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deavour to transform us into foreign manners « discovered to want it; and then all his pains and fashions, and to bring us to a servile imi. « and labour to seein to have it, is lost.”
tation of none of the best of our neighbours In another part of the same discourse he goes ' in some of the worst of their qualities. The on to Thew, that all artifice muft naturally tend. " dialect of conversation is now-a, days so swell- to the disappointment of him who practiscs it.
ed with variety and compliment, and so sur “ Whatsoever convenience may be thought to
feited, as I may say, of expressions of kind « be in falfhcod and diffimulation, it is soon “ ness and respect, that if a man that lived an “ over; but the inconvenience of is perpetual,
age or two ago should return again into the “ because it brings a man under an everlasting « world again, he would really want a dictio “ jealousy and suspicion, so that he is not be
nary to help him to understand his own lan “ lieved when he speaks truth, nor trusted when
guage, and to know the true intrinsic value “ perhaps he means honestly. When a man “ of the phrase in fashion, and would hardly at “ hath once forfeited the reputation of his in« first believe at what a low rate the highest « tegrity, he is set fast, and nothing will then “ strains and expressions of kindness imaginable “ serve his turn, neither truth nor fallhocd.” “ do commonly pass in current payment; and
R " when he should come to understand it, it o would be a great while before he could bring No 104. FRIDAY, JUNE 29. 6 himself with a good countenance and a good o conscience to converse with men upon equal -Qualis equos Threifa fatigat « terms, and in their own way.
VIRG. FEn. 1. V. 320, “ And in truth it is hard to say, whether it With such array Harpalyce bestrode “ Tould more provoke our contempt or our Her Thracian courfer.
DRYDEN. “ pity, to hear what folemn expressions of rea « spect and kindness will pass between men,
T would be a nobler improvement, or rather “ almost upon no occasion; how great honour a recovery of what we call good-breeding, * « and esteem they will declare for one whom if nothing were to pass amongst us for agreeable “ perhaps they never saw before, and how en
which was the least tranfgreision against that “ tirely they are all on the sudden devoted to rule of life called decorum, or a regard to de“ his service and interest, for no reason; how cency: This would command the respect of “ infinitely and eternally obliged to him, for no mankind, because it carries in it a deference to “ benefit; and how extremely they will be con
their good opinion, as humility lodged in a “ cerned for him; yea and afficted too, for no worthy mind is always attended with a certain
I know it is said, in justification of homage, which no haughty foul, with all the “ this hollow kind of conversation, that there is arts imaginable, will ever be able to purchase. “ no harm, nor real deceit in compliment, but Tully says, Virtue and decency are so nearly re« the matter is well enough, so long as we un-lated, that it is difficult to separate them from « derstand one another; et verba valent ut num
each other but in our imagination. As the beauty “ mi, “ words are like money :” and when the of the body always accompanies the health of “ current value of them is generally understood, it, so certainly is decency concomitant to virtue: “ no man is cheated by them. This is fome as the beauty of the body, with an agreeable “ thing if such words were any thing; but be carriage, pleases the eye, and that pleasure con“ ing brought into the account, they are mere
Gifts in that we observe all the parts with a cer. “ cyphers. However, it is still a matter of just tain elegance are proportioned to each other ; fo “ complaint, that sincerity and plainness are out
does decency of behaviour which appears in our o of fashion, and that our language is running lives obtain the approbation of all with whom “ into a lie; and that men have almost quite we converse, from the order, contistency, and « perverted the use of speech, and made words moderation of our words and acions. This “ to signify nothing; that the greatest part of flows from the reverence we bear towards every “ the conversation of mankind is littie else but good man, and to the world in general; for to “ driving a trade of diffimulation ; insomuch be negligent of what any one thinks of you, does 6 that it would make a man heartily sick and not only shew you arrogant but abandoned. In “ weary of the world, to see the little fincerity all these considerations we are to distinguish “ that is in use and practice among men.”
how one virtue differs from another; as it is When the vice is placed in this contemptible the part of justice never to do violence, it is of light, he argues unanswerably against it, in modesty never to commit offence. In this last words and thoughts so natural, that any man
particular lies the whole force of what is called who reads them would imagine he himself decency: to this purpose that excellent mora. could have been the author of them.
list abovementioned talks of decency; but this So If the low of any thing be good for any quality is more easily comprehended by an ordi« thing, I am fure sincerity is better; for why nary capacity, than expressed with all his elo. “ does any man diffemble, or seem to be that quence. This decency of behaviour is generally “ which he is not, but because he thinks it tranfgreffed among all orders of men : nay, the « good to have such a quality as he pretends very women, though themselves created it as “ to? For to counterfeit and diffemble, is to it were for ornament, are often very much “ put on the appearance of some real excel- mistaken in this ornamental part of life. It “ lency. Now the best way in the world to would methinks be a short rule for behaviour, “ seem to be any thing, is really to be what he if every young lady in her dress, words and ac“ would seem to be. Besides, that it is many tions were only to recommend herself as a fifter, “ times as troublesome to make good the pre- daughter, or wife, and make herself the more “ tence of a good quality, as to have it; and if esteemed in one of those characters. The care “ a man have it not, it is ten to one but he is of themselves, with regard to the families in
which women are born, is the best "motive for
spoils, and complete their triumph over us, by their being courted to come into the alliance of
wearing their breeches. other houses. Nothing can promote this end more 'If it be natural to contract insensibly the man. than a strict preservation of decency.. I should be 'ners of those we imitate, the ladies who are glad if a certain equestrian order of ladies, some pleased with assuming our dresses will do us of whom one meets in an evening at every out
more honour than we deserve, but they will do Lt of the town, would take this subject into their
it at their own expence. Why should the lovely serious consideration ; in crder'thereunto the fol
' Camilla deceive us in more shapes than her lowing letter may not be wholly unworthy their own, and affect to be represented in her picture perusal.
' with a gun and a spaniel; while her elder bro
ther, the heir of a worthy family, is drawn in « Mr. Spectator,
filks like his sister? The dress and air of a man OING lately to take the air in one of the are not well to be divided : and those who would
most beautiful evenings this season has not be content with the latter, ought never to produced ! as I was admiring the serenity of the think of assuming the former. There is so large sky; the lively colours of the fields, and the va. a portion of natural agreeableness among the riety of the landscape every way around me, my fair sex of our island, that they seem betrayed eyesweresuddenlycalled off from these inanimate ' into these romantic habits without having the objects by a little party of horsemen I saw par fame occasion for them with their inventors :, sing the road. The greater part of them esca all that needs to be desired of them is, that they ped my particular observation, by reason that would be themselves, that is, what nature de my whole attention was fixed on a very fair signed them; and to see their mistake when youth who rode in the midst of them, and seemed they depart from this, let them look upon a man to have been dressed by some defcription in a ro who affects the softness and effeminacy of a wo
mance. His features, complexion, and habit man, to learn how their fex must appear to ' had a remarkable effeminacy, and a certain lan us, when approaching to the resemblance of a guishing vanity appeared in his air; his hair, 's
ian. well curled and powdered, hung to a consider
"I am, Sir, able length on his moulders, and was wantonly
• Your most humble servant,' ty'd, as if by the hands of his mistress, in a scarlet ribbon, which played like a streamer behind him; he had a coat and waistcoat of blue cam
NO blet trimmed and embroidered with silver; a
105. SATURDAY, JUNE 30. cravat of the finest lace; and wore, in a smart
Id arbitror cock, a little beaver hat edged with silver, and Adprimè in vita eflè utile, ne quid nimis. 'made more fprightly by a feather. His horse
Ter. Andr. Act. 1. Sc. I. too, which was a pacer, was adorned after the • same airy manner, and seemed to share in the I take it to be a principal rule of life, not to be
too much addicted to any one thing, vanity of the rider. As I was pitying the luxury of this young person, who appeared to me to Y friend Will. Honeycomb values himself " have been educated only as an object of sight, I
what he calls the knowperceived on my nearer approach, and as I ledge of mankind, which has cost him many difturned my eyes downward, a part of the equi- asters in his youth; for Will reckons every mispage I had not observed before, which was a fortune that he has met with among the women, petticoat of the same with the coat and waist- and every rencounter among the men, as parts of
coat. After this discovery, I looked again on his education, and fancies he should never have " the face of the fair Amazon who had thus de- been the man he is, had not he broke windows,
ceived me, and thought those features which knocked down constables, disturbed honeft peohad before offended me by their softness, were ple with his midnight serenades, and beat up a
now strengthened into as improper a boldness; lewd woman's quarters, when he was a young ' and though her eyes, nose, and mouth seemed fellow. The engaging in adventures of this
to be formed with perfect symmetry, I am not nature Will calls the studying of mankind; and !! certain whether the, who in appearance was a terms this knowledge of the town, the know
very handsome youth, may not be in reality a ledge of the world. Will ingeniously confeffes, very indifferent woman.
that for half his life his head ached every morn" There is an objection which natur.:lly pre- ing with reading of men over night; and at - sents itself against these occasional perplexities present comforts himself under certain pains * and mixtures of dress, which is, that they feem which he endures from time to time that with' to break in upon that propriety and distinction out them he could not have been acquainted
of appearance in which the beauty of different with the gallantries of the age. This Will ( characters is preserved; and if they should be looks upon as the learning of a gentleman,
more frequent than they are at present, would and regards all other kinds of science as the ac.. • lcok like turning our public affemblies into a complishments of one whom he calls a scholar, a “ general masquerade. The model of this Ama- bookish man, or a philosopher. rzonian hunting-halit for ladies, was, as I take For these reasoris Will Thines in mixed compa. • it, first imported from France, and well enough ny, where lie has the discretion not to go out of • expreffes the gaiety of a people who are taught his depth, and has often a certain way of making
to do any thing fo it be with an assurance; but his real ignorance appear a seeming one. Our club I cannot help thinking it fits aukwardly yct on however has frequently caught him tripping, at our fnglish medesty. The petticoat is a kind which times they never spare him. For as Will
of incuarance upon it, and if the Amazon often insults us with the knowledge of the town, s mould think fit to go on in this plunder of cur we fometimes take our revenge upon him by our ***'s ornaments, they ought to add t2 their knowledge of books,
He was last week producing two or three letters The truth of it is, learning, like travelling, and which he writ in his youth to a coquette lady. all other methods of improvement, as it finishes The raillery of them was natural, and well enough good sense, so it makes a filly man ten thousand for a mere man of the town; but very unluckily, times more insufferable, by fupplying variety of several of the words were wrong spelt. Will laugh- matter to his impertinence, and giving him an ed this off at first as well as he could; but finding opportunity of abounding in absurdities. himself pushed on all sides, and especially by the Shallow pedants cry up one another much more Templar, he told us with a little pallion, that he than men of solid and useful learning. To read never liked pedantry in spelling, and that he spelt the titles that are given an editor, or a collator of like a gentleman, and not like a scholar; upon a manuscript, you would take him for the glory of this will had recourse to his old topic of thewing the commonwealth of letters, and the wonder of the narrow-spiritedness, the pride, and ignorance his age, when perhaps upon examination you find of pedants; which he carried to far, that upon my that he kas only rectified a Greek particle, or laid retiring to my lodgings, I could not forbear thrown out a whole sentence in proper commas. ing together such reflections as occurred to me They are obliged indeed to be thus lavish of upon that subject.
their praises, that they may keep one another in A man who has been brought up among books, countenance; and it is no wonder if a great deal and is able to talk of nothing else, is a very in- of knowledge, which is not capable of making a different companion, and what we call a pedant. '
man wise. has a natural tendency to make him But, methinks, we should enlarge the title, and vain and arrogant.
What is a greater pedant 'than a mere man of No 106. MONDAY, JULY 2.
Hinc tibi copia
Hor. Od. 17. 1. 1, v. 14.
And all her riches show,
AVING often received an invitation from and revolutions in a game of ombre. When he my friend Sir Roger de Coverley to pass · has gone thus far he has shewn you the whole cir- away a month with him in the country, I last
cle of his accomplishments, his parts are drained, week accompanied him thither, and am fettled and he is disabled from any farther conversation. with him for some time at his country-house, What are these but rank pedants ? and yet these where I intend to fornı several of my ensuing are the men who value themselyes most' on their speculations. Sir Roger, who is very well acexemption from the pedantry of colleges.
quainted with my humour, lets me rite and go to might here mention the military pedant who bed when I pleate, dine at his own table or in my always talks in a camp, and is storming towns, chamber as I think fit, fit ftill and say nothing making lodgments, and fighting battles from one without bidding me be merry. When the gentleend of the year to the other. Every thing he men of the country come to see him, he only thews speaks smells of gunpowder; if you take away his me at a distance. As I have been walking in his artillery from him, he has not a word to say for fields I have observed them stealing a fight of me himself. I might likewise mention the law -pe
over an hedge, and have heard the knight defiring dant, that is perpetually putting cafes, repeating them not to let me see them, for that I hated to the transactions of Westminster-Hall, wrangling be ftared at. with you upon the most indifferent circumstances I am the more at ease in Sir Roger's family, beof life, and not to be convinced of the distance of cause it consists of sober and itayed persons; for as a place, or of the most trivial point in conversa- the knight is the best matter in the world, he feltion, but by dint of argument. The state pedant dom changes his servants; and as he is beloved by is wrapt up in news, and lost in politics. If you all about him, his servants never care for leaving mention either of the Kings of Spain or Poland, him; by this means his domestics are all in years, he talks very notably; but if you go out of the and grown old with their master. You would take Gazette, you diop him. In thort, a mere cour his valet de chambre for his brother, his butler is tier, a mere soldier, a mere scholar, a mere any grey-headed, his groom is one of the graveft men thing, is an infipid pedantic character, and equally that I have ever seen, and his coachman has the ridiculous.
looks of a privy-counsellor. You fee the goodness Of all the species of pedants, which I have men of the master even in the old house-dog, and in a tioned, the book-pedant is much the most support- grey pad that is kept in the stable with great care able; he has at least an exercised understanding, and tenderness out of regard to his pait services, and a head which is full though confused, so that though he has been useleis for several years. a man who converses with him may often receive I could not but observe with a great deal of pleafrom him hints of things that are worth knowing, sure the joy that appeared in the countenance of and what he may possibly turn to his own advan- these ancient domestics upon my friend's arrival at tage, though they are of little use to the owner. his country-seat. Some of them could not refrain The worst kind of pedants among learned men, from tears üt the signs of their old master; every are such as are naturally endued with a very small one of thein preilesi 1oward to do something for hare of common fente, and have read a great him, and feemed discouraged if they were not emnumber of books without taitę or distinction, ployed. At the same time the goud vid kright,
with a mixture of the father and the master of the As Sir Roger was going on in his story, the genfamily, tempered the enquiries after his own affairs, tleman we were talking of came up to us; and with several kind of questions relating to them- upon the knight's asking him who preached 19. felves. This humanity and good-nature engages morrow, for it was Saturday night, told us, the every body to him, so that when he is pleasant upon Bishop of St. Afaph in the morning, and Dr. South any of them, all his family are in good humour, in the aiternoon. He then shewed us his list of and none so much as the person whom he diverts preachers for the whole year, where I saw with a himself with, on the contrary, it he coughs, or be- great deal of pleasure Archbithop Tillotson, Bishop trays any infirmity of old age, it is easy for a stand. Saunderson, Dr. Barrow, Dr. Calamy, with feveral er-by to observe a secret concern in the looks of all living authors who have published discourses of his servants
practical divinity. I no sooner faw this venerable My worthy friend has put me under the particu- man in the pulpit, but I very much approved of far care of his butler, who is a very prudent man, my friend's infiting upon the qualifications of a and, as well as the rest of his fellow-fervants, won- good aspect and a clear voice; for I was so charmed derfully desirous of pleasing me, because they have with the gracefulness of his figure and delivery, as often heard their master talk of me as of his parti- well as with the discourses he pronounced, that I cular friend.
think I never pafled any time more to my satisMy chief companion, when Sir Roger is divert- faction. A fermon repeated after this manner, is ing himself in the woods or the fields, is a very like the composition of a' poet in the mouth of a venerable man who is ever with Sir Roger, and has graceful actor. lived at his house in the nature of a chaplain above I could heartily with that more of our country thirty years. This gentleman is a person of good clergy would follow this example; and instead of fense and fome learning, of a very regular life and wasting their spirits in laborious compofitions of obliging conversation : he heartily loves Sir Roger, their own, would endeavour after a handsome eloand knows that he is very much in the old knight's cution, and all those other talents that are proper esteem, so that he lives in the family rather as a to enforce what has been penned by greater matters. relation than a dependant.
This would not only be more easy to themselves, I have observed in several of my papers, that my but more edifying to the people.
L friend Sir Roger, amidst all his good qualities, is something of an humourist; and that his virtues as well as his imperfections, are as it were tinged No 107. TUESDAY, JULY 3. by a certain extravagance, which makes them particularly his, and diftinguishes them from those of Æsopo ingentem fiatuam posuere Attici, other men. This cast of mind, as it is generally Servumque collocârunt æterna in basi, very innocent in itself, so it renders his converfa Patere honoris fcirent ut cunɛtis viam. tion highly agreeable, and more delightful than the
PHÆDr. Epilog. I. 2. fame degree of sense and virtue would appear in The Athenians erected a large statue to Æfop, and their common and ordinary colours. As I was
placed him, though a flave, on a lasting pedestal ; walking with him last night, he asked me how I
to fhew, that the way to honour lies open indifliked the good man whom I have just now men
ferently to all. tioned ? and without staying for my answer told me, that he was afraid of being insulted with La THE reception, manner of attendance, undi. tin and Greek at his own table; for which reason he desired a particular friend of his at the university here in the country, has confirmed me in the opito find him out a clergyman rather of plain sense nion I always had, that the general corruption of than much learning, of a good aspect, a clear voice, manners in servants is owing to the conduct of a sociable temper, and, if poilible, a man that un masters. The aspect of every one in the family derstood a little of backgainmon. My friend, says carries much "satisfaction, that it appears he Sir Roger, found me out this gentleman who, be knows the happy lot which has befallen him in fides the endowments required of him, is, they tell being a member of it. There is one particular me, a good scholar, though he does not shew it: which I have seldom seen but at Sir Roger's; it I have given him the parsonage of the parish; and is usual in all other places, that servants Ay from because I know his value, have settled upon him a the parts of the house through which their master good annuity for life. If he outlives me, he shall is palling; on the contrary, here they industriouly find that he was higher in my esteem than perhaps place themselves in his way; and it is on both he thinks he is. He has now been with me thirty lides, as it were, understood as a visit, when the years; and though he does not know I have taken fervants appear without calling. This proceeds notice of it, has never in all that time asked any from the humane and equal temper of the man of thing of mę for himself, though he is every day the house, who a' so perfectly well knows how to foliciting me for something in behalf of one or enjoy a great estate, with fuch economy as ever to other of my tenants his parishio iers. There has be much beforehand. This makes his own mind not been a law-suit in the parish lince he has lived untroubled, and consequently vnapt to vent peeanaong them; if any dispute arises, they apply vish expreilions, or give pallionate or inconsistent themselves to him for the decision; if they do not orders to those about him. Thus respect and love acquieice in his judgment, which I think never go together; and a certain chearfulness in perforhappened above once or twice at molt, they appeal mance of their duty is the particular distinction of
At his first settling with me, I made him the lower part of this family. When a servant is a present of all the good sermons which have been called before his master, he does not come with an printed in English, and only begged of him that expectation to hear himself rated for some trivial every Sunday he would pronounce one of them in fault, threatened to be stripped or used with any the pulpit. Accordingly, he has digested them other unbecoming language, which mean masters into such a series, that they follow one another otten give to worthy fervants; but it is often to naturally, and make a continued fyllem of practi- know, what road he took that he came fo readily divinity,
back according to order; whether he passed by I shall not go out of the occurrences of common such a ground, if the old man who rents it is in life, but alsert it as a general observation, that I geod health; or whether he gave Sir Roger's love never saw but in Sir Roger's family, and one or two to him, or the like.
more, good servants treated as they ought to be A man who preserves a respect, founded on bis Sir Roger's kindness extends to their children's benevolence to his dependents, lives rather like children, and this very morning he sent his coacha prince than a master in his family; his orders man's grandson to prentice. I shall conclude this are received as favours, rather than duties; and paper with an account of a picture in his gallery, the distinction of approaching him is part of the where there are many which will deserve my fureward for executing what is commanded by ture observation. him.
At the very upper end of this handsome strucThere is another circumstance in which my ture I saw the portraiture of two young men standfriend excels in his management, which is the ing in a river, the one naked, the other in a livemanner of rewarding his servants : he has ever ry. The person supported seemed half dead, but been of opinion, that giving his cast clothes to still so much alive as to Mew in his face exquisite be worn by valets has a very ill effect upon little joy and love towards the other. I thought the minds, and creates a filly sense of equality be- fainting figure resembled my friend Sir Roger; and tween the parties, in persons affected only with looking at the butler, who stood by me for an acoutward things. I have heard him often plea- count of it, he informed me that the person in fant on this occasion, and describe a young gen- the livery was a servant of Sir Roger's, who stood tleman abusing his man in that coat, which a on the shore while his master was swimming, and month or two before was the most pleasing di- obfervin; him taken with some sudden illness, ftinction he was conscious of in himself. He and fink under water, jumped in and saved him. would turn his discourse still more pleasantly He told me Sir Roger took off the dress he was in upon the ladies bounties of this kind; and I as soon as he came home, and by a great bounty have heard him say he knew a fine woman, who at that time, followed by his favour ever since, diftributed rewards and punishments in giving had made him master of that pretty feat which we becoming or unbecoming dresses to her maids. saw at a distance as we came to this house. I re.
But my good friend is above these little in. membered indeed Sir Roger said there lived a very stances of good-will, in bestowing only trifies on worthy gentleman, to whom he was highly oblihis servants; a good servant to him is sure of hav- ged, without mentioning any thing further. Upon ing it in his choice very soon of being no servant my looking a little dissatisfied at some part of the at all. As I before observed, he is so good an hus. picture, my attendant informed me that it was band, and knows so thoroughly that the skill of against Sir Roger's will, and at the earnest request the purse is the cardinal virtue of this life; I say, of the gentleman himfelf, that he was drawn in he knows so well that frugality is the support of the habit in which he had saved his inalter. generosity, that he can often spare a large fine
R when a tenement falls, and give that settlement to a good servant who has a mind to go into the No 108. WEDNESDAY, JULY 4. world, or make a stranger pay the fine to that servant, for his more comfortable maintenance, if Gratis anbelans, multa agendo nibil agens. he stays in his service.
PHÆDR. Fab. 5. 1. 2. A man of honour and generosity confiders it would be miserable to himself to have no will but Out of breath to no purpose, and very busy about that of another, though it were of the best person
nothing. breathing, and for that reason goes on as fait as he is able to put his servants into independent liveli
Roger before his house, a country-fellow hood. The greatest part of Sir Roger's estate is brought him a huge fish, which, he told him, Mr. tenanted by persons who have served himself or William Wimble had caught that very morning i his ancestors. It was to me extremely pleasant and that he presented it, with his service to him, to observe the visitants from several parts to wel- and intended to come and dine with him. At come his arrival into the country; and all the the same time he delivered a letter which my difference that I could take notice of between the friend read to me as soon as the messenger left late servants who came to see him, and those who him. Itaid in the family, was that these latter were looked upon as finer gentlemen and better courtiers. This manumifion and placing them in a way
Defire you to accept of a jack, which is the of livelihood, I look upon as only what is due to
come and day with you a week, and see how the a good servant, which encouragement will make perch bite in the Black River. I observed with his fucceffor be as diligent, as humble, and as “ some concern, the last time I saw you upon the ready as he was. There is something wonderful “ bowling-green, that your whip wanted a laihto in the narrowness of those minds, which can be “ it; I will bring half a dozen with me that I pleased, and be barren of bounty to those who as twisted last weck, which I hope will serve you please them,
« all the time you are in the country. I have not One might, on this occasion, recount the sense « been out of the saddle for six days last paft, hav. that great persons in all ages have had of the me.
“ing been at Eton with Sir John's eldest ton. He rit of their dependents, and the heroic services ( takes to his learning hugely. I am, which men have done their mafiers in the ext.e.
“Sir, your humble servant, mity of their fortunes; and Mewn to their undone
« Will Wimble." patrons, that fortune was all the difference be. tween them; but as I design this my speculation This extraordinary letter, and message that aconly as a gentle admonition to thankiess masiers, companied it, made me very curious to know the
- Sir Roger,