« 上一頁繼續 »
No 414. WEDNESDAY, JUNE 25.
If the products of nature rise in value accord-Alterius fic
ing as they more or less resemble those of art, we Altera pofcit opem res, & conjurat amicé.
may be sure that artificial works receive a greatHor. Ars. Poet: v.411.
er advantage from their resemblance of such as
are natural; because here the fimilitude is not But mutually they need each other's help.
only pleasant, but the pattern more perfect, F we consider the works of nature and art, as
The prettiest landskip I ever saw, was one drawn they are qualified to entertain the imagina- fite on one side to a navigable river, and on the
on the walls of a dark room, which stood oppotion, we shall find the last very defective, in com
other to a park. The experiment is very com-, parison of the former; for though they may fometimes appear as beautiful or strange, they mon in optics. Here you might discover the can have nothing in them of that vastness and
waves and fluctuations of the water in strong immensity, which afford so great an entertain
and proper colours, with the picture of a ship ment to the mind of the beholder.
entering at one end, and failing by degrees may be as polite and delicate as the other, but through the whole piece. On another there apcan never new herself fo august and magnificent peared the green Mhadows of trees, waving to and in the defign. There is something more bold and fro with the wind, and herds of deer among them masterly in the rough careless strokes of nature, in miniature, leaping about upon the wall. I than in the nice touches and embellishments of must confess, the novelty of such a fight may be The beauties of the most stately garden or tion; but certainly the chief reason is its near
one occasion of its pleasantness to the imaginapalace lie in a narrow compass, the imagination immediately runs them over, and requires fome- resemblance to nature, as it does not only, like thing else to gratify her ; but in the wild fields
other pictures, give the colour and figure, but
it represents. of nature, the fight wanders up and down with the motion of the eut confinement, and is fed with an infinite rally in nature fomething more grand and august
We have before observed, that there is genevariety of images, without any certain stint or number. For this reason we always find the than what we incet with in the curiosities of art. poet in love with the country life, where nature
When, therefore, we see this imitated in any appears in the greatest perfection, and furnishes measure, it gives us a nobler and more exalted out all those scenes that are most apt to delight kind of pleasure, than what we receive from the the imagination.
nicer and more accurate productions of art. On
this account our English gardens are not so enScriptorum chorus omnis amat nemus, & fugit urbes. tertaining to the fancy as those in France and
Hor. Ep. 2, 1. 2. V. 77. Italy, where we see a large extent of ground -To grottos and to groves we run,
covered over with an agreeable mixture of garden To ease and silence ev'ry Muse's fun. POPI.
and forest, which represent every where an artiHic secura quies, & nefcia fallere vita,
ficial rudeness, much more charming than that Dives opum variarum; bic laris otia fundis,
neatness and elegancy which we meet with in Spelunca, viv
bic frigida Tempe, those of our own country. It might, indeed, be Mugitufque boum, mollifque fub arbcre fomni
of ill confequence to the public, as well as unVirg. Georg. 2. v. 467. profitable to private persons, to alienate so much Here easy quiet, a secure retreat,
ground from pasturage, and the plough, in many A harmless life that knows not how to cheat,
parts of a country that is so well peopled, and With home-bred plenty the rich owner biels, cultivated to a far greater advantage. But why And rural pleasures crown his happiness. may not a whole estate be thrown into a kind Unvex'd with quarrels, undifturb’d with noife, of a garden by frequent plantations, that may The country king his peaceful realm enjoys : turn as much to the profit, as the pleasure of Cool grots, and living lakes, the flow'ry pride the owner? A marth overgrown with willows, Of meads, and streams that through the valleys or a mountain faded with oaks, are not only glide;
more beautiful, but more beneficial, than when And shady groves that eafy sleep invite,
they lie bare and unadorned. Fields of corn And, after toilsome days, a sliort repose at night. make a pleasant prospect, and if the walks were
DRYDEN, a little taken care of that lie between them, if the But though there are several of these wild natural embroidery of the meadows were helped scenes, that are more delightful than any artific and improved by some fmall additions of art, and cial shows; yet we find the works of nature still the several rows of hedges set off by trees and more pleasant the more they resemble those of fowers, that the foil was capable of receiving, a art: for in this case our pleasure rises from a man might make a pretty landskip of his own double principle; from the agreeableness of the possesions. objects to the eye, and from their fimilitude to Writers, who have given us an account of other objects: we are pleased as well with com- China, tell us the inhabitants of that country paring their beauties, as with surveying them, laugh at the plantations of our Europeans, which and can represent them to our minds, either as are laid out by the rule and line; becaufe they copies or originals. Hence it is that we take de- fay, any one may plaçe trees in equal rows and light in a prospect which is well luid out, and niform figures.' They choose rather to Mew a diversifica with fields and meadows, woods and genius in works of this nature, and therefore rivers; in those accidental landskips of trees, always conceal the art by which they direct clouds and cities, that are sometimes found in themselves. They have a word, it seems, in their the veins of marble; in the curious frct-work of language, by which they express the particular rocks and grottos; and in a word, in any thing beauty of a plantation that thus strikes the imathat hath such a variety or regularity as may gination at first fight, without discovering what scem the effect of design in what we call the it is that has to agreeable an effect. Our British works of chance,
gardencrs, on the contrary, instead of humour
ing nature, love to deviate from it as much as ever since. The earth was extremely fruitful, possible.
Our trees rise in cones, globes, and men lived generally on pasturage, which requires Pyramids. We see the marks of the scisfars upon a much smaller number of hands than agriculevery plant and bush. I do not know whether ture: There were very few trades to employ the I am fingular in my opinion, but, for my own busy part of mankind, and fewer arts and fcipart, I would rather look upon a tree in all its ences to give work to men of speculative tem. luxuriancy and diffusion of boughs and branches, pers; and what is more than all the rest, the than when it is thus cut and trimmed into a prince was absolute; so that when he went to mathematical figure; and cannot but fancy that war, he put himself at the head of a whole peo: an orchard in flower looks infinitely more de- ple: As we find Semiramis leading her three lightful, than all the little labyrinths of the most millions to the field, and yet overpowered by the finished parterre. But, as our great modellers number of her enemies. It is no wonder, there. of gardens have their magazines of plants to dif- fore, when the was at peace, and turning her pofe of, it is very natural for them to tear up all thoughts on building, that she could accomplish the beautiful plantations of fruit-trees, and con so great works, with such a prodigious multitrive a plan that may most turn to their own tude of labourers ; besides, that in her climate, profit, in taking off their evergreens, and the there was small interruption of frosts and winlike moveable plants, with which their shops are ters, which make the porthern workmen lie half plentifully stocked.
0 the year idle. I might mention too, among the
benefits of the climate, what hiftorians fay of N° 415. THURSDAY, JUNE 26. the earth, that it sweated out a bitumen or naAdde tot egregias urbes, operumque laborem. tural kind of mortar, which is doubtless the
VIRG: Georg. 2. v. 155. fame with that mentioned in Holy Writ, as conNext add our cities of illustrious name,
tributing to the structure of Babel. Their costly labour, and stupendous frame. • used instead of mortar.'
In Egypt we still see their pyramids, which AVING already shewn how the fancy is af- answer to the descriptions that have been made
fected by the works of nature, and after- of them; and I question not but a traveller wards considered in general both the works of "might find out some remains of the labyrinth that nature and of art, how they mutually affift and covered a whole province, and had a hundred complete each other in forming such scenes and temples disposed among its several quarters and prospects as are most apt to delight the mind of divisions. the beholder, I Thall in this paper throw together The wall of China is one of these eastern pieces fome reflexions on that particular art, which of magnificence, which makes a figure even in has a more immediate tendency, than any other, the map of the world, although an account of it to produce those primary pleasures of the imagi- would have been thought fabulous, were not the pation, which have hitherto been the fubject of wall itself ftill extant. this discourse. The art I mean is that of archi We are obliged to devotion for the noblet tecture, which I shall consider only with regard buildings that have adorned the several countries to the light in which the foregoing fpeculations of the world. It is this which has fet men at have placed it, without entering into those rules work on temples and public places of Worship, and maxims which the great masters of architec- not only that they might, by the magnificence of 'ture have laid down, and explained at large in the building, invite the deity to reside within it, -numberless treatises upon that subject.
but that such stupendous works might, at the Greatness, in the works of architecture, may same time, open the mind to vast conceptions, be considered as relating to the bulk and body of and fit it to converse with the divinity of the the structure, or to the manner in which it is place. For every thing that is majestic imprints built. As for the first, we find the ancients, an awfulness and reverence on the mind of the especially among the eastern nations of the world, beholder, and strikes it with the natural greatness infinitely superior to the moderns.
of the soul. Not to mention the tower of Babel, of which In the second place, we are to consider greatan old author says, there were the foundations ness of manner in architecture, which has such - to be feen in his time, which tooked like a spa- force upon the imagination, that a small build. cious mountain; what could be more noble than ing, where it appears, shall give the mind nolbër -the walls of Babylon, its hanging gardens, and ideas than one of twenty times the bulk, where its temple to Jupiter Belus, that rose a mile high the manner is ordinary or little. Thus, perhaps, by eight several stories, each story a furlong in a man would have been more astonished with the "height, and on the top of which was the Baby- majestic air that appeared in one of Lyfippus's lonian observatory. I might here, likewise, take statues of Alexander, though no bigger than the notice of the huge rock that was cut into the life, than he might have been with mount Athos, figure of Semiramis, with the smaller rocks that had it been cut into the figure of the hero, aca lay by it in the shape of tributary kings; the cording to the proposal of Phidias, with a river prodigious bafon, or artificial lake, which took in one hand, and a city in the other. in the whole Euphrates, till such time as a new Let any one reflect on the disposition of mind canal was formed for its reception, with the se- he finds in himself, at his first entrance into the veral trenches through which that river was con Pantheon at Rome, and how the imagination is veyed. I know there are persons who look upon filled with fomething great and amazing; and, Tome of these wonders of art as fabulous, but I at the same time, confider how little, in proporcannot find any ground for such a fufpicion, un- tion, he is affected with the inside of a Gothic less it be that we have no such works among us cathedral, though it be five times larger than the at present. There were indeed many greater other; which can arise from nothing else but the advantages for building in those times, and in greatness of the manner in the one, and the that part of the world, than lave been met with meanness in the other.
other intermingled particulars, which I
I have seen an observation upon this subject in cle, and the hands of the moft High have bende a French author, which very much pleased me. red it.' It is in Monsieur Freart'o parallel of the ancient Having thus spoken of that greatness which and modera architecture. I shall give it the affects the mind in architecture, I might next reader with the same terms of art which he has shew the pleasure that rises in the imagination made use of. ' I am observing,' says he, sa from what appears new and beautiful in this art; • thing, which, in my opinion, is very curious, but as every beholder has naturally a greater • whence it proceeds, that in the same quantity taste of these two perfections in every building • of superficies, the one manner seems great and which offers itself" to his view, than of that • magnificent, and the other poor and trifling; which I have hitherto considered, I shall not
the reason is fine and uncommon. I say then, trouble my reader with any reflexions upon it. • that to introduce into architecture this gran It is sufficient for my present purpose to ob• deur of manner, we ought so to proceed, that serve, that there is nothing in this whole art « the division of the principal members of the which pleases the imagination, but as it is great,
order may confift but of few parts, that they uncommon, or beautitul. • be all great and of a bold and ample relievo, ' and swelling; and that the eye beholding no• thing little and mean, the imagination may be N° 416. FRIDAY, JUNE 27.,
more vigorously touched and affected with the ( work that stands before it. For example; in Quatenús hoc fimile est oculis, quod mente videmus. a cornice, if the gola or cymatium of the co
LUCR, 1. 4. v. 754. rona, the coping, the modillions or dentelli, make a noble now by their graceful projections,
-Objects still appear the same • if we see none of that ordinary confusion which To mind and eye, in colour and in frame. • is the result of those little cavities, quarter
CREECH. rounds the
At first divided the pleasures of the imaginamany
tion into such as arise from objects that are • produce no effect in great and massy works, actually before our eyes, or that once entered in • and which very unprofitably take up place to at our eyes, and are afterwards called up into • the prejudice of the principal member, it is the mind either barely by its own operations, or i most certain that this manner will appear ro on occasion of something without us, as ftatues, • lemn and great; as on the contrary, that it or descriptions. We have already considered the ( will have but a poor and mean effect, where first divifion,and thall therefore enter on the other,
there is a redundancy of those smaller ornia- which, for diftinction fake, I have called the re• ments, which divide and scatter the angles of condary pleasures of the imagination. When I • the light into fuch a multitude of rays, so say the ideas we receive from ftatues, descripti
pressed together that the whole will appear buť ons, or such like occasions, are the same that were a confufion.'
once actually in our view, it must not be underAmong all the figures, in architecture, there ftood that we had once seen the very place, action, are none that have a greater air than the concave or person which are carved or described. It is and the convex, and we find in all the ancient Tufficient, that we have seen places, persons, or and modern architecture, as well in the remote actions in general which bear a resemblance, or parts of China, as in countries nearer home, at least some remote analogy, with what we find chatround pillars and vaulted roofs make a great represented, since it is in the power of the imapart of those bulldings which are designed for gination, when it is once stocked with particular pomp and magnificence. The reason I take to ideas, to enlarge, compound, and vary them at be, because in these figures we generally see her own pleasure. more of the body than in those of other kinds. Among the different kinds of representation, There are, indeed, figures of bodies, where the statuary is the most natural, and Thews us someeye may take in two-thirds of the surface: but thing likest the object that is represented. To as in such bodies the sight must split upon several make use of a common instance, let one, who is angles, it does not take in one uniform idea, born blind, take an image in his hands, and trace but several ideas of the same kind. Look upon out with his fingers the different furrows and imthe outside of a dome, your eye lialf surrounds pressions of the chissel, and he will easily conceive it; look up into the inlide, and at one glance how the shape of a man, or beast, may be repre. you have all the prospect of it; the entire con sented by it; but should he draw his hand over a cavity falls into your eye at once, the fight being picture, where all is smooth and uniform, he as the center that collects and gathers into it the would never be able to imagine how the several lines of the whole circumference: in a square prominencies and depressions of a human body pillar, the fight otten takes in but a fourth part could be hewn on a plain piece of canvas, that of the surface; and in a square concave, must has in it no unevenness or irregularity. Descripmove up and down to the different sides, before ion runs yet farther from the things it represents it is master of all the inward surface, For this than painting; for a picture bears a real resemreason, the fancy is infinitely more struck with blance to its original, which letters and syllables the view of the open air, and skies. that paffes are wholly void of. Colours speak all languages, through an arch, than what comes through a but words are understood only by such a people square, or any other figure. The figure of the or nation. For this reason, though men's necefrainbow does not contribute less to its magnifi- . fities quickly put them on finding out speech, cence, than the colours to its beauty, as it is writing is probably of a later invention than very poetically described by the son of Sirach : painting; particularly we are told that in
Look upon the rainbow, and praise him, that America, when the Spaniards first arrived there, • made it; very beautiful it is in its brightnefs ; expresses were sent to the emperor of Mexico in it enco.npalies the heavens with a glorious cir- paint, and the news of his country delineated by
the strokes of a pencil, which was a more na that either we did not attend to, or that lay out tural way than that of writing, though at the of our fight when we first beheld it. As we Tame time much more imperfect, because it is look on any object, our idea of it is, perhaps impossible to draw the little connections of speech, made up of two or three simple ideas; when the or to give the picture of a conjuncticn or an poet represents it, he may either give us a more adverb, it would yet be more itrange, to r re- complex idea of it, or only raise in uş such ideas present vifible objects by sounds that have no as are most apt to affect the imagination. ideas annexed to them, and to make something It may be here worth our while to examine like description in music. Yet it is certain, how it comes to pass that several readers, who There may be confused, iinperfect notions of this are all acquainted with the same language, and nature raised in the imaginatjon by an artificial know the meaning of the words they read, should composition of notes; and we find that great nevertheless have a different relish of the same matters in the art are able, sometimes, to set descriptions. We find one transported with a their hearers in the heat and hurry of a battle, to paliage, which another runs over with coldness overcast their minds with melancholy scenes and and indifference, or finding the representation apprehensions of deaths and funerals, or to lull extremely natural, where another can perceive them into pleasing dreams of groves and ely. nothing of a likeness and conformity. This difGuins.
ferent taste must proceed either froin the perfecIn all these instances, this secondary pleasure tion of imagination in one more than in another, of the imagination, proceeds from that action of or from the different ideas that several reader's the mind, which compares the ideas arising from affix to the same words. For, to have a true rethe original objects, with the ideas we receive Jish, and form a right judgment of a description, from the statue, picture, description, or sound a man should be born with a good imagination, that represents them. It is imponible for us to and must have well weighed the force and energy give the necessary reason, why this operation of that lie in the several words of a language, fo as the mind is attended with so inuch pleasure, as I to be able to distinguish which are most signifihave before observed on the same occasion ; but cant and expressive of their proper ideas, and we find a great variety of entertainments derived what additional strength and beauty they are cafrom this single principle: for it is this that not pable of receiving from conjunction with others. only gives us a relish of Itatuary, painting and The fancy must be warm, to retain tire print of description, but makes us delight in all the ac those images it hath received from outward obtions and arts of mimicry. It is this that makes jects, and the judgment discerning to know the several kinds of wit pleasant, which consists, what expressions are most proper to clothe and as I have formerly shewn, in the affinity of ideas : adorn them to the best advantage. A man who and we may add, it is this also that raises the is deficient in either of these respects, though he little satisfaction we sometimes find in the differ- may receive the general notion of a description,can ent sorts of false wit; whether it confifts in the never see distinctly all its particular beauties; as a affinity of letters, as an anagram, acrostic; or of perfon with a weak fight may have the confused Syllabies, as in doggrel rhymes, echoes; or of prospect of a place that lies before him, without words, as in puns, quibbles; or of a whole sen- entering into its several parts, or discerning the vatence or poem, as wings and altars. The final cause, riety of its colours in their full glory and per. probably, of annexing pleasure to this operation .fection, of the mind, was to quicken and encourage us in our searches after truth, since the distinguishing one thing from another, and the right dif- No 41%. SATURDAY, JUNE 28. cerning betwixt our ideas, depends wholly upon our comparing them together, and observing the congruity or disagreement that appears among Nascenrem placido lumine videris;
Quem ti, Melpomene, semel che several works of nature. But I shall here confine myself to those plea- Clarabit pugilem, non equus impiger, &.
Non illum labor Iftbmius'
aqua fertile perfluunt, servations that agree with descriptions, are equally Et spilja nemorum coma applicable to painting and statuáry.
Fingent Æolio carmine notilem. Words, when well chofen, have so great a force
Hor. Od. 13. 1.4.V: I in them, that a description often gives us more lively ideas than the light of things themfelves. At whose bleft birth propitious rays The reader finds a scene drawn in stronger co
The Muses thed, on whom they ímile, lours, and painted more to the life in his imagi- No dafty Ihmian gaine nation, by the help of words than by an actual Shall stoutest of the ring proclaim, survey of the scene which they defcribe. In this Or, to reward his toil, case the poet seems to get the better of nature;
Wreathe ivy crowns, and grace his head with he takes, indeed, the lanc'skip after her, but
bayo. gives it more vigorous touches, heightens its But fruitful Tibor's shady groves, beauty, and so enlivens the whole piece, that the
Its pleasant springs, and purling streams; images which fiow from the objects thomselves
Shall raife a lasting name, appear weak and faint, in comparison of those that come from the expressicas. The reason, For Lyric verse.
And set him high in sounding fame
CREÉCH. probably, may be, because in the survey of any object, we have coly so much of it painted on E may observe, that any single citcémthe imagination, as comes in at the eye; but in
fiance of what we have formerly seen, its defcription, the poet gives us as free a view of often raises up a whole scene of imagery, and is, ** be pleascs, and difcovers to us foveral parts, awakens numberlefs ideas that before dept in
the imagination; tuch a particular smell or colour Homer, Virgil, and Ovid. The first strikes the is able to fill the mind, on a sudden, with the imagination wonderfully with what is great, the picture of the fields or gardens where we first second with what is beautiful, and the last with met with it, and to bring up into view all the what is strange. Reading the Iliad, is like travariety of images that once attended it. Our velling through a country uninhabited, where imagination takes the hint, and leads us unex the fancy is entertained with a thousand savage pectedly into cities or theatres, plains or mea- prospects of vast deserts, wide uncultivated dows. We may further observe, when the fancy marihes, huge forests, mif-shapen rocks and prethus reflects on the scenes that have part in it cipices. On the contrary, the Æneid is like a formerly, those, which were at first pleasant to well ordered garden, where it is impossible to find behold, appear more so upon reflection, and out any part unadorned or to cast our eyes upon that the memory heightens the delightfulness of a single ipot, that does not produce some beautithe original. A Cartesian would account forful plant or flower. But when we are in the both these instances in the following manner. Metamorphosis we are walking on enchanted
The set of ideas which we received from such ground, and see nothing but scenes of magic lya prospect or garden, having entered the mind at ing round us. the same time, have a set of traces belonging to Homer is in his province, when he is describthem in the brain," bordering very near one upon ing a battle or a multitude, a hero or a god. Viranother ; when, therefore, any one of these ideas gil is never better pleased, than when he is in his arises in the imagination, and consequently dif- Elysium, or copying out an entertaining picture. patches a flow of animal spirits to its proper Homer's epithets generally mark out what is trace, these fpirits, in the violence of their great. Virgil's what is agreeable. Nothing can motion, run not only into the trace, to be more magnificent than the figure Jupiter which they were particularly directed, but makes in the first Iliad, nor more charming than into several of those that lie about it. By that of Venus in the first Æneid. this means they awaken other ideas of the fame set, which immediately determine a new dif 'Η, και κυανέησιν επ' οφρυσι νείσε Κρουτων, patch of fpirits, that in the fame manner open 'Αμβρόσιαι δ' άρα χαϊται επεξεώσοδίο άνα
ανακος, other neighbouring traces, till at last the whole set of them is blown up, and the whole prospect 'Kazès, az alavatoso. μέγαν δελέλιξεν or garden flourishes in the imagination. But be.
"Όλυμπον. cause the pleasure we received from these places
Il. lib. 1. v. 528. far surmounted, and overcame the little disagree ableness we found in them ; for this reason there He spoke and awful bends his fable brows; was at first a wider passage worn in the pleasure Shakes his ambrosial curls, and gives the nod, traces, and on the contrary, so narrow a one in The stamp of fate, and fanction of the God: thofe which belonged to the disagreeable ideas, High heav'n with trembling the dread signal that they were quickly stopt up, and rendered took, incapable of receiving any animal fpirits, and And all Olympus to the center Mook.
POPE. consequently of exciting any unpleasant ideas in Dixit & avertens rosea cervice refulfit : the memory
Ambrofiæque comæ divinum vertice odorem It would be in vain to inquire, whether the Spiravere: Pedes vestis defuxit ad imos, power of imagining things strongly proceeds from Et vera inceflu patuit Dea Æn. 1. V. 406. any greater perfection in the soul, or from any
Thus having said, the turn'd and made appear nicer texture in the brain of one man than of another: but this is certain, that a noble writer Her neck refulgent, and disheveld hair; Thould be born with this faculty in its full Which, flowing from her shoulders reach'd the strength and vigour, so as to be able to receive
ground, lively ideas from outward objects, to retain
them And widely spread ambrosial scents around : long, and to range them together, upon occasion, In length of train descends her sweeping gown, in such figures and representations as are most And by her graceful walk the queen of Love is
DRYDEN. likely to hit the fancy of the reader. should take as much pains in forming his ima. Homer's persons are most of them godlike and gination, as a philofophèr in cultivating his un- terrible; Virgil has scarce admitted any into his derstanding. He must gain a due relish of the poem, who are not beautiful, and has taken par. works of nature, and be thoroughly conversant ticular care to make his hero fo. in the various scenery of a country life.
-lumenque juventa When he is stored with country images, if he Purpureum, er latos oculis afflavit honores, would go beyond pastoral, and the lower kinds
Æn. 1. V. 594.. of poetry, he ought to acquaint himself with the and gave his rolling eyes a sparkling grace, pomp and magnificence of courts.
He should And breath'd a youthful vigour on his face. be very well versed in every thing that is noble and stately in the productions of art, whether it
DRYDER appear in painting or statuary, in the great works In a word, Homer fills his readers with sublime of architeđure which are in their present glory, ideas, and, I believe, has raised the imagination or in the ruins of those which Aourished in fora of all the good poets that have come after him. mer ages.
.I shall only instance Horace, who immediately Such advantages as these help to open a man's takes fire at the first hint of any passage in the thoughts, and to enlarge his imagination, and Iliad or Odytley, and always rises above himself, will cherefore have their influence on all kinds when he has Homer in his view, Virgil has of writing, if the author knows how to make drawn together, into his Æneid, all the pleasing right use of them. And among those of the Scenes his subject is capable of adnitting, and in learned languages who excel in this talent, the his Georgics has given us a collegion of the molt perfect in their several kinds are perlaps