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acre Adam Smith advantage aggregate agricultural American amount annual average Bank of England banks bills bills of exchange Britain bullion bushels capital cause cent Circulating Capital circulation circumstances civilized coin commercial commodities consequence consumed consumption cost cultivation currency debt demand depreciation diminished distribution dollars effect employment England English equal evil exchange expense exports extent fact flour foreign former grain greater hand increase individual industry inhabitants Ireland issue J. S. Mill labor land less loans Malthusians manufactures Massachusetts means ment merchant millions natural nearly necessary obtain operations paper money payment persons Political Economy population portion pound sterling precious metals produce proportion purchase quantity raise rate of interest rate of profit rent rise savings says seigniorage sell society soil specie supply theory tion trade value of money wages wealth whole
第 136 頁 - In two centuries the population would be to the means of subsistence as 256 to 9; in three centuries as 4096 to 13, and in two thousand years the difference would be almost incalculable.
第 126 頁 - The laws and conditions of the production of wealth, partake of the character of physical truths. There is nothing optional, or arbitrary in them. Whatever mankind produce, must be produced in the modes, and under the conditions, imposed by the constitution of external things, and by the inherent properties of their own bodily and mental structure.
第 59 頁 - In the first fire-engines, a boy was constantly employed to open and shut alternately the communication between the boiler and the cylinder, according as the piston either ascended or descended. One of those boys, who loved to play with his companions, observed that, by tying a string from the handle of the valve which opened this communication, to another part of the machine, the valve would open and shut without his assistance, and leave him at liberty to divert himself with his playfellows.
第 34 頁 - With many a weary step, and many a groan, Up the high hill he heaves a huge round stone; The huge round stone, resulting with a bound, Thunders impetuous down, and smokes along the ground.
第 91 頁 - Thirdly, and lastly, commerce and manufactures gradually introduced order and good government, and with them the liberty and security of individuals, among the inhabitants of the country, who had before lived almost in a continual state of war with their neighbours, and of servile dependency upon their superiors.
第 229 頁 - The property which every man has in his own labor, as it is the original foundation of all other property, so it is the most sacred and inviolable.
第 237 頁 - In every society the price of every commodity finally resolves itself into some one or other, or all of those three parts; and in every improved society, all the three enter more or less, as component parts, into the price of the far greater part of commodities.
第 223 頁 - The counsellor at law who, perhaps, at near forty years of age, begins to make something by his profession, ought to receive the retribution, not only of his own so tedious and expensive education, but of that of more than twenty others who are never likely to make any thing by it. How extravagant soever the fees of counsellors at law may sometimes appear, their real retribution is never equal to this.
第 28 頁 - Capital is kept in existence from age to age not by preservation, but by perpetual reproduction: every part of it is used and destroyed, generally very soon after it is produced, but those who consume it are employed meanwhile in producing more.
第 251 頁 - In a country fully stocked in proportion to all the business it had to transact, as great a quantity of stock would be employed in every particular branch as the nature and extent of the trade would admit. The competition, therefore, would everywhere be as great, and consequently the ordinary profit as low as possible.