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to fulfil the requirements of a high school course in grammar, covering one to two years of work, according to the amount of time allotted to the subject. However, since the method of relating the different topics by cross-references has been consistently followed throughout the book, the various divisions may without difficulty be used independently of the general plan.
Since to enumerate the books consulted in the preparation of this small volume would require an apology for "choosing so strong a prop to support so weak a burden," a general acknowledgment must take the place of detailed mention. In questions of terminology and kindred matters no attempt has been made to depart from the usage of standard works on the subject.
1. For purposes of grammatical study, the units of language are classified as Words, Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences.
2. A Word is classified according to its use as oneof the eight Parts of Speech: Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, and Interjection.
3. A Phrase is a combination of related words not containing a Subject and Predicate, and itself used as the equivalent of a single word (61).
1 They hear a voice in every wind.
2 Loud sang the minstrels all,
Chanting his glory.
3 I have no song to give thee.
4. A Clause is a division of a sentence containing a Subject and a Predicate. Clauses are classified as (1) Principal or Independent, and (2) Subordinate. A Principal Clause states the leading thought of the sentence: as,
Remember him who led your host.
5. A Subordinate Clause is related to some word in the Principal Clause, and is equivalent to (1) a Noun, (2) an Adjective, or (3) an Adverb: as,
1 The village all declared how much he knew. 2 All who joy would win
Must share it.
3 He sat where festal bowls went round.
6. A Sentence is a group of related words expressing a complete thought and containing at least one Subject and one Predicate.
Exercise 1. Distinguish phrases and clauses from
1 Consider this.
2 When I did speak of some distressful stroke.
3 How wonderful is Sleep!
4 Oft in the stilly night,
Ere slumber's chains have bound me.
5 When shall we three meet again?
6 To be imprison'd in the viewless winds. Go.
8 Never to blend our pleasure or our pride
With sorrow of the meanest thing that feels.
9 In that temple of silence and reconciliation where the enmities of twenty generations lie buried, in the great Abbey which has during many ages afforded a quiet resting-place to those whose minds and bodies have been shattered by the contentions of the Great Hall. 10 Would he were fatter!
11 Though nothing can bring back the hour
Of splendor in the grass, of glory in the flower. 12 To wake no more.
13 When I consider how my light is spent. 14 O what a goodly outside falsehood hath! 15 As if the man had fixed his face
In many a solitary and open place
16 Charge, Chester, charge!