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tone of voice, "you see that Alexander's soldiers have wings.” In the mean time, the trumpets were heard to sound in every part of the Macedonian camp, and the whole army shouted aloud, and cried, “victory !" These things, though of little consequence in theinselves, did nevertheless, as often happens, throw the barbarians into so great a consternation, that without once reflecting how few were got to the summit, they thought themselves lost. Upon this Coples was recalled, and 30 of the chiefs among the barbarians were sent back with him, who agreed to surrender up the place, upon condition that their lives might be spared. The king, rrotwithstanding the strong opposition he might meet with, was however so exasperated at the haughtiness of Arimazes, that he refused to grant them any terms of capitulation. A blind and rash confidence in his own good fortune, which had never failed him, made him insensible to every danger. Arimazes, on the other side, blinded by fear, and concluding himself absolutely lost, came down, with his relations and the principal nobility of the country, into Alexander's camp. But this prince, who was not mas. ter of his anger, forgetting what the faith of treaty and bumanity required on this occasion, caused them all to be scourged with rods, and afterwards to be fixed to crossese at the foot of the same rock. The multitudes of people who surrendered, with all the booty, were given to the inhabitants of the cities which had been newly founded in those parts; and Artabazes was left governor of the rock and the whole province round it.
SECTION XIY. DEATH OF CLITUS.-EXPEDITIONS OF ALEXANDER.HE COMMANDS WORSHIP TO BE PAID TO HIMSELT.
ALEXANDER*, having subdued the Massagete and the Dahz, entered Bazaria. In this province are a great num, ber of large parks stocked with deer. Here the king took the diversion of hunting, in which he was exposed to very great peril; for a lion of an enormous size advanced directly to him, but he killed him with a single thrust. Although Alexander came off victorious on this occasion, yet the Macedonians, alarmned at the danger he had run, and the whole army in his person, gave orders, pursuant to the custom of their country, that the king should go no more a-hunting on toot, without being attended by some of his courtiers and of
'Q. Curt. I. vii. c. 3–8, Arrian. l. iv. p, 161-371, Plue in Alex. 8. 693-696. Juftio, l. xii. s, 6, 7.
ficers. They were sensible, that a king is not born for his “ own sake, but for that of his subjects, that he ought to be careful of his own person for their sakes, and reserve his courage for other dangers ; and that the being famous for** killing beasts, a reputation unworthy of a great prince, ought not to be purchased so dear.
From thence he advanced to Maracanda, where he quelled some tumults which had broke out in that country. Artabazus requesting to be discrarged from the government of that province, by reason of his great age, he appointed Cli-, tus his successor. He was an old officer who had fought under Philip, and signalised himself on many occasions. At the battle of the Granicus, as Alexander was fighting barer. headed, and Rosaces had his arm raised in order to strike: him behind, he covered the king with his shield, and cut off the barbarian's hand." Hellenice, his sister, had nursed Alexander ; and he loved her with as much tenderness as if she had been his own mother. As the king, from these several considerations, had a very great respect for Clitus, he. intrusted him with the government. (.' one of the most important provinces of his empire, and ordered him to get out the next day.
Before his departure, Clitus was invited in the evening to an entertainment, in which the king, * after drinking in moderately, began to celebrate his own exploits ; and was so excessively lavish of self-commendation, that he even shocked those very persons who knew that he spoke truth3 However, the oldest men in the company held their peace, till beginning to depreciate the warlike acts of Philip, he boasted, “that the famous victory of Chæronea was won by "his means ; and that the glory of so immortal a battle had “ been torn from him by the malice, and jealousy of his father. " That in the insurrection † which broke out between the “ Macedonians and mercenary Greeks, Philip, fainting away “after the wounds he had received in that tumult, had laid "himself on the ground, and could not think of a better mer thod to save himself, than by lying along as dead ; that
on this occasion he had covered him with his shield, and “killed with his own hands those who attempted to fall upon “him ; but that his father could never prevail upon liima "self to confess this circumstance ingenuously, being vexed " that he owed his life to his own son. That in the war
*In quo Rex, cum multo incaluisset mero, immodicus æftimator fui, celebrate quæ gefferat cæpit ; gravis etiam eorum auribus, qui fepciebant vera memorari, Q. Cure. This fedition is not mentioned in any other place,
* against the Illyrians, he was the only person who had done * any thing, Philip having had no manner of share in it; "and hearing of the defeat of the enemy no otherwise thar “the letters he sent him. That the persons worthy of praise, " were not such as witiated themselves in the * mystsries of "the Samothracians, when they ought to have laid waste all * Asia with fire and sword, but those who had achieved "such mighty exploits as surpassed all belief."
These and the like discourses were very pleasing to the young men, but were very shocking to those advanced in years ; especially for Philip's sake, under whom they had fought many years, Clitus, who also was intoxicated, turning about to those who sat below him at table, quoted to them a passage front Euripides, but in such a manner that the king could only hear his voice, and not the words distinctly. The sense of this passage was, "that the Greeks had done very wrong in ordaining that 'in the inscriptions engraved on trophies, the names of kings only should be mentioned ; because t, by these means brave men were robbed of the glory they had purchased with their blood." The king, suspecting Clitus had let drop some disobliging expressions, asked those who sat nearest him, what he had said ? As no one answered, Clitus, raising, his voice by de grees, began to relate the actions of Philip, and his wars in Greece, preferring them to whatever was doing at that time, which created a great dispute between the
and the old men. Though the king was prodigiously vexed in his mind, he nevertheless stifled his resentment, and seemed to listen very patiently to all Clitus spoke to his prejudice. It is probable he would have quite suppressed his passion, had Clitus stopped there ; but the latter growing more and more insolent, as if determined to exasperate and insult the king, went such lengths as to defend Parmenio publicly and to assert, that the destroying of Thebes was but trifling in comparison of the victory which Philip had gained over the Athenians ; and that the old Macedonians, thougłr sometimes unsuccessful, were greatly superior to those who were so rash as to despise them.
Alexander telling him, that in giving cowardice the name of ill success, he was pleading his own cause, Clitus rises up,
It was usetal-for generals, before they set owe oorbeir expedia tions, to cause themselves to be initiated in these myfteries, and offer facrifices to the gods who presided in them. Possibly Philip, by oba ferving this ceremony, had delayed fome enterprisc.
*In his Andromache,
with his eyes sparkling with wine and anger, it is nevere theless this hand,” said he to him, extending it at the same time, "that saved your life at the battle of the Granicus. It « is the blood and wounds of those very Macedonians, who
are accused of cowardice, that raised you to this gran* deur. But the tragical end of Parmenio shows what re“ ward they and myself may expect for all our services." This last reproach 'stung Alexander : however, he still restrained his passion, and only commanded him to leave the table. "He is in the right,” says Clitus, as he rose up, 'not * to bear freeborn men at his table, who can only tell him
truth. He will do well to pass his life among barbarians " and slaves, who will be proud to pay their adoration to “his Persian girdle and his white robe." But now the king, no longer able to suppress his rage, watched a javelin from one of the guards, and would have killed Clitus on the spot, had not the courtiers with-held bis arm, and Clitus been forced, but with great difficulty, out of the hall. However, he returned into it that moment by another door, singing, with an air of insolence, verses reflecting highly on the prince, who seeing the general near him, struck him with his javelin, and laid him dead at his feet, crying out at the same time, "go now to Philip, to Parmenio, and to Attalus."
The king's anger being in a manner extinguished on a sudden in the blood of Clitus, his crime displayed itself to him in its blackest and most dreadful light. He had mur. dered a man, who indeed had abused his patience, but then He had always served him with the utmost zeal and fidelity, and saved his life, though he was ashamed to owo it. He had that instant performed the vile office of an executioner, in punishing by an horrid murder, the ottering of some indiscreet words, which might be imputed to the fumes of wine. With what face could he appear before the sister of Clitus, his nurse, and offer her a hand imbrüed in her brother's blood ? Upon this he threw himself upon his friend's body, forced out the javelin, and would have dispatched himself with it, had not the guards, who nished in upon him, Jaid hold of his hands, and forcibly carried him into his own apartment.
He passed that night and the next day in tears. After that, groans and lamentations had quite wasted his spirits ; he continued speechless, stretched on the ground, and only venting deep sighs. But his friends, fearing his silence would be fatal, forced themselves into his chamber. The king took 'very little notice of the words that were employed to comfort him; but Aristander the soothsayer, putting him in mind of a dream, in which he imagined he saw Clitus, clothed in a black robe, and seated at a table; and declaring, that all which had then happened was appointed by the eternal decree of fate, Alexander appeared a little easier in his mind. He next was addressed by two philosophers, Callisthenes and Anazarchus , The former went up to him with an air of huinanity and tenderness, and endeavoured to suppress his grief, by agreeably insinuating himself, and endeavoured to make him recal his reason, by reflections of a solid nature, drawn from the very essence of philosophy, and by carefully slunning all such expressions as might renew his affiction and fret a wound which, as it was still bleeding, required to be touched with the gentlest hand. But Anaxarchus did pot observe this decorum ; for the moment he entered, he cried aloud, “How ! is this Alexander, on “ whom the eyes of the whole world are fixed ? Behold him “ here extended on the floor, shedding floods of tears, like “ the meanest slave ! Does not he know, that he himself is « a supreme law to his subjects; that he conqured merely “ to raise himself to the exalted dignity of lord and sove“ reign, and not to subject himself to a vain opinion ?" The king was determined to starve himself; so that it was with the utmost difficulty that his friends prevailed with him to take a little sustenance. The Macedonians declared by a decree that Clitus had been very justly killed ; to which decree Anaxarchus the philosopher had given occasion, by as.serting that the will of princes is the supreme law of the state. Alas! how weak are all such reflections against the cries of a justly alarmed conscience, which can never be qui. eted, either by flattery or false arguments.
It must be confessed that Clitus had committed an inexcusable fault. It was indeed his duty, not to join in discourses calculated to sully the glory of Philip his benefactor, but to show his dislike to what was said by a mournful but mod. est silence. He possibly might have been allowed to speak in favour of the late monarch, provided he had expressed himself with prudence and moderation. Had such a reserv. edness been unsuccessful, he might justly have merited pity, and would not have been criminal. But by breaking into injurious and shocking reproaches he quite forgot the vene, ration due to the sacred character of kings ; with regard to whom, how unjustly soever they may act, not only every contemptuous and insulting expression is forbid, but every disrespectful and unguarded word; they being the repre. sentatives of God himself.
It must nevertheless be confessed, that the circumstance of the banquet extenuates very much, or throws in some measure a yeil over Clitus' fault. When a prince invites a