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gardlineis is not good husbandry, nor generosity o profusion.
WEDNESDAY, JOLY 30. Honestus is a well-meaning and judicious • trader, hath subftantial goods, and trades with Parturiunt montes
Hor. Ars. Poet. v. 139. 6. his own stock, husbands his money to the best The mountain labours and is brought to bed.
advantage, without taking all advantages of o the necessities of his workmen,, or grinding
reforming the with ignorance, and consequently with self- tions, when I find there always arise, from one opinion; the quality of his goods cannot but generation to another, successive cheats and bubbe suitable to that of his judgment. Honestus bles, as naturally as beasts of prey, and those pleases discerning people, and keeps their cur- which are to be their food. There is hardly tom by good usage ; makes modeft profit by man in the world, one would think, fo.ignorant,
modest means, to the decent support of his as not to know that the ordinary quack-doctors, 'family: whilft Fortunatus blustering always, who publish their abilities in little brown billets, ' pushes on, promising much, and performing distributed to all who pass by, are to a man im
little; with obsequiousness offensive to people postors and murderers; yet such is the credulity of sense, strikes at all, catches much the of the vulgar, and the impudence of these pro. greater part; raises a considerable fortune by feffors, that the affair ftill goes on, and new
imposition on others, to the discouragement promises of what was never done before, are • and ruin of those who trade in the same made every day. What aggravates the jeft is, way.
that even this promise has been made as long as I give here but loose hints, and beg you to the memory of man can trace it, and yet nothing • be very circumspect in the province you have performed, and yet still prevails. As I was palsi now undertaken: if you perform it success- sing along to-day, a paper given into my hand
fully, it will be a very great good; for no- by a fellow without a nose, tells us as follows, • thing is more wanting, than that mechanic in- what good news is come to town; to wit, that "dustry were set forth with the freedom and there is now a certain cure for the French • greatness of mind which ought always to ac- disease, by a gentleman just come from his company a man of a liberal education.
travels. r Your humble servant, From my shop under
« R. C.' • In Ruffel-Court, over against the Cannon. the Royal Exchange, July 14.
Ball, at the Surgeons-Arms, in Drury. Lane,
' is lately come froin his travels a surgeon, who "Mr. Spectator,
July 24, 1714. " hath practifed surgery and phyfic both by sea Otwithstanding the repeated censures " and land these twenty-four years. He, by the
that your spectatorial wisdom has passed " blessing, cures the yellow-jaundice, green, upon people more remarkable for impudence ' fickness, fcurvy, droply, surfeits, long sea. than wit, there are yet some remaining, who voyages, campaigns, and women's miscarria.
pass with the giddy part of mankind for suffi ges, lying-in, &c. as fome people that has Co cient tharers of the latter, who have nothing
« been lame these thirty years can testify; in but the former qualification to recommend "short, he cureth all diseases incident to men, " them. Another timely animadversion is abso ('women, or children.' slutely necessary ; be pleased therefore once for call to let these gentlemen know, that there is If a man could be so indolent as to look upon ( neither mirth nor good-humour in hooting a this havoc of the human species which is made 'young fellow out of countenance; nor that it by vice and ignorance, it would be a good ridi! will ever constitute a wit, to conclude a tart culous work to comment upon the declaration • piece of buffoonry with a “what makes you of this accomplished traveller. There is some. “ blush?” Pray please to inform them again, thing unaccountably taking among the vulgar in
that tr. speak what they know is mocking, pro- those who come from a great way off, ignorant cesus from ill-nature and a sterility of brain; people of quality, as many there are of such, dote
eppecially when the subject will not admit of excessively this way ; many instances of which • rallery, and their discourse has no pretension every man will suggest to himself, without any • to satire but what is in their design to disoblige. enumeration of them. The ignorants of lower
I should be very glad too if you would take order, who cannot, like the upper ones, be pronotice, that a daily repetition of the fame fuse of their money to those recommended by over-bearing infolence is yet more insupporta- coming from a diftance, are no less complaisant ble, and a confirmation of very extraordinary than the others, for they venture their lives for
dulness. The sudden publication of this may the same admiration. ' have an effcet upon a notorious offender of
“The doctor is lately come from his travels, e this kind, whose reformation would redound ' and has practised both by sea and land, and therevery much to the satisfaction and quiet of " 'fore cures the green fickness, long-sea-voyages,
" Your most humble fervant, campaigns, and lying-in.' Both by sea and T
SF. B., land! I will not answer for the distempers called
sea voyages and campaigns ;' but I dare say those of green sickness and lying-in' might be as well taken care of if the doctor staid ashore. But the art of managing mankind, is only to make them ftare a little to keep up their astonjshment, to let nothing be familiar to them, but øver to have fomething in their Neeve, in which U
they must think you are deeper than they are.
Mart. Epig. 118. 1. 1. v. ult. dow, and the words - rainy, dry, wet,' and so You say,, Lupercus, what I write forth, written to denote the weather, according I'n't worth fo much: you're in the right. to the rising and falling of the cord. We very great scholars are not apt to wonder at this: HIS is the day on which many eminent au. but I observed a very honest fellow, a chance thors will probably publish their last words. customer, who sat in the chair before me to be I am afraid but few of our weekly liftorians, Thaved, fix his eye upon this miraculous per. who are men that above all others delight in war, forinance during the operation upon his chin will be able to fubfift under the weight of a and face. When those and his head also were stamp, and an approaching peace. A sheet of cleared of all incumbrances and excrescences, be blank paper that must have this new imprimalooked at the fish, then at the fiddle, Nill grub- tur clapped upon it, before it is qualified to bling in his pockets, and casting his eye again at communicate any thing to the public, will make the twine, and the words writ on each side; its way in the world but very heavily. In Nort, then altering his mind as to farthings, and gave the necessity of carrying a stamp, and the im"my friend a filver fix-pence. The business, as probability of notifying a bloody battle, will, Į I said, is to keep up the amazement; and if my am afraid, both concur to the finking those thin friend had had only the skeleton and kit, he folios, which have every other day retailed to us must have been contented with a less payment. the history of Europe for several years last past. But the doctor we were talking of, adds to his A facetious friend of mine who loves a pun, long voyages the testimony of some people that calls this present mortality among authors, “The “ have been thirty years lame. When I received ! fall of the leaf.' mý paper, a sagacious fellow took one at the I remember upon Mr. Baxter's death, there same time, and read until he came to the thirty was published a sheet of very good sayings, inyears confinement of his friends, and went off scribed, · The last words of Mr. Baxter.' The very well convinced of the doctor's sufficiency. title fold so great a number of these papers, thaç You have many of these prodigious persons, who about a week after there came out a second meet, have had some extraordinary accident at their inscribed, 'More last words of Mr. Baxter.” In birth; or a great disaster in some part of their the same manner I have reason to think, that felives. Any thing, however foreign from the bu- veral ingenious writers, who have taken their finess the people want of you, will convince leave of the public, in farewel papers, will not them of your ability in that you profess. There give over so, but intend to appear again, though is a doctor in Mouse-Alley, near Wapping, who perhaps under another form, and with a differsets up for curing cataracts upon the credit of ent title. Be that as it will, it is my business, in having, as his bill sets forth, lost an eye in the this place, to give an account of my own-intenemperor's service. His patients come in upon tions, and to acquaint my reader with the mothis, and he rhews his muster-roll, which con tives by which I act, in this great crisis of the firms that he was in his imperial majesty's republic of letters. troops; and he puts out their eyes with great I have been long debating in my own heart, success. Who would believe that a man Mould · whether I Mould throw up my pen, as an author be a doctor for the cure of bursten children, by that is caliered by the act of parliament, which declaring that his father and grandfather were is to operate within these four and twenty hours, born buríten? But Charles Ingoltson, next door or whether I should Itill persist in laying my speto the Harp in Barbican, has made a pretty pene culations, from day to day, before the public. ny by that asseveration. The generality go upon The argument which prevails with me moft on their first conception, and think no further; all the first side of the question is, that I am iş. the rest it granted. They take it, that there is formed by my bookseller he must raise the price Something uncommon in you, and give you cre of every lingle paper to two-pence, or that he dit for the rest. You may be sure it is upon shall not be able to pay the duty of it. Now as that I go, 'when sometimes, let it be to the pur I am very desirous my readers Mould have their pose or not, I keep a Latin sentence in my front; learning as cheap as possible, it is with great and I was not a little pleased when I observed difficulty that I comply with him in this para one of my readers say, casting his eye on my ticular, twentieth paper,
More Latin ftill? What a However, upon laying my reasons together in prodigious fcholaris this man! But as I have the balance, I find that those who plead for the here taken much liberty with this learned doctor, continuance of this work, have much the greater I must make up all I'llave said by repeating what weight. For, in the first place, in recompence he feems to be in earneit in, and honestly pro- for the expence to which this will put my reamise to those who will not receive him as a great ders, it is to be hoped they may receive from man ; to wit, that from eight to twelve, and every paper so much instruction as will be a very ☆ froin two till fix, he attends for the good of good equivalent. And in order to this, I would the public to bleed for three-pence.'
not advise any one to take it in, who after the perusal of it, does not find himself two pence the wiser or better man for it; or who, upon examination, does not believe that he has had two-penny-worth of'mirth or instruction for his money.
But I must confess there is another motive, which prevails with me more than the former,
I con. :
I consider that the tax on paper was given for at least Mewn how that weapon may be put to the support of the government; and as I have a right use which has so often fought the battles enemies, who are apt to pervert every thing I of impiety and profaneness.
C. do or say, I fear they would afcribe the laying down my paper on such an occasion, to a spirit malecontentedness, which I am resolved none No 446. FRIDAY, August 1. Thall ever juftly upbraid me with. No, I shall glory in contributing my utmost to the public Quid deceat, quid non ; quò virtus, quo feräc error. weal; and if my country receives five or fix
Hor. Ars. Poet. v. 398. pounds a day by my labours, I shall be very What fit, what not; what excellent, or ill. well pleased to find myself so useful a member.
ROSCOMMON. It is a received maxim, that no honest man Thould enrich himself by methods that are pre
INCE two or three writers of comedy, who judicial to the community in which he lives; are now living, have taken their farewel of and by the same rule I think we may pronounce
the stage, those who succeed them finding themthe person to deferve very well of his country. selves incapable of rising up to their wit, humen, whose labours bring more into the public mour, and good sense, have only imitated them coffers, than into his own pocket.
in some of those loose unguarded strokes, in Since I have mentioned the word enemies, I which they complied with the corrupt taste of the must explain myself so far as to acquaint my
more vicious part of their audience. When perreader, that I mean only the insignificant party fons of a low genius attempt this kind of writzealots on both sides : men of such poor narrow ing, they know no difference between being souls, that they are not capable of thinking on merry and being lewd. It is with an eye to any thing but with an eye to Whig or Tory. some of these degenerate compofitions that I During the course of this paper, I have been ace , have written the following discourse. cused by these despicable wretches of trimming, Were our English stage but half so virtuous as time-serving, personal reflection, secret satire, that of the Greeks or Romans, we should quick, and the like. Now, though in these my compoa ly see the influence of it in the behaviour of all fitions, it is visible to any reader of common the politer part of mankind. It would not be fense, that I consider nothing but my subject, fashionable to ridicule religion, or its professors; which is always of an indifferent nature ;
the 'man of pleasure would not be the complete how is it possible for me to write so clear of par- gentleman; vanity would be out of counte. ty, as not to lie open to the censures of those nance, and every quality which is ornamental who will be applying every sentence, and finding to human nature, would meet with that esteem out persons and things in it, whićh it has no which is due to it. regard to
If the English stage were under the same re, Several paltry scribblers and declaimers have gulations the Athenian was formerly, it would done me the honour to be dull upon me in re
have the same effect that had, in recommend. fections of this nature; but notwithstanding ing the religion, the government, and public my name has been sometimes traduced by this worship of its country. Were our plays subject contemptible tribe of men, I have hitherto a to proper inspections and limitations, we might voided all animadversions upon them. The not only pass away several of our vacant hours truth of it is, I am afraid of making them apa, in the highest entertainment; but should always pear considerable by taking notice of them, for rise from them wiser and better than we sat down they are like those imperceptible insects which to them. are discovered by the microfcope, and cannot be It is one of the most unaccountable things in made the subject of observation without being our age, that the lewdness of our theatre should magnified,
be so much complained of, so well exposed, and Having mentioned those few who have thewn fo little redressed. It is to be hoped, that some themselves the enemies of this paper, I thould time or other we may be at leisure to restrain be very ungrateful to the public, did I not at the the licentiousness of the theatre, and make it same time teftify my gratitude to those who are contribute its assistance to the advancement of of the most distinguished persons of all conditi2 matters 'ntand at its friends, in which nunber I may reckon many, morality, and to the reformation of the age. As
present, multitudes are shut ons, parties, and professions in the ise of Great out from this noble diversion, by reason of thofc Britain. . I am not so vain as to think this ap- abuses and corruptions that accompany it. A. probation is so much due to the performance as, father is often afraid that his daughter should be to the design. There is, and ever will be, juf- ruined by those entertainments, which are intice enough in the world, to afford patronage vented for tlie accomplishment and refining of and protection for those who endeavour to ad. human nature. The Athenian and Roman vance truth and virtue, without regard to the plays were written with such a regard to morali. passions and prejudices of any particular cause ty, that Socrates used to frequent the one, and or faction. If I have any other merit in me, it Cicero the other. is that I have new-pointed all the batteries of It happened once indeed, that Cato dropped ridicule. They have been generally planted a. into the Roman theatre, when the Floralia were gainst persons who have appeared serious rather to be represented : and as in that performance, than absurd; or at best have aimed rather at which was a kind of religious ceromony, there what is unfashionable than what is vicious. For were several indecent parts to be acted, the peomy own part, I have endeavoured to make no- ple refused to see them whilft Cato was present. thing ridiculous that is not in some measure cri- Martial on this hint made the following epigram, minal. I have set up the immoral man as the ob- which we must suppose was applied to some ject of derifion : in mort, if I have not formed a grave friend of his that had been accidentally new weapon against vice and irreligión, 'I have present at some fuch' entertainment.
Nilles jocol& dulce cùm faerum Flora,
genious gentleman of my acquaintante. He has Fotos que lufus, & licentiam vulgi,
compored, it seems, the history of a young felCur in ebeairum, Cato severe, venifti !
low, who has taken all his notions of the world Anideo tantùm veneras, ui exires ? Epig. 1. l. 1. from the stage, and who has directed himself in " Why dost thou come, great censor of the age,
every circumstance of his life and conversation, • To see the loofe diversions of the stage ?"
by the maxims and examples of the fine gentle • With awful countenance and brow severe,
man in English comedies. If I can prevail up
on him to give me a copy of this new fashioned • What in the name of goodness dost thou here?
novel, I will bestow on it a place in my works, See the mixt crowd ! how giddy, lewd and vain! • Didst thou come in but to go out again?'
and question not but it may have as good an
effect upon the drama, as Don Quixote had upon An accident of this nature might happen once in an age among the Greeks and Romans; but they were too wise and good to let the constant nightly entertainment be of such a nature, that N° 447. SATURDAY, AUGUST 2, people of the most sense and virtue could not be at it. Whatever vices are reprefeated upon φημί πολύχρονίην μελέτης έμεναι, φίλε και δη the stage, they ought to be so marked and brandTaútny cv@gámosos Tidey tão as quos sīvaeva ed by the poet, as not to appear either laudable or amiable in the person who is tainted with them. Long exercise, my friend, inures the mind; But if we look into the English comedies above. And what we once disik'd we pleasing find. mentioned, we should think they were formed upon a quite contrary maxim, and that this THERE is not a common saying which has rule, though it held good upon the heathen itage, a better turn of sense in it, than what we was not to be 'regarded in christian theatres. often hear in the mouths of the vulgar, that There is another rule likewise, which was ob- custom is a second nature. It is indeed able to served by authors of antiquity, and which these form the man anew, and to give him inclinations modern geniuses have no regard to, and that and capacities altogether different from those was never to choose an improper object for he was born with. Dr. Plot, in his history of ridicule. Now a subject is improper for Staffordshire, tells us of an idiot that chancing to ridicule, if it is apt to stir up horror and com- , live within the sound of a clock, and always miseration rather than laughter. For this rea- amusing himself with counting the hour of the fon, we do not find any comedy, in so polite an day whenever the clock 1truck, the clock being author as Terence, raised upon the violations of spoiled by some accident, the idiot continued to the marriage bed. The falfhood of the wife or strike and count the hour without the help of husband has given occasion to noble tragedies, it, in the same manner as he had done when it but a Scipio and Lelius would have looked upon was intire. Though I dare not vouch for the incest or murder to have been as proper subjects truth of this story, it is very certain that custom for comedy. On the contrary, cuckoldom is has a mechanical effect upon the body, at the the basis of most of our modern plays. If an al- same time that it has a very extraordinary infiuderman appears upon the stage, you may be sure ence upon the mind. it is in order to be cuckolded. An hutband that is I fhall in this paper consider one very remarka little grave or elderly, generally meets with able effect which custom has upon human nature, the same fate. Knights and baronets, country and which if rightly observed, may lead us into squires, and justices of the quorum, come up very ufeful rules of life. What I thall here take to town for no other purpose. I have seen poor notice of in custom, is its wonderful efficacy in Dogget cuckolded in all these capacities. In short, making every thing pleasant to us. A person our English writers are as frequently severe upon who is addicted to play or gaming, though he this innocent unhappy creature, commonly known took but little delight in it at first, by degrees by the name of cuckold, as the ancient comic contracts fo strong an inclin..tion towards it, and writers were upon an eating parasite, or a vain- gives himself up to intirely to it, that it seems glorious soldier.
the only end of his being. The love of a reAt the same time the poet so contrives' matters tired or busy life will grow upon man insensibly, that the two criminals are the favourites of the as he is conversant in the one or the other, till audience. We fit still, and with well, to them he is utterly unqualified for relishing that to which through the whole play, are pleased when they, he has been for some time disused. Nay, a man meet with proper opportunities, and out of may smoke, or drink, or take fnuff, til he is humour when they are disappointed. The truth unable to pass away his time without it; not to of it is, the accomplished gentleman upon the mention how our delight in any particular study, English stage, is the person that is familiar with art, or science, rises and improves in proportion to other mens wives, and indifferent to his own; the application which we bestow upon it. Thus as the fine woman is generally a composition of what was at first an exercise, becomes at length sprightliness and falfhood. I do not know whe-' an entertainment. Our employments are changed ther it proceeds from' barrenness of invention, into our diversions. The mind grows fond of depravation of manners, or ignorance of man- those actions she is accustomed to, and is drawn kind, but I have often wondered that our ordi- with reluctancy from those paths in which he has pary poets cannot frame to themselves the idea' used to walk. of a fine man who is not a whoremaster, or of a Not only such actions as were at first indiffer-. fine woman who is not a jilt.
ent to us, but even such as were painful, will, I have sometimes thought of compiling a, by custom and practice, become pleasant. Sir fystem of ethics out of the writings of those cor Francis Bacon observes in his natural philosophy, rupt poets, under the title of Stage Morality.' that our tafte is never pleased better than with Hiwt I have been diverted from this thought by those things wlich at krit created-a dirgult in it. a project which has been executed by an ina
He gives particular instances of claret, coffee, of man, to take particular care when we arë and other liquors, which the palate seldom ap once settled in a regular course of life, how we proves upon the first tafte; but when it has once too frequently indulge ourselves in any of the got a relish of them, generally retains it for life. moft innocent diversions and entertainments, The mind is constituted after the same manner, since the mind may inser.sibly fall off from the and after having habituated herself to any pare relish of virtuous actions, and by degrees, exticular exercise or employment, not only loses change that pleasure which it takes in the perher first aversion towards it, but conceives a formance of its duty, for delights of a much certain fondness and affection for it. I have more inferior and unprofitable nature. heard one of the greatest geniuses this age has The laft ure which I Thall make of this "reproduced, wlio ha! been trained up in all the markable property in human nature, "of being polite studies of antiquity, affare me, upon his delighted with those actions to which it is acbeing obliged to search into several rolls and customed, is to Thew how absolutely necessary records, that notwithstanding such an employ. it is for us to gain habits of virtue in this life, ment was at first very dry and irksome to him, if we would enjoy the pleasures of the next. he at last took an incredible pleafure in it, and The state of bliss we call Heaven will not be ca. preferred it even to the reading of Virgil or pable of affecting those minds, which are not Cicero. The reader will obferve, that I have thus qualified for it; we must in this world, not here considered custom as it makes things gain a relish of truth and virtue, if we would be easy, but as it renders them delightful; and able to taste that knowledge and perfection, which though others have often made the same reflec- are to make us happy in the next. The seeds tions, it is poffible they may not have drawn of those spiritual joys and raptures, which are thofe uses from it, with which I intend to fill the to rise up and flourish in the soul to all eternity, remaining part of this paper.
must be planted in her during this her prefent If we consider attentively this property of hu- ftate of probation. In mort, Heaven is not to man nature, it may infruct us in very fine mo be looked upon only as the reward, but as the ralities. In the first place, I would have no man natural effect of a religious life. discouraged with that kind of life or series of On the other hand, those evil spirits, who, by action, in which the choice of others, or his own long custom, have contracted in the body habits of necessities, may have engaged him. It may per- luft and sensuality, malice and revenge, an averfion haps be very disagreeable to him at first : but use to every thing that is good, just or laudable, are and application will certainly render it not only naturally seasoned and prepared for pain andmisery: less painful, but pleasing and satisfactory. Their torments have already taken root in them;
In the fécond place, I would recommend to theycan not be happy when divested of the body, every one that admirable precept which Pytha. unless we inay suppose, that Providence will, in a goras is said to have given to his difciples, and manner, create them anew, and work a miracle which that philofopher must have drawn from in the rectification of the faculties. They may, the observation I have enlarged upon, Optimum indeed, talte a kind of malignant pleasure in vitæ genus eligito, nam consuerudo fariet jucundiffimum. thofe actions to which they are accustomed; * Pitch upon that course of life which is the whift in this life; but when they are to be re• most excellent, and custom will render it the moved from all those objects which are here apt most delightful.' Men whose circumstances to gratify them, they will naturally become their will permit them to choose their own way of life, own tormentors, and cherish in themselves those are inexcusable, if they do not pursue that which painful habits of mind which are called in Scriptheir judgment tells them is the most laudable. ture phrase, 'The worm which never dies, The voice of reason is more to be regarded than This notion of Heaven and Hell is so very con the bent of any present inclination, fince by the formable to the light of nature, that it was difrule above-mentioned, inclination will at length covered by several of the most exalted heathens. come over to reason, though we can never It has been finely improved by many eminent force reason to comply with inclination.
divines of the last age, as in particular by arch. In the third place, this observation may teachbishop Tillotfon and Dr, Sherlock: but there the most fenfual and irreligious man, to over
is none who has raised fuch noble fpeculations look those hardships and difficulties, which are upon it as Dr. Scott, in the first book of his apt to discourage him from the prosecution of a Christian Life, which is one of the finest and virtuous life. * The gods' faid Helod, have most rational schemes of divinity, that is written
placed labour before virtue; the way to her in our tongue, or in any other.” That excellent • is at firft rough and difficult, but grows more author has shewn how every particular custom • fmooth and eafy the further you advance in and habit of virtue will, in its own nature, pro: sit.' The man who proceeds in it, with steadi- duce the heaven, or a state of happiness in him ness and resolution, will in a little time find who shall hereafter practise it: as on the conthat her ways are ways of pleasantness, and trary, how every custom or habit of vice will be « that all her paths are peace.”
the natural hell of him in whom it subfifts. C To enforce this confideration, we may further obferve, that the practice of religion will not only be attended with that pleasure, which na N° 448. MONDAY, AUGUST 4. turally accompanies those actions to which we are habituated, but with those fupernumerary Fædius boc aliquid quandoque audebis. joys of heart, that rise from the consciousness of Cuch a pleasure, from the fatisfaction of acting in time to greater baseness you'll proceed.
Juv. Sat. 2. 1. 82. up to the dictates of reason, and from the profped of an happy immortality.
THE first steps towards ill are very carefully to In the fourth place, we may leard from this be avoided, for men insensibly go on when observation which we have made on the mind they are once entered, and do not keep up a lively