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o would expatiate a little on this subject, and, N° $39. TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 18. • admonish her parents that it may be from the

very imperfection of human nature itself, and Heteroclita funto,

Quæ Genus. pot any personal frailty of her or me, that our

! inclinations baffled at present may alter; and Be they Heteroclites.

' while we are arguing with ourselves to put off

! the enjoyment of our present paffions, our af. ( Mr. Spectator,

fections may change their objects in the operaAM a young widow of good fortune and

tion., It is a very delicate subject to talk upon;

but if it were but hinted, I am in hopes it I have clusters of pretty fellows come already would give the parties concerned some reflexito viçit me, rome dying with hopes, otħers with

on that might expedite our happiness. There f fears, though they never saw me. Now what I

• is a poifibility, and I hope ! may say it without would beg of you would be to know whether I

imputation of immodesty to her I love with may venture to use these pert fellows with the

• the highest honour; I fay there is a possibility f fame freedom as ļ did my country acquaint- this delay may be as painful to her as it is to

anice, 1. desire your leave to use them as to (me. If it be as much, it must be more, by më thall seem meet, without imputation of a r reason of the severe rules the sex are under in jilt; for since I make declaration that not one

being denied even the relief of. complaint. If of them Thall have me, I think. I ought to bę.

you oblige me in this, and I succeed, I promise allowed the liberty of insulting those who have you a place at my wedding, and a treatment the yanity to believe it is in their power to suitable to your Spectatorial dignity, make me break thật resolution. There are schools for learning to yfe foils, frequented by

Your most humble servant, those who never design to fight, and this use,

Euftace,' less way of aiming at the heart without design ( to wound it on either side, is the play with

"SIR, which I am resolved to diyert myself: the man who pretends to win, I Mall use like him who

Yesterday heard a young gentleman, that

looked as if he was just come to the town comes into a fencing school to pick a quarrel. I hope upon this foundation, you will give

and a scarf, upon evil speaking; which subme the free use of the natural and artificial

?ject, you know, Archbishop Tillotson has ro force of my eyes, looks, and gestures. As for

! nobly handled in a sermon in his Folio. As ( verbal promises, I will make none, but shall

• soon as ever he had named his text, and had I have no mercy on the conceited interpreters of

opened a little the drift of his discourse, I was glances and motions. I am particularly skil.

in great hopes he had been one of Sir Roger's led in the downcaft eye, and the recovery into

6 chaplains. I have conceived so great an idea a sudden full aspect, and away again, as you

of the charming discourse above, that I Would may have seen sometimes practised by us coạn.'

have thought one part of my fabbath very well try beauties beyond all that you have observed

! spent in hearing a repetition of it. But alas ! in courts and cities. Add to this, Şir, that I

Mr. Spectator, this reverend divine gave us his have a ruddy heedless look, which covers arti

• Grace's sermon, and yet I do not know how ; <fice the bel of any thing. Though I can

( even l, that am sure have read it at leaft twenty dance very well, I affect a tottering untaught

times, could not tell what to make of it, and way of walking, by which I appear an easy

I was at a loss sometimes to guess what the man

( aiined at. preys and never exert my instructed charm's

He was so just indeed, as to give until I find I have engaged a pursuer. Be

rus all the heads and the sub-divisions of the pleased, Sir, to print this letter; which will

« sermon; and farther I think there was not one certainly begin the chase of a rich widow :

beautiful thought in it but what we had. But ! the niany foldings, escapes, returns, and doubļ.

then, Sir, this gentleman made so many pretty ings which I make, I shall from time to time

! additions; and he could never give us a paraç communicate to you, for the better instruction

• graph of the sermon, but he introduced it with of all females who set up, like me, for reduce

something which, methought, looked more sing the present exorbitant power and insolençe - to instruct the people.

like a design to Thew his own ingenuity, than of man.

In þort, he added and I am, Sir,

• çurtailed in such a manner, that he vexed me; • Your faithful correspondent,

. insomuch that I could not forbear thinking Relita Lovely,

(what, & confefs, I ought not to have thought Dear Mr. Spectator,

• of in so holy a place) that this young spark was T Depend upon your profefred respect for

as juftly blameable as Bullock or Penkethman virtuous love, for your immediately an

when they mend a noble play of Shakespeare (wering the design of this letter; which is no

or Johnson. Pray, Sif, take this into your con. other than to lay before the world the severity

sideration; andif we must be entertained with of certain parents who defire to suspend the

the works of any of those great men, desire marriage of a discreet young woman of eigh

! these gentlemen to give them us as they find teen, three years longer, for no other reason them, that so when we read them to our fa. but that of her being too young to enter into they have heard them at church.

i milies at home, they may the better semember that state. As to the consideration of riches, my circumstances are füch, that I cannot be

SIR, fufpected to make my addresses to her'on such

Your humble servant, ( low motives as avarice or ambition. I cver

innocence, wit, and beauty, united their uts most charms, they have in her: ļ wish you

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Causeless jealousy in Britomartis, V. 6, 14. in

its restlessneis.
N° 540. WEDNESDAY, Nov, 19.
-Non deficit alter.
VIRG. Æn. 6, ver. 143,

« Like as a wayward child, whose founder sleep

* Is broken with some fearful dreain's affright, A second is not wanting.

" With froward will doth seţ himself to weep,

“ Ne can be still'd for all his nurse's might, • Mr. Spectator,

“ But kicks and squalls, and tricks for fell deHERE is no part of your writings which

“ spite; I have in more esteem than your crịticism, “Now scratching her, and her loose locks misupon Milton. It is an honourable and candid < endeavour to set the works of our noble writ.

“ Now seeking darkness, and now seeking light: ers in the graceful light which they deserve.

“ Then craving fuck, and then the fuck retuling; « You will lose much of my kind inclination to

“ Such was this lady's fit in her love's fond ac• wards you, if you do not attempt this enco

ac cyling." & mium of Spenser also, or at least indulge my { pallion for that charming author so far as to Curiosity occasioned by jealousy, upon occasion, < print the loose hints ļ now give you on that of her lover's abfence. Ibid. Stan. 8, 9. ! subject.

• Spenser's general plan is the representation « There as she looked long, at last the spy'd, of fix virtues, Holiness, Temperance, Chastity,

One coming towards her with hasty speed, • Friendship, Justice, and Courtesy, in six legends « Well weep'd she then, ere him the plain de! by fix persons. The fix personages are sup

« scry'd, posed, under proper allegories suitable to their

« That it was one sent from her love indeed; respective characters, to do all that is necef

56 Whereat her heart was fillid with hope and ! sary for the full manifestation of the respective virtues which they are to excrt.

“ Ne would she stay 'till he in place could come, These, one might undertake to Thew under

“ But ran to meet him forth to know his tidings ļ the several heads, are admirably drawn; no “ some; « images improper, and most surprisingly beau “ Even in the door him meeting, the begun,

tiful. The Red cross Knight runs through • And where is he, thy lord, and how far hence? (the whole steps of the Christian life;. Guyon - Declare at once; and hath he loft or won?"

does all that temperance can possibly require;

Britomartis (a woman) observes the true Care and his house are described thus, V.6.33,
! rules of unaffected chastity; Arthegal is in

34, 35
every respect of life strictly and wisely juft;
Calidore is rightly courteous.

« Not far away, not meet for any guest,
In mort, in Fairy-land, where knights-errant « They, spy'd a little cottage, like some poor
• have a full scope to range, and to do even what “ 'man's nest.
ļ Ariostos or Orlandos could not do in the world
{ without breaking into credibility, Spenser's

34. ! Knights have, under these six heads, given a “ There ent'ring in, they found the good-man's ( full and truly poetical system of christian, public, and low life.

16 Full busily unto his work ybent, ! His legend of friendship is more diffuse, and “ Who was so weet a wretched wearied elf, yet even there the allegory is finely drawn, “ With hollow eyes and raw-bone cheeks for only the heads various, one knight could not there support all the parts.

" As if he had in prison long been pent; ? To do honour to his country, Prince

66 Full black and griesly did his face appear, ! Arthur is an universal hero; in holiness, tem " Besmear'd' with smoke that nigh his eye-fight perance chastity, and justice super-excellent.

6 blent, For the same reason and to compliment Queen « With rugged beard and hoary Tagged hair,

Elizabeth, Gloriana, Queen of Fairies, whose • The which he never wont to comb, or comely court was the asylum of the oppressed, repre

66 fhear. ç sents that glorious Queen. At her commands

35. all these knights set forth, and only at her's “ Rude was his garment and to rags all rent, i the Red-cross Knight destroys the dragon, " Ne better had he, ne for better car'd;

Guyon pverturns the hov.er of bliss, Arthegal “ With blistred hands emongst the cinders brent, (i. e. Justice) beats down Geryonoe (i. e. And fingers filthy, with long nails unpar'd, Philip II. King of Spain) to rescue Belge « Right fit to rend the food on which he far'd.

(i, e. Holland) and he beats the Grantorto “ His name was Care; a blacksmith by his trade, ! (the same Philip in another light) to restore 6 That neither day nor night for working spar'd; Irena (i. e. Peace to Europe).

“ But to small purpose iron wedges made: Chastity, being the first female virtue, Bri- " Those be unquiet thoughts that careful minda toinartis is a Briton; her part is fine, though

« invade. it requires explication. His file is very poetical; no puns, affectations of wit, forced an. Homer's epithets were much admired by an, tithèses, or any of that low gribe.

tiquity : fee what great juftness and variety " His old words are all true English, and there is in these epithets of the trees in the numbers exquisite; and fince of words there I foreft where the Red-cross Knight loft Truth, is the multa renas entur, since they are all pro- ! B. s. Cant. I. Stan. 8, 9. per, such a poem should not (any more than Milton's) sublist all of it of common ordinary " The failing pine, the cedar proud and tall, words. Sce instances of defcriptions, ! The vine-prop elm, the poplar never dry,

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5. The builder-oak, fole king of forests all,

my mother plunged in misery, weeping and *6 The alpine good for staves, the cypress funeral. o despairing !" Thefe breaks and turns of pal

fion, it seems, were to enforced by the eyes, 9.

voice, and gesture of the speaker, that his very " The laurel, meed of mighty conquerors,

enemies.could not refrain from tears. I infift, $6 And poats fage; the fir that wçepech still, says Tully, upon this the rather, because our « The willow worn of forlorn paramours,

orators, who are as it were actors of the truth "The yew obedient to the bender's will, itself, have quitted this manner of speaking ;

The birch for shafts, the fallow for the mill: and the players, who are but the imitators of « The myrrhesweet bleeding in the bitter wound, truth, have taken it up. $« The warlike beech, the ash, for nothing ill, I mall therefore pursue the hint he has hero *** The fruitful olive, and the plantare round, given me, and for the service of the British Itage, “. The carver Holm, he maple selvom inward ļ thall copy fome of the rules which this great « found."

Roman master has laid down; yet, without

confining myself wholly to his thoughts or words: ' I Mall trouble you no more, but desire you and to adapt this essay the more to the purpose ..to let me conclude with these verses, though I for which I intend it, instead of the examples zhink they have already been quoted by you : he has inferted in his discourse, out of the anthey are directions to young ladies opprest with cient tragedies, I Mall make use of parallel palcalumny. V.6, 14.

fages out of the most celebrated of our own.

The design of art is to asint action as much as «. The best (faid he) that I can you advise, posible in the representation of nature; for the “ Is to avoid the occafion of the ill;

appearance of reality is that which moves us in " For when the cause whence evil doth arife .all representations, and these have always the « Removed is, the effect furceaseth ftill.

greater force, the nearer they approach to nature, “ Abftain from pleasure and restrain your will, and the less they mew of imitation, Subdue desire and bridle loose delight, .

Nature herself has assigned to every motion of Use fcanted diet, and forbear your fill, the soul, its peculiar çast of the countenance, " Shun secrecy, and talk in open fight;

tone of voice, and manner of gesture ; and the “ So shall you soon repair your present evil whole person, aļl the featuses of the face and « plight.”

T tones of the voice, answer, like strings upon

musical instruments, to the impresions made on them by the mind. Thus the sounds of the

voice, according to the various touches, which N° 541. TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 20. raise them, form themselves into an acute or

grave, quick or now, loud or soft tone. These Format enim natura priùs nos intus ad omnem

too may be subdivided into various kinds of Fortunarum bahitum : juvat, aut impellit ad iram;

tones, as the gentle, the rough, the contracted, Aur ad bunium marire gravi deducit & angit :

the diffuse, the continued, the intermitted, the Post offert animi motus interprete lingua.

broken, abrupt, winding, softened, or elevated. HOR. Ars Poet. yer. 108 Every one of these may be employed with art

and judgment; and all supply the actor, as coFor nature forms and softens us within,

lours do the painter, with an expressive vaAnd wri es our fortune's changes in our face : riety. Pleasure enchants, impetuous rage transports, Anger' exerts its peculiar voice in an acute, And grief dejects, and wrings the tortur'd foul; raised, and hurrying found, "The passionate cha. And these are all interpreted by speech.

racter of King Lear, as it is adinirably drawn RosCOMMCN by Shakespeare, abounds with the strongest in.

stances of this kind.
Y friend the Templar, whom I have so.
often mentioned in these writings, having

-Death ! Confusion ! determined to lay aside his poetical studies, in 's Fiery !--what quality :-why Gloster! Glofter! order to a closer pursuit of the law, has put to

“ I'd speak with the Duke of Cornwall and his gether, as a farewel essay, some thoughts con

wife. cerning pronunciation, and action, which he has

“ Are they inform’d of this ? my breath and given me. leave to communicate to the public.

blood ! They are chiefly collected from his favourite au. thor, Cicero, who is known to be an intimate Fiery? the fiery duke:&c." friend of Roscius the actor, and a good judge of dramatic performances, as well as the most different, Alexible, now, interrupted, and mo

Sorrow and complaint demand a voice quite eloquent pleader of the time in which he lived. dulated in a moprnful tone; as in that pathet,

Cicero concludes his celebrated bpok di Oratore ical inliloquy of Cardinal Wolfey on his fall. with some precepts for pronunciation and action, without which part he affirms that the best ora.

-“ Farewel!- a long farewel to all my greatness ! tor in the world can never succeed; and an in

“This is the state of man !---0-day he puts different one, who is master of this, shall gain

forth much greater , applause, What could make a

“ The tender leaves of hopes ; to-morrow blosstronger impression, says he, than those excla,

soms, mations of Graccus Whither falt I turn ? “ Wretch that I am ! to what place betake my

“ And bears his blufņing' honours thick upon “ selfSlialli' go to the capitol ?--Alafs! it is “ overflow:d with my brother's blood.

« The third day comes a frost, a killing froft,

Or * Mall I retire to my house? Yet there I behold

« And when he thinks, good cary man, full surely

“ His

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THE SPECTATOR. " His greatness is a ripening, nips his root, “ For who would bear the whips and scorns of 66 And then he falls as I do."


Th? oppreffors wrongs, the proud man's conWe have likewise a fine example of this in

tumely, the whole part of Andromache in the Difrest « The pangs of despis'd love, the laws delay, Mother, particularly in theie lines,

“ The infolence of office, and the spurns

« That patient merit of th' unworthy takes; “ I'll go, and in the anguish of my heart When he himich might his quietus make « Weep o'er my childlf he must die, my " With a bare bodkin? Who would fardles bear, life

To groan and tweat under a weary life? :s wrapt in his, I Thail not long survive. « But that the dread of fomt:sing after death, “ 'Tis for his fake, that I have suffer'd life, “ The undiscover'd country, from whose bourne Groan'd in captivity, and out-liv'd Hector, « No traveller returns, puzzles the will, " Yes, my Altyanax, we'll go together! ." And makes us rather choose those ills we have.

Together to the realms of night we'll go; “ Than fly to others that we know not ot.” “ There to thy ravish'd eyes thy fire I'll Mow, “ And point him out among the shades below.', As all these varieties of voice are to be direct

ed by the senft, so the action is to be directed Fear expresses itself in a low, hesitating, and by the voice, and with a beautiful propriety, as Abject sound. If the reader considers the fol- it were to enforce it. The arm, which by a lowing speech of Lady Macbeth, while her hus. trong figure Tully calls the Orator's weapon, is . band is about the murder of Duncan and his to be fometimes raised and extended; and grooms, he will imagine her even affrighted with the hand, by its motion, fometimes to the found of her own voice' while he is speak. lead, and sometimes to follow the words as ing it.

they are uttered. The ttainping of the foot too

has its proper expression in contention, anger, « Alas ! I am afraid they have awak'd, or abfolure command. - But the face is the epiAnd ’tis not done; th' attempt, and not the tome of the whole man, and the eyes are as it deed,

were the epitome of the face; for which reason, “ Confounds us-Hark!--I laid the daggers he says, the best judges among the Romans were ready,

nor extremely plealud, even with Roscius him“ He couid not miss them. Had he not re- felt in his malk. No part of the body, besides feinbled

the face, is capable of as many changes as there “ My father as he Nept, I had done it.”

are different emotions in the mind, and of ex..

prefling them all by thote changes. Nor is this Courage affumes a louder tone, as in that to be done without the freedom of the eyes ; Speech of Don Sebastian

therefore Theophrastus called one, who barely

rehearsed his speech with his eyes fixed, an ab" Here satiate all your fury;

fent allor. « Let fortune empty her whole quiver on me, As the countenance admits of ro great variety, " I have a soul that like an ample Thield it requires also great judgment to govern it. Not " Can take in all, and verge enough for more.”

that the form of the face is to be misted on every

oscation, let it turn to farce and buffoonery; Pleasure diffolves into a luxurious, mild, ten but it is certain, that the eyes have a wonderful der, and joyous modulation; as in che following power of marking the emotions of the mind, lines in Caius Marius,

sometiines by a ftcadrait look, sometimes by a

careless one, now by a ludden regard, then by a « Lavinia ! O there's music in the name, joyful sparkling, as the sense of the words is di“ That-Softning me to infant tenderness, versified : for action is, as it were, the fpeech of “ Makes my heart spring like the tirit leaps of the features and limbs, and inuit therefore conlife.”

form itself always to the sentiments of the soul.

And it may be observed, that in all which reAnd perplexity is different from all these; latcs to the gesture, there is a wonderful force imgrave, but not bemoaning, with an earnest_uni. planted by nature; since the vulgar, the unforın sound of voice ; as in that celebrated skilful, and even the most barbarous are chiefly speech of Hamlet.

affected by this. None are moved by the found

of words, but those who understand the language; " To be or not to be that is the question : and the sense of many things is loft upon men " Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer of a dull apprehention : but action is a kind of

The Nings and arrows of outrageous fortune, universal tongue; all men are subjeæ to the “ Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, fame passions, and consequently know the same And by oppofing end thim. To die, to Necp; marks of them in others, by which they them“ No more; and by a sleep to say we end selves express them. « The heart-ach, and a thousand natural shocks Perhaps some of my readers may be of opinia That felh is heir to ; 'tis a consummation on, that the hints I have here made use of, out of Devoutly to be wish'd. To die, to sleep Cicero, are somewhat too refined for the players " To feep; perchance to dream! Ah, there's on our theatre : in answer to which, I venture the ruh.

to lay it down as a maxim, that without good • For in that deep of death what dreams may sense no one can be a good player, and that he come,

is very unft to personate the dignity of Roman " When we have fhuffed off this mortal coil, hero, who cannot enter into the rules for pro« Muit give us pause-There's the respect nunciation and gcture delivered by a Roman “ That inakes calamity of so long life;



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There is another thing which my author does racters into my work, which could not have not think too minute to inlitt on, though it is been done, had I always written in the person purely mechanical; and that is the righit pitch- of the Spectator. Fourthly, because the digo ing of the voice. On this occasion he tells the nity spectatorial would have suffered, had I pubstory of Gracchus, who employed a servant with Jided as from myself those, several tudicrous a little ivory pipe to stand behind him, and give compositions which I have afcribed to fictitious him the right pitch, as often as he wandered too names and characters. And lastly, because they far from the proper modulation. Every voice, often serve to bring in more naturally, such says Tully, has its particular medium and com additional refls&tions as have been placed at the pass, and the sweetness of fpeech consists in end of them. leading it througir all the variety of tones na There are othe's who have likewise done me turally, and without touching any extreme. a very particular honour, though undefignedly. Theretore, faye he, “ Leave the pipe at home, These are such who will needs have it, that I “ but carry the sense of this custom with have translated or borrowed many of my you."

thoughts out of books which are written in other languages. I have heard of a person who

is more famous for his library than his learning, N° 542. FRIDAY, Nov. 21.

that has afferred this more than once in his

private conversation. Were it true, I am sure Et libi præferri fe gaudet.

he could not speak it from his own kiowledge ;

but had he road the books which he has colOvid Met. 1. 2. ver. 430. lected, he would find this accusation to be I He heard,

wholly groundless. Those who are truly learn. Well pleas'd, himself before himself preferr’d. ed will acquit me in this point, in which I

ADDISON. have been so far from offending, that I have been HEN I have been present in assemblies fcrupulous perhaps to a fault in quoting the auwhere my paper has been talked of, I thors of several passages which I might have

But as this affertion is in re: have been very well pleased to hear those who made my own. would detract from the author of it observe,

ality an encomium on what I have publethed, that the letters which are sent to the Spectator, I ought rather to glory in it, than endeavour to are as good, if not better than any of his works.

ccnfute it. Upon this occasion, many letters of mirth are Some are so very willing to alienate from me usually mentioned, which some think the Spec

that small reputation which might accrue to me aror writ to himself, and which others com.

from any of my speculations, that they attrimend because they fancy he received them from

bute some of the best of them to those imagi. his correspondents : such are those from the va

nary manuscripts with which I have introduced letudinarian; the inspector of the fign-posts ;

them. There are others, I must confels, whose the matter of the fan-exercise ; with that of objections have given me a greater concern, as the hooped. petticoat; that of 'Nicholas Hart they seem to reflect, under this head, rather on the annual fieeper; that from Sir John Envill; my morality, than on my invention. Therë that upon the London cries; with multitudes of are they who say an author is guilty of falra the same nature. As I love nothing more than

hood, when he talks to the public of manů to mortify the ill-natured, that I may do it scripts which he never saw, or describes scenes effectually, muft acquaint them, they have

of aâion or discourse in which he was never very often praifed me when they did not design engaged. But these gentlemen would do well it, and that they have approved my writings

to consider, there is not a fable or parable which when they thought they had derogated from

ever was made use of, that is not liable to this them. I have heard several of these unhappy

exception; since nothing, according to this no. gentlemen proving, by undeniable arguments,

tion, can be related innocently, which was not that I was not able to pen a letter which I liad

once matter of fact. Besides, I think the most written the day before. Nay, I have heard ordinary reader may be able to discover by my some of them throwing out ambiguous expres

way of writing, what I deliver in these occurfions, and giving the company reason to suspect rences as truth, and what as fiction. that they themselves did me the honour to send

Since I am unawares engaged in answering me fuch and such a particular epiftle, which

the feveral objections, which have been made happened to be talked of with the esteem or against these my works, I muft take notice that approbation of those who were present. The there are some who affirm a paper of this nasigid critics are so afraid of allowing me any

ture hould always turn ypon diverting subjects; thing which does not belong to me, that they

and others wlio find fault with every one of will not be positive whether the lion, the wild them that hath not an immediate tendency to boar, and the flower-pots in the play-house, did the advancement of religion or learning. I not actually write those letters which came to hall leave these gentlemen to difpute it out me in their names. I must therefore inform

among themselves; fince I fee one half of my these gentlemen, that I often choose this way conduct patronized by each side. Were I re. of casting my choughts into a letter, for the fol rious on an important subject, or trifling in a lowing reasons : first, out of the policy of those serious one, I thould deservedly draw upon me who try their jest upon another, before they own

the cenlure of my readers; or were I conscious it themselves. Secondly, because I would ex

of any thing in my writings that is not innocent cort a litle praise from such who will never ap

at least, or that the greatest part of them were plaud any thing whose author is known and

not fincerely designed to discountenance vice certain, Thirdly, because it gave me an op

and ignorance, and support the interest of true portunity of introducing a great variety of chao


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