reader is offended at sown in Milton, which always favours too much this liberty in our English poet, I would recomof wit; that they never clash with one another, mend him to a discourse in Plutarch, which which, as Aristotle obferves, turns a sen- shews us how frequently Homer has made use tence into a kind of an enigma or riddle; of the same liberty. and that he feldom has recourse to them where Milton, by the above-mentioned helps, and the proper and natural words will do as well. by the choice of the noblest words and phrases

Another way of railing the language, and give which our tongue would afford him, has carried ing it a poetical turn, is to make use of the our language to a greater height than any of idioms of other tongues. Virgil is full of the


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