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PLAN. The reigns of Philip, king of Macedon, and Alerander hie son, contain the space of 36 years ; the reign of the foriner including 24, and that of the latter 1. Thry cztond from the first year of the 105th Olympiad, or the year of the world 3644, to the first year of the 1141h Olympiad, which answers to the year of she world 3690. The kings who reigned during Tha! lime in Persia were
Artaxerres, Ochus, Arses, and Darius Codomanus. The
Persian Empire erpired with the last. We know not any thing concerning the transactions of the
Jews during these 96 yrare, except that we are told by Josephus, book xi. chap 7. and 8 of his anuiquities of the Jews, under the high pries!& John, or Johanon, and Jaddus. These will be mentioned in the course of this history, with which that of the Jews is intermired. The above-mentioned space of 36 years, with respect to the
Roman history, extends from the 393d to the 429th year from the foundation of Rome. The great men who made the most conspicuous figure among the Romans during that space of time, were Appius Claudius, the dictator, T. Quinctius Capitolimus, 7°r. Manlius Torquatus, I. Papirius Cursor, M. Valerius Corvinus, Q. Fabius Ma.r. imus, and the two Decii, who devoted theinsclvcs to death for the sake of their country.
SECTION 1. THE BIRTU AND INFANCY OF PHILIPHIS FIRST
CONQUESTS.--THE BIRTH OF ALEXANDER. M ACEDON was an hereditary kingdom, situated in an
IV cient Thrace, and bounded on the south by the mountains of Thessaly : on the east by Baotia and Pieria, on the west by the Lyncestes, and on the north by Mygdonia and Pelagonia ; but after Philip had conquered part of Thrace and Illyrium, this kingdom extended from the Adriatic sea to the river Strymon. Edessa was at first the capital of it but afterwards resigned that honour to Pella, famous for giving birth to Philip and Alexander.
Philip, whose history we are going to write, was the son of Amyntas II. who is reckoned the 16th king of Macedon from Caranus, who had founded that kingdom about 4.30 years before, that is, Anno Mundi 3212, and before Christ 794. The history of all these monarchs is sufficiently obscure, and includes little more than several wars with the I:yrians, the Thracians, and cther neighbouring people.
The kings of Macedon pretended to descend from Hercu. les, by Caranus, and consequently to have been Greeks origi. nally. Notwithstanding this, Demosthenes often styles them barbarians, especially in his invectives against Philip. The Greeks indeel gave this name to all other nations, without excepting the Macedonians. *Alexander king of Macedon, in the reign of Xerxes, was excluded, upon pretence of his being a barbarian, from the Olympic games; and was not ad. mitted to share in them till after having proved his being orig. inally descended from Argos. The above-mentioned Alex. ånder, when he went over from the Persian camp to that of the Greeks, in order to acquaint the latter that Mardonius was determined to charge them by surprise at day-break, justified his perfidy by his ancient descert, which he declar, ed to be from the Greeks.
The ancient kings of Macedon did not think it beneath themselves to live at different times under the protection of the Athenians, Thebans, and Spartans, changing their alliances as it suited their interest. Of this we have several instances in Thucydides. One of them named Perdiccas, with whom the Athenians were dissatisfied, became their tributary; which continued from their settling a colony in Amphipolis, under Agnon, the son of Nicias, about 48 years before the Peloponnesian war, till Brasidas, the Lacedemon nian general, about the fifth or sixth yead of that war, raised that whole province against them, and drove them from the frontiers of Macedon.
We shall soon see this Macedon, which formerly had paid tribute to Athens, become under Philip the Arbiter of Greece; and triumph under Alexander, over all the forces of Asia,
Amyntast, father of Philip, began to reign the third year of the 96th Olympiad. Having, the very year after, been warmly attacked by the Illyrians, and dispossesed of a great
Herod. I. v. c. 22.
+ Idem. I, ix. C. 44. A. M, 3006, Ant. J. C. 398. Diod, 1. siv. p• 307. 341.
part of his kingdom, which he thought it scarce possible for him ever to recover again, he addressed himself to the Olynthians; and in order to engage them the more firmly in his interest, he had given up to them a considerable tract of land in the neighborhood of their city. According to some authors, Argæus, who was of the blood royal, being supported by the Athenians, and taking advantage of the troubles which broke out in Macedonia, reigned there two years.* Amyntas was restored to the throne by the Thessa. lians, upon which he was desirous of resuming the possession of the lands, which nothing but the ill situation of his affairs had obliged him to resign to the Olynthians. This occasioned a war; but Amynthas not being strong enough to make head singly against so powerful a people, the Greeks, and the Athenians in particular,sent him succours,and enabled him to weaken the power of the Olynthians, who threaten. ed him with a total and impending ruin. t It was then that Amyntas, in an assembly of the Greeks, to which he had sent a deputation, engaged to unite with them to enable the Athenians to possess themselves of Amphipolis, declaring that this city belonged to the last mentioned people. This strong alliance was continued after his death with queen Eu. rydice, his widow, as we shall soon see. · Philip, one of the sons of Amyntas, was born the same year this monarch declared war against the Olynthians. This Philip was father of Alexander the Great ; for we cannot distinguish him better, than by calling him the father of such a son, as Cicero observes of the father of Cato of Utica,
Amyntas died, after having reigned 24 years. He left three legitimate children, whom Eurydice had brought him, viz. Alexander, Perdiccas, and Philip, and a natural son named Ptolemy.
Alexander succeeded his father as eldest son. In the very beginning of his reign he was engaged in a sharp war against the Illyrians, neighbors to, and pepetual enemies of Macedonia. Concluding afterwards a peace with them, he put Philip, his younger brother, an infant, into their hands, by way of hostage, who was soon sent back to him, .Alex. ander reigned but one year.
* A. M. 3621. Ant. J. C. 383. + Æschin. de Fals. Legat. p. 400. A. M. 3521. Ant. J. C. 383.
9 M. Cato sententiam dixit hujus nostri Catonis pater, Ut enim cæterica patribus, sic hic, qui lumen illud progenuit, ex filio est nominandus. Dc Offic. 1. iii. n. 66.
A. M. 3629. Ant J. C. 375. Diod. p. 373. Justin. I. vii. c iv.
* The crown now belonged by right to Perdiccas his bro. ther, who was become eldest by his death ; but Pausanias, a prince of the blood royal, who had been exiled, disputed it with him, and was supported by a great number of Macedonians. He began by seizing some fortresses. Happily for the new king, Ipiricrates was then in that country, whither the Athenians had sent him with a small fleet; not to besiege Amphipolis as yet, but only to take a view of the place and make the necessary preparations for besieging it. Eurydice hearing of his arrival, desired to see him, intending to request his assistance against Pausanias. When he was come into the palace, and liad seated himself, the afflicted queen, the better to excite his compassion, takes her two children, Perdiccas and Philipt, and sets the former in the arms, and the latter on the kuees of Iphicrates ; she then spoke thus to him : “ Remember, Iphicrates, that Amyntas, «the father of these unhappy orphans, had always a love " for your country, and adopted you for his son. This “ double tie lays you under a double obligation. The amity 66 which that king entertained for Athens, requires that you “ should acknowledge us publicly for your friends, and the si tenderness which that father had for your person, claims * from you the heart of a brother to these children." Iph. icrates, moved with this sight and discourse, expelled the usurper, and restored the lawful sovereign.
Perdiccas S did not long continue in tranquillity. A new enemy, more formidable than the first, soon invaded his repose : this was Ptolemy his brother, natural son of Amyntas, as was before observed. He might possibly be the eldest son, and claim the crown as such. The two brothers referred the decision of their claim to Pelopidas, general of the Thebans, more revered for his probity than his valour: Pelopidas determined in favour of Perdiccas; and having judged it necessary to take pledges on both sides, in order to oblige the two competitors to observe the articles of the treaty accepted by them among other hostages, he carried Philip with hiin to Thebes,ll where he resided several years.
* A. M. 3630. Ant. J. C. 375. Æsch. de Fals. Legat, p. 399, 4002
Plutarch supposes that it was with Alexander that Ptolemy disputed the empire, which cannot be made to agree with the relation of Æschines, who, being his cotemporary, is more worthy of credit. I therefore thought proper to substitute Perdiccas instead of Alexander.
# Thebis triennio obses habitus, prima pueritiæ rudimenta in urbe scvcrita tis antiqua, et in domo Epaminondæ summi et philosophi et imperatoris, de posuit. Justin. I. vil. c. S. Pliilis lived in 'Thebe not only three, but ninc or ten years
He was then ten years of age. Eur dire, at! - kaving tije much loved son, earnestly be oulit Pehlo to precare him an education worthy of his bin, ind: 1.10 C, ta which he was going an hostage. Pekicik pat d ubih Eparnirondas, who had a celerat. P!!gore.nl pher in his house for the edukion of his wa Tabour proved greatly by the instructeurs oi dis piece ir, aid much more by those of Epaminonda", uur brun ke uri. doubtedly made some campaiglia, though no 11.:11 to made of this. He could not possibly use had a n.or (s. cellent master, whether for war or the car let ! for this illustrious Theban was at the me time á . philosopher, that is to sar, a wise and virtuous man, great commander, as well as a great sttle 11.n. İndi very proud ot being his pupil, and promised tun aya ke to himself; inos! happy could he have copied hin. ; ret ly ! Perhaps he borrowed from F.paminons la cititi in war, and his promptitude in inipro: ing City white however formed but a very inconsiderable part of the per it of this illustrious personage: but with rerar! in listem. perance, his justice, his disintcrcsthess, his sina sajtu hra magnanimity, his clemency, which remer bin truk met these were virtues which Philip had not received irit. nam ture, and did not acquire by imitation. · The Thebans did not know that they were the firtina and educating the most dangerous enseny of Greece. ter Philip had spent nine or ten !'(Rrs in this city, the new of a revolution in Macedon made him res vse to lease The. bes clandestinely. Accordingly he steals a wav, mkes the utmost expedition, and find the facer! mins greitis surprised at having lost their king Perdicca, who ha i boen killed in a great battle by the Illyrians, but much more to find they had as many enemics as neighboure, Thell. -rians were on the point of returning into the kingdom with a greater force ; the Peonians infested it with perseal i.. cursions ; the Thracians were determined to place Pausa. nias on the throne, who had not abandoned his j retensions : and the Athenians were bringing Irgens, whom Matias their general was ordered to support with a stron flect and a considerable body of troops. Macedonia at that time want. ed a prince of years to govern, and had only a child, Amas. the son of Perdiccas, and lawful heir of the crown). Philip governe:) the kingdom for some tiine by the title of guri
jan to the prince; but the subjects, justly alarmel, deposed · the wephew in favour of the uncle ; and instead of the hei:
.. - Divd. !, Sví, P: 497. Justin, 1, vii, s, 5.