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113. The Subordinate Clause of a Complex Sentence may itself be Complex: as,

There with the others to a seat he gat,

Whence he beheld a broider'd canopy,

'Neath which in fair array King Schoneus sat
Upon his throne with councilors thereby.

Exercise 90. In the following sentences, find the complex subordinate clauses:

1 But little he'll reck, if they let him sleep on, In the grave where a Briton has laid him.

2 They knew by his awful and kingly look,
By the order hastily spoken,

That he dreamed of days when the nations shook
And the nations' hosts were broken.

3 She struck where the white and fleecy waves

Looked soft as carded wool.

4 If there is any truth in Jonson's statement that Shakespeare never blotted a line, there is no justice in the censure which it implies.

5 Shakespeare's old Adam, in As You Like It, declares that his old age is as a lusty winter because in youth he did not woo the means of weakness and debility.

6 Whenever the poets have stopped to think about the ways in which all this glorious life goes on, they are filled with wonder.

7 Yet all experience is an arch wherethro'

Gleams that untravel'd world, whose margin fades
Forever and forever when I move.

8 When Chatham was asked where he had read his English history, he answered, "In the plays of Shakespeare."

9 We must be free or die, who speak the tongue

That Shakespeare spake; the faith and morals hold
Which Milton held.

10 Let every wind be hushed, that I may hear

The wondrous things he tells the world below.

11 Our whole history, then, teaches that we got the splendid army we have only when the people had learned in the stern school of experience what our need was. 12 And still I felt the center of

The magic circle there.

Was one fair Form that filled with love

The lifeless atmosphere.

13 But soon a wonder came to light

That showed the rogues they lied.

14 When I have borne in mind what has tamed Great nations, how ennobling thoughts depart When men change words for ledgers, and desert The student's bower for gold, some fears unnamed I had, my Country!

15 There's not a soul in the garden world
But wishes the day were shorter,

When Mariner B. puts out to sea
With the wind in the proper quarter.

16 They gave him of the corn-land,
That was of public right,

As much as two strong oxen

Could plow from morn to night.

17 Lo! I uncover the land

Which I hid of old time in the West,

As the sculptor uncovers the statue

When he has wrought his best.

18 Our ship touched at an island on the way home, where my black servant took me a walk over rocks and hills, till we passed a garden where we saw a man walking. 19 Saint Augustine! well hast thou said

That of our vices we can frame

A ladder, if we will but tread

Beneath our feet each deed of shame.

20 All boys love liberty, till experience convinces them. they are not so fit to govern themselves as they imagined.

114. The Complex Sentence containing a Complex Subordinate Clause is analyzed as follows:

EXAMPLE:-Life is sweet, though all that makes it sweet Lessen like sound of friends' departing feet.

A Complex Declarative Sentence. Principal Proposition, Life is sweet; Subordinate Clause, though . . . feet, adverbial modifier of is; connective, the subordinate conjunction though. The Subordinate Clause is Complex. Its Principal Proposition is, though all lessen like sound of friends' departing feet; Subordinate Clause, that makes it sweet, adjective modifier of all; connective that (relative pronoun). [Detailed analysis as in 109.]

Exercise 91. Analyze according to the model given above the sentences in Exercise 90.

115. The Complex Sentence may contain two or more Subordinate Clauses which are not related to each other: as,

To me the meanest flower that blows can give
Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears.

Exercise 92. Find the subordinate clauses in the following complex sentences:—

1 While we breathe beneath the sun,
The world which credits what is done
Is cold to all that might have been.
2 O'er the smooth enameled green,
Where no print of step hath been,
Follow me, as I sing

And touch the warbled string.

3 When once a book has become immortal, we think that we can see why it became so.

4 Every man must, of course, whether he will or not,

feel the spirit of the age in which he lives and thinks and does his work.


As the woman heard,

Fast flowed the current of her easy tears,
While in her heart she yearned incessantly
To rush abroad all round the little haven,
Proclaiming Enoch Arden and his woes.

6 If any man ask me what a free government is, I answer, that, for any practical purpose, it is what the people think so.

7 But to my mind, though I am native here

And to the manner born, it is a custom

More honored in the breach than in the observance.

8 Harpers must lull him to his rest,

With the slow soft tunes he loves the best,
Till sleep sink down upon his breast,

Like the dew on a summer hill.

9 It has been observed that one of the curious contrasts which make up that complex creature, Walter Scott, is the strong attraction which drew him, as a Lowlander the born natural antagonist of the Gael, to the Highland people.

10 If these brief lays of sorrow born

Were taken to be such as closed

Grave doubts and answers here proposed,

Then these were such as men might scorn.

11 When the public man omits to put himself in a situation of doing his duty with effect, it is an omission that frustrates the purposes of his trust almost as much as if he had formally betrayed it.

12 If you convey a false impression, what difference does it make how you convey it?

13 In after-days, when grasses high

O'ertop the stone where I shall lie,
Though ill or well the world adjust
My slender claim to honor'd dust,
I shall not question or reply.

14 But when the days of golden dreams had perish'd, And even Despair was powerless to destroy, Then did I learn how existence could be cherish'd,

Strengthen'd, and fed, without the aid of joy. 15 Sweet spring, full of sweet days and roses, A box where sweets compacted lie,

My music shows ye have your closes.

16 If the spirits of the departed are cognizant, as we fondly trust they are, of the sentiments which animate the "breathers of this world," Shakespeare's may well be filled with profoundest love and gratitude in the perception of how much it was permitted to contribute towards the elevation and refinement of the world.

17 When ye fight with a wolf of the pack you must fight him alone and afar,

Lest others take part in the quarrel and the pack is diminished by war.

18 If you mean to please any people, you must give them the boon which they ask.

19 When popular discontents have been very prevalent, it may well be affirmed and supported that there has been generally something found amiss in the constitution or the character of government.

20 Is it not better at an early hour

In its calm cell to rest the weary head,

While birds are singing and while blooms the bower,
Than sit the fire out and go starv'd to bed?

116. Complex Sentences containing two or more Subordinate Clauses not related to each other are analyzed as follows:


Poor wretches that depend

On greatness' favor dream, as I have done,
Wake, and find nothing.

A Complex Declarative Sentence. Principal Proposition, Poor wretches dream, wake, and find nothing; First Sub

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