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nencies of the like nature make me very un. 'P. $. To tell you the truth, I am married "caly; and if your remonftrances have no more to him already, but pray say something to • effect upon her than minç,'I am afraid I shall ' justify me.' • be obliged to ruin myself to procure her a set. o tlcment at Oxford with her tutor, for the is "Mr. Spectator, already too mad for Bedlam. Now, Sir, you

OU will forgive us professors of music ' see the danger my family is exposed to, and

if we make a second application to you, the likelihood of my wife's becoming both in order to promote our design of exhibiting • troublesome and useless, unless her reading entertainments of music in York-buildings. ' herself in your paper may make her reflect. It is industriously inlinuated that our intention • She is so very learned that I cannot pretend • is to destroy operas in general, but we beg of

by word of mouth to argue with her. She you to insert this plain explaxation of our.

laughed out at your ending a paper in Greek, selves in your paper. Our purpose is only to • and said it was a hint to women of literature, 'improve our circumstances, by improving the • and very civil not to translate it to expose 'art which we profess. We see it utterly de• them to the vulgar. You see how it is with, • Itroyed at present, and as we were the per. Sir, your humble servant.' • fons who introduced operas, we think it a

groundless imputation that we thould set up • Mr. Spectator,

. against the opera itself. What we pretend to you have that humanity and compassion in • allert is, that the songs of different authors

injudiciously put together, and a foreign tone make one think you have, you will not deny and manner which are expected in every thing your advice to a distressed damsel, who in. 'now performed amongst us, has put music tends to be determined by your judgment in a itself to a stand; insomuch that the ears of matter of great importance to her. You must ' the people cannot now be entertained with know then, there is an agreeable young fellow any thing but what has an impertinent gaia co whose person, wit, and humour no body ety, without any just spirit, or a languith

makes any obje&tion, that pretends to have ment of notes, without any passion or com• been long in love with me. To this I must

mon sense. We hope those persons of sense add, whether it proceeds from the vanity of ' and quality who have done us the honour to

my nature, or the seeming sincerity of my • subscribe, will not be ashamed of their pa' lover, I will not pretend to say, that I verily 'tronage towards us, and not receive impressi, ( believe he has a real value for me ; which, if ' ons that patronising us is being for or against • true, you will allow may juftly angment his the opera, but truly promoting their own di. • merit with his mistress. In short, I am so versions in a more juft and elegant manner • sensible of his good qualities, and what I • than has been hitherto performed. owe to his paffion, that I think I could sooner

. We are, Şir, • resolve to give up my liberty to him than any

• Your most obedient servants, body else, were there not an objection to be

• Thomas Claytoys * made to his fortunes, in regard they do not

Nicolino Hayın, 6 answer the utmost mine may expect, and are

• Charles Dieupart o not sufficient to secure me from undergoing

• There will be no performance in York• the reproachful phrase, fo commonly used, • that she has played the fool. Now, though I

buildings until after that of the subscription.'

T sam one of those few who heartily despise equi

page, diamonds, and a coxcomb, yet fince • such opposite notions from mine prevail in N° 279. SATURDAY, JANUARY 19. • the world, even amongst the best, and such as ( are esteemed the most prudent people, I can Reddere perfona fcit convenient a cuique, s not find in my heart to resolve upon incurring

Hor. Ars Poet, ver. 316. • the cenfure of those wise folks, which I am

He knows what best befits each character. de conscious I shall do, if when I enter into a

E have already taken a general Survey « that of equalling, if not advancing my for

of the fable and characters of Milton's (tunes.

Under this difficulty 1 now labour, Paradise Loft. The parts which reinain to be * not being in the least determined whether I considered, according to Aristotle's method, are • shall be governed by the vain world, and the the sentiments and language. Before I enter • frequent examples I met with, or hearken to upon the first of there, I must advertise my

the voice of my lover, and the motions I find reader, that it is my design, as soon as I have s in my heart in favour of him. . Sir, your finished my general refexions on these four se' opinion and advice in this affair, is the only veral heads, to give particular instances out of

thing I know can turn the balance; and the poem which is now before us of beauties.

which I earnestly entreat I may receive foon; and imperfections which may be observed under < for until I have your thoughts upon it, I am each of them, as also of such other particulars I engaged not to give my swain a final dir as may not properly fall under any of them. charge.

This i thought fit to premise, that the reader Besides the particular obligation you will lay may not judge too hastily of this picce of critison me, hy giving this subject room in one of cism, or look upon it as imperfect, before he

your papers, it is possible it may be of use to has seen the whole extent of it. some others of my sex, who will be as grate. The sentiments in an epic poem are the ful for the favour as,

thoughts and behaviour which the author af! Sir, your humble servant,

cribes to the persons whom he introduces, and Florinda,



are just when they are conformable to the cha- umphs over all the poets both modern and racters of the several perfons. The sentimenes ancient, Homer only excepted. It is impossible have likewise a relation to things as well as per- for the imagination of man to distend itself fons, and are then perfect when they are such with greater ideas, than those which he has laid as are adapted to the subject. If in either of together in his first, second, and fixth books. these cases the poet endeavours to argue or cx The seventh, which describes the creation of plain, to magnify or diminish, to raise love or the world, is likewise wonderfully fublime, hatred, pity or terror, or any other paffion, we though not fo apt to stir up emotion in the mind ought to consider whether the sentiments he of the reader, nor consequently fo perfect in the makes use of are proper for those ends. Hoiner epic way of writing, because it is filled with less is censured by the critics for his defect as to action. Let the judicious reader compare what this particular in several parts of the bliad and Longinus has obferved on several passages in Odyiley, though at the same time those, who Homer, and he will find parallets, 'for most of have treated this great poet with candour, have them in the Paradise Loft. attributed this defect to the times in which he From what has been faid we may infer, that lived. It was the fault of the age, and not of as there are two kinds of sentiments, the natuHomer, if there wants that delicacy in some of ral and the fublime, which are always to be his sentiments, which now appears in the pursued in an heroic poem, there are also two works of men of a much inferior genius. Be- kinds of thoughts which are carefully to be fides, if there are blemithes in any particular avoided. The first are such as are affected and thoughts, there is an infinite beauty in the unnatural ; the second such as are mean and greatest part of them. In short, if there are vulgar. As for the first kind of thoughts, we many poets who would not have fallen into meet with little or nothing that is like them in the meanneis of some of his sentiments, there Virgil: he has none of those triiing points and are none who could have rise up to the great, puerilities that are so often to be met with in ness of others. Virgil has excelled all others Ovid, none of the epigrammatic turns of Lucan, in the propriety of his sentiments. Milton one of those swelling sentiments which are so Mhinei Bikewise very much in this particular; frequent in Statius and Claudian, none of those nor must we omit'one confideration which adds mixed einbellishments of Taffo. Every thing to his honour and reputation. Homer and Vir is just and natural. His sentiments new that gil introduced perfons whose characters are he had a perfect infight into human nature, and commonly known among men, and such as arç that he knew every thing which was the most to be met with either in history, or in ordinary proper to affect it. conversation. Milton's characters, most of. Mr. Diyden has in some places, which I may them lie out of nature, and were to be formed hereafter take notice of, misrepresented Virgil's purely by his own invention. It thews a great way of thinking as to this particular, in the er çenius in Shakespear to tiave drawn his Caly- translation he has given us of the Æneid. I ban, than his Hotspur or Julius Cæfar: the do not remeniber that Homer any where falls one was to be supplied out of his cwn imagina-, into the faults above mentioned, which were intion, whereas the cther might have been icrm deed the false refinements of later ages. Milton, ed upon tradition, hifiory and observation. It it must be confert, has sometimes crred in this was much easier therefore for Homer to find respect, as I Thall now more at large in ano. proper sentiments for an assembly of Grecian ther paper; though considering how all the pogenerals, than for Milton to diverfiíy his inter ets of the age in which he writ were infected nal council with proper characters, and inspire with this wrong way of thinking, he is rather them with a variety of sentiments. The loves to be admired that he did not give more into it, of Dico and Æneas are only copies of what has than that he did fometimes comply with the vis paffed between other persons. Adain and Eve, cious taste which still prevails so much among before the fall, are a different species from that modern writers. of mankind, who are descended from them; But since several thoughts may be natural and none but a poet of the most unbounced in which are low and groveling, an epic poet vention, and the most exquifite judgment could should not only avoid such sentiments as are un. have ölled their conversation and behaviour with natural or affected, but also Tuch as are mean so many apt circumstances during their state of and vulgar. Homer has opened a great field innocence.

of raillery to men of more delicacy than greatNor is it suficient for an epic poem to be filled nefs of genius, ' by the homeliness of some of his with such thoughts as are natural, unless it sentiments. But, as I have before faid, these ahound alío with such as are sublime. Virgil are rather to be imputed to the fimplicity of the in this particular falls inori of Homer. He age in which he lived, to which I may also add, 31245 not indeed so many thoughts that are low of that which he described, than to any imperand vulgar: bu: at the same time has not fo fection in that divine poet. Zoilus, among the many thoughis ihat are sublime and noble. 'ancients, and Monsieur Perrault, among the . The truth of it is, Virgil feiriom rises into very moderns, pushed their ridicule very far upon altonishing sentiments, where he is not fired by him, on account of fome such sentiments. There the Iliad. He every where charms and pleates is no blemish to be observed in Virgil under this us by the forca ci his own genius; but feldoin head, and but a very few in Milton. elevates and traníports us where he docs not I hall give but one instance of this impropri. fetch his hints from homer.

ety of thought in Homer, and at the same time Milton's chiet talent, and indeed his difin- compare it with an instance of the same nature, guishing excelencs, lies in the fublimity, of both in Virgil and Milton. Sentiments, which his thoughts. There are others of the moderns railc laughter, çan very feldom be admitted with who rival him in every cihei part of poetry; athy decency into an heroic poem, whose busibet in the grandf, or lis fc.timerits bio tsis nefs it is to excite parlions of a much nobler na



Homer, however, in his characters of leaders one may draw up all those who make Vulcan and Thersites, in his story of Mars and any manner of figure, except in dunb show. Venus, in his behaviour of Irus, and in other A rational and select conversation is composed passages, has been observed to have lapsed into of persons, who have the talents of pleasing the burlesque character and to have departed with delicacy of sentiments flowing from habifroin that serious air which seems. effential to tual chastity of thought; but inixed company the magnificence of an epic poem. I reinem is frequently made up of pretenders to mirth, ber but one laugh in the whole Æneid, which and is usually peftered with constrained, obscene rifes in the fifth book, upon Monoetes, where and painful witticisms.

Now and then you he is represented as thrown overboard, and dry- meet with a man, fo exactly formed for pleasing, ing himself upon a rock. But this piece of that it is no matter what he is doing or saying, mirth is so well timed, that the feverest critic that is to say, that there need no manner of imcan have nothing to say against it; for it is in portance in it, to make him gain upon every the book of games and diversions, where the body who hears or beholds him. This felicitý re:der's mind may be supposed to be sufficiently is not the gift of nature only, but must be atrelaxed for such an entertainment. The only tended with happy circumstances, which add a piece of pleasantry in Paradise Loft, is where dignity to the familiar behaviour which diftinthe evil spirits are described as rallying the an- guishes him whom we call an agreeable man. I gels upon the success of their new-invented ar is from this that every body loves and esteems tillery. This 'passage I look npon to be the Polycarpus. H: is in the vigor of his age and moft exceptionable in the whole poem, as be the gaiety of life, but has palled through very ing nothing else but a string of puns, and those conspicuous scenes in it; though no foldier, he too very indifferent ones.

has fhared, the danger, and acted with great

gallantry and generosity on a decisive day of -Satan beheld their plight,

battle. To have those qualities which only And to his mates thus in derision callid. make other men conspicuous in the world as it O friends, why come not on those victors were supernumerary to him, is a circumstance proud!:

which gives weight to his most indifferent acr Erc-while they fierce were coming, and when we tions ; for as a known credit is ready cash to To entertain them fair with open front,

a trader, fo is acknowledged merit immediate And breast, (what could we more ?) propound- distinction, and ferves in the place of equipage ing terms

to a gentleman. This renders Polycarpus grace, of composition, straiglit they chang’d their minds, ful in mirth, important in businers, and reFlew off, and into strange vágaries fell

garded with love, in every ordinary occurrence. As 'they would dance : yet for a dance they But not to dwell upon characters which have seem'd

fuch particular recommendations to our hearts, Somewhat extravagant, and wild ; perhaps let us turn our thought rather to the methods of For joy of offer'd peace; but I suppose

pleasing which must carry men through the If our propofals once again were heard,

world who camot pretend to such advantages. We should compel them to a quick refult.

Falling in with the particular humour or man. To whom thus Belial in' like gamesome ner of one above you, abstracted from the gemood :

neral rules of good behaviour, is a life of a Leader, the terms we sent were terms of Nave. A parafite differs in nothing from the weight,

meanest fervant, but that the footman hires Of hard contents, and full of force urg‘d home;

himself for bodily labour, subjected to go and Such as we might perceive amus’d them all,

come at the will of his master, but the other And stumbled many: who receives them right,

gives up his very foul : he is prostituted to Had need from head to foot well understand;

speak, and professes to think after the mode of Not understood, this gift they have besides,

him whom he courts.

This servitude to a pa, They thew us when our foes walk net upright.

tron, in an honeft nature, would be more grievThus they among themselves in pleasant vein

ous than that of wearing his livery; therefore Ştood scoffing

L we will speak of those methods only, which are worthy and ingenuous.

The happy talent of pleasing either those above

you or below you, seems to be wholly owing N° 280. MONDAY, JANUARY 21.

to the opinion they have of your sincerity. This Principibus placuiflè viris non ultima laus eft. quality is to attend the agreeable man in all Hor. Ep. 17. lib. 1. ver. 35.

the actions of his life; and I think there need

no more be said in honour of it, than that ic To please the great is not the smallest praise. is what forces the approbation even of your op


ponents. The guilty man has an honour for THE desire of pleasing makes a man agree- the judge who with justice pronounces against

able or unwelcome to those with whom him the sentence of death itself. The author of he converses, according to the motive from the sentence at the head of this paper, was an which that inclination appears to flow. If excellent judge of human life, and paffed hiş your concern for pleasing others arises from in own in company the most agreeable that ever nate benevolence, it never fails of success : if was in the world. Augustus lived amongst from a vanity to excel, its disappointment is no his friends as if he had his fortune to make in less certain. What we call an agreeable man, his own court : Gandour and affability, accomis he who is endowed with the natural bent to panied with as much power as ever mortal was do acceptable things from a delight he takes invested with, were what made him in the utmost them merely as fuch; and the affectation of that manner agrecable among a set of admirable character is what constitutes a fop. Under these men, who had thoughts too high for ambition,


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and views too large to be gratified by what he could give them in the disposal of an empire, No 281. TUESDAY, JANUARY 22. without the pleasures of their mutual conver Pe&toribus inbians Spirantia confulit exta. sation. A certain unanimity of taste and judg

Virg. Æn. 4. ver. 64. ment, which is natural to all of the same order in the species, was the band of this society;

Anxious the reeking entrails he consults. and the emperor assumed no figure in it, but AVING already given an account of the

dissection of a beau's Head, with the setalents and qualifications, as they contributed veral discoveries made on that occafion; I shall to advance the pleasures and sentiments of the here, according to my promise, enter upon the company.

diffection of a coquette's heart, and communicate Cunning people, hypocrites, all who are but to the public such particularities as we observed l'alf virtuous, or half wise, are incapable of in that curious piece of anatomy. twin the refined pleasure of such an equal I Mould perhaps have waved this undertaking,

pomy is could wliolly exclude the regard of had not I been put in mind of my promise by törtune in their conversations. Horace, in the several of my unknown correspondents, who are discourse fr in whence I take the hint of the very importunate with me to make an expresent speculation, lays down excellent rules ample of the coquette, as I have already for condu&t in conversation with men of pow. done of the beau. It is therefore in com. er ; but he speaks it with an air of one who pliance with the request of friends, that I have had no need of such an application for any looked over the ininutes of my former dream, thing which related to himself. It shews he in order to give the public an exact relation of understood what it was to be a skilful courtier, it, which I shall enter upon without farther by just admonitions against importunity, and preface. Thewing how forcible it was to speak modeft Our operator, before he engaged in this vifily of your own wants. There is indeed some onary dissection, told us, that there was nothing thing so shameless in taking all opportunities in his art more difficult than to lay open the to speak of your own affairs, that he who is heart of a coquette, by reason of the many laguilty of it towards him on whom he depends, byrinths and recesses which are to be found in fares like the beggar, who exposes his fores, it, and which do not appear in the heart of any which instead of moving compassion makes the other animal. man he begs of turn away from the object. He desired us first of all to observe the peri.

I cannot tell what is become of him, but I cardium, or outward case of the heart, which remember about sixteen years ago an honest we did very attentively; and by the help of our fellow, who fo juftly understood how disagreea- glasses discerned in it millions of little scars, blo the mention or appearance of his wants which seemed to have been occasioned by the would make him, that I have often reflected points of innumerable darts and arrows, that upon him as

a counterpart of Irus, whom I from time to time had glanced upon the outward have formerly mentioned. This man, whom I coat : though we could not discover the smallest have missed for some years in my walks, and orifice, by which any of them had entered and have heard was some way employed about the pierced the inward substance. army, made it a maxim, that good wigs, de Every smatterer in anatomy knows that this Jicate linen, and a chearful air, were to a poor pericardium, or case of the heart, contains in it dependent the same that working tools are to a a thin reddish liquor, supposed to be bred from poor artificer. It was no small entertainment the vapours which exhale out of the heart, and to me, who knew his circumstances, to see him being stopped here, are condensed into this who had fafted two days, attribute the thin- watery subitance. Upon examining this liquor, ness they told him of, to the violence of some we found that it had in it all the qualities of that gallantries he had lately been guilty of. The skilful spirit which is made use of in the thermometer, diffembler carried this on with the utmost ad- to thew the change of weather. dress : and if any suspected his affairs were nar Nor must I here omit an experiment one of the row, it was attributed to indulging himself in company assured us he himself had made with some fashionable vice rather than an irreproach- this liquor, which he found in great quantity able poverty, which saved his credit with those about the heart of a coquette whom he had on whom he depended.

formerly diffected. He affirmed to us, that he The main art is to be as little troublesome as had actually inclosed it in a small tube made you can, and make all you hope for come rather after the manner of a weather-glass; but that as a favour from your patron than claim from instead of acquainting him with the variations you. But I am here prating of what is the me of the atmosphere, it Thewed him the qualities thod of pleasing so as to succeed in the world, of those persons who entered the room where it when there are crowds who have, in city, stood. He affirmed also, that it rose at the aptown, court, and country, arrived at considera- proach of a plume of feathers, an embroidered ble acquisitions, and yet seem incapable of coat, or a pair of fringed gloves ; and that it acting in any conftant tenor of life, but have fell as soon as an ill-Ihaped periwig, a clumsy pair gone on from one successful error to another ; of shoes, or an unfashionable coat came into therefore I think I may Morten this inquiry af- his house : nay, he proceeded so far as to affure ter the method of pleasing ; and as the old Leau, us, that upon his laughing aloud when he faid to his son, once for all, “ Pray, Jack, be a' ftood by it, the liquor mounted very sensibly, “ fine gentleman,” so may I, to my reader, and immediately sunk again upon his looking abridge my instructions, and finish the art of serious. In short, he told us, that he knew pleasing, in a word, cs Be richia

'T very well by this invention whenever he had a man of lense or a çoxcomb in his room.

Having cleared away the pericardium, or the As we were admiring this strange phænomecase and liquor above-mentioned, we came to non, and standing round the heart in a circle, the heart itself. The outward surface of it was it gave a most prodigious sigh or rather crack, extremely Nippery,' and the mucro, or point, so and disperfed all at once in smoke and vapour.' very cold withal, that, upon endeavouring to This imaginary noise, which inethought was take hold of' it, it glided through the fingers like louder than the burst of a cannon, produced a smooth piece of ice.

such a violent Take in my brain, that it diffiThe fibres were turned and twifted in a more pated the fumes of neep, and left me in an inintricate and perplexed manner than they are

stant broad awake.
usually found in other hearts; infomuch that
the whole heart was wound up together in a
gordian knot, and must have had very irregular No 282. WEDNESDAY, JAN. 23.
and unequal motions, whilst it was employed
in its vital function.

-Spes incerta futuri.
One thing we thought very observable, name-

Virg. Æn. 8. ver. 580. ly, that upon examining all the veffels which

Hopes and fears in equal balance laid. came into it or issued out of it, we could not

DRYDEN, discover any communication that it had with

'Tis a lamentable thing that every man is full the tongue: We could not but take notice likewise, 'that

of complaints, and constantly uttering senseveral of those little nerves in the heart which people generally bring upon themselves all the

tences against the fickleness of fortune, when are affected by the sentiments of love, hatred, calamities they fall into, and are constantly heapand other passions, did not descend to this before us from the brain, but from the muscles ing up matter for their cwn forrow and disap

pointment. That which produces the greatest which lie about the eye. Upon weighing the heart in my hand, I found part of the delusions of mankind, is a falre hope

which people indulge with so sanguine a flatit to be extremely light, and consequently very hollow, which I did not wonder at, when, tery to themfelves, that their hearts are bent up

on fantastical advantages which they had no reaupon looking into the inside of it, I saw multi- son to believe should ever have arrived to them. tudes of cells and cavities running one within By this unjust measure of calculating their hapanother, as our historians describe the apart. piness, they often mourn with real affiction ments of Rofamond's bower. Several of these for imaginary losses. When I am talking of little hollows were stuffed with innumerable this unhappy way of accounting for ourselves, I. forts of trifles, which I Thall forbear giving any cannot but reflect upon a particular set of peoparticular account of, and shall therefore only ple, who, in their 'own favour, resolve every take notice of what lay first and uppermost, thing that is possible into what is probable, and which, upon our unfolding it, and applying our

then reckon on that probability as on what microscopes to it, appeared to be a fame-colour- must certainly happen. Will Honeycomb, upon ed hood.

my observing his looking on a lady with some We were informed thar the lady of this heart, particular attention, gave me an account of the when living, received the addresses of several great distresses which had laid waste her vewho made love to her, and did not only give ry fine face, and had given an air of melancholy gach of them encouragement, but made every

to a very agreeable person. That lady and a one she conversed with believe that the regard. couple of fitters of her’s, were, said Will, foured him with an eye of kindness; for which

teen years ago, the greatest fortunes about reason we expected to have seen the impression town; but without having any loss by bad tenof multitudes of faces among the several plaits ants, by bad securities, or any damage by sea or and foldings of the heart ; but to our great land, are reduced to very narrow circumstances. surprise not a single print of this nature disco- They were at that time the most inaccessible, vered itself until we came into the very core haughty beauties in town; and their pretensions and center of it. We there observed a little fi.

to take upon them at that unmerciful rate, were gure, which, upon applying our glasses to it, raised upon the following scheme, according to appeared dressed in a very fantastic manner, which all their lovers were answered. The more I looked upon it, the more I thought I had seen the face before, but could not poffi. Our father is a youngish man, but chen our bly recollect either the place or time; when, at: mother is somewhat older, and not likely to length, one of the company, who had exami have any children; his estate, being 8ool. per ned this figure more nicely than the rest, Mew

annum, at 20 years purchase, is worth 16,000l. 'eá us plainly by the make of its face, and the < Our uncle, who is above 50, has 4ool. per anseveral turns of its features; that the little idok num, which at the aforesaid rate is 8ccol. which was thus lodged in the very middle of "" There's a widow aunt, who has in,cool. at the heart was the deceased beau, whose head I her own disposal left by her husband, and an gave some account of in my last Tuesday's old maiden aunt who has 6000l. Then our paper.

• father's mother has gool. per annum, which As soon as we had finished our dissection, we ' is worth 18,00ol. and iocol. each of us has of resolved to make an experiment of the 'heart, her own, which cannot be taken from us. not being able to determine among ourselves « These summed up together stand thus : the nature of its substance, which differed in fo many particulars from that of the heart in other

. This equally difemales. ' Accordingly we laid it into a pan of Father's 800

16000' vided between burning coals, when we observed in it a certain Uncle's 400

8000 us three amounts Salamandrine quality, that made it capable of


10,000 living in the midst of fire and fame, without

1020,00ol each;&

гбосо 6,000 S

an allowance be. "being consumed, of so much as Anged,

Z za


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