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bconscious that he is guilty of the most horrid of all crimes, "to be thus easy and undisturbed ? The innocence of my * own conscience, and the promise your majesty made me, “ gave my soul this calm. Do not let the envy of mine ene. "mies prevail over your clemency and justice."

The result of this assembly was, that Philotas should be put on the rack. The persons who presided on that occasion were his most inveterate enemies, and they made him suffer every kind of torture. Phiłotas, at first, discovered the utmost resolution and strength of mind; the torments he suffered not being able to force from him a single word, nor even so much as a sigh. But at last, conquered by pain, he confessed hinself to be guilty, and named several accomplices, and even accused his own father. The next day, the answers of Philotas were read in a full assembly, he himself being present. Upon the whole, he was unanimously sentenced to die ; immediately after which he was stoned, according to the custom of the Macedonians, with some other of the conspirators.

They also judged at the same time, and put to death Lyncestes Alexander, who had been found guilty of conspiring the death of the king, and kept three years in prison.

The condemnation of Phiłotas brought on that of Parmenio : whether it were that Alexander really believed him guilty, or was afraid of the father, now he had put the son to death. Polydamus, one of the lords of the court, was appointed to see the execution performed. He had been one of Parmenio's most intimate friends, if we may give that name to courtiers who affect only their own fortunes. This was the very reason of his being nominated, because no one could suspect that he was sent with any such orders against Parmenio. He therefore set out for Media, where that general commanded the army, and was intrusted with the king's treasures, which amounted to 180,000 talen's (about 27,000,000l. sterling). Alexander had given him several letters for Cleander, the king's lieutenant in the province ; and for the principal officers. Two were for Parmenio ; one of them from Alexander, and the other sealed with Philotas's seal, as if he had been alive, to prerent the father from harbouring the least suspicions. Polydamus was but 11 days on his journey, and alighted in the night time at Cleander's. Afier having taken all the precautions necessary, they went together, with a great number of attendants, to meet Parmenio, who at that time was walking in a park of

'The moment Polydamus spied him, though at a great distance, he ran to embrace him with an air of the utmosk joy ; and, after compliments, intermixed with the


his own.

strongest indications of friendship, had passed on both sides, he gave him Alexander's letter. In the opening it, he asked him what the king was doing ; to which Polydamus replied, that he would know by his inajesty's letter. Par. menio, after perusing it, said as follows : "The king is pre. "paring to march against the Arachosii. How glorious a “prince is this, who will not suffer himself to take a mo“ment's rest! However, he ought to be a little tender of “himself, now he has acquired so much glory." He afterwards opened the letter which was written in Philotas's name ; and, by his countenance, seemed pleased with the contents of it. At that very instant Cleander thrust a dagger into his side, then made another thrust in his throat ; and the rest gave him several wounds, even after he was dead.

Thus this great man ended his life ; a man illustrious both in peace and war ; who had performed many glorious actions without the king, whereas the king had never achieved any thing conspicuous, but in concert with Parmenio. He was a person of great abilities and execution, was very dear to the grandees, and much more so to the officers and soldiers, who reposed the highest confidence in him, and looked upon themselves as assured of victory when he was at their head, so firmly they relied on his capacity and good fortune. He was then 70 years of age ; and had always serv: ed his sovereign with inviolable fidelity and zeal, for which he was very is rewarded; his son and himself having been put to death merely on a slight suspicion, uninforced with any real proof, which nevertheless obliterated in a moment all the great services both had done their country.

*Alexander was sensible that such cruel executions might alienate the affections of his troops, of which he had a proof

, by the letters they sent into Macedonia, which were intercepted by his order ; concluding therefore that it would be proper for him to separate, froin the rest of the army, such soldiers as had most distinguished themselves by their mur, murs and complaints, lest their seditious discourses should spread the same spirit of discontent, he formed a separate body of these, the command of which he gave to Leonidas; this kind of ignominy being the only punishment he inflicted on them.

But they were so strongly affected with it, that they endeavoured to wipe out the disgrace it brought upon them, by a bravery, a fidelity, and an obedience, which they observed ever afterwards.

Died. I, apie

* Arrian. I. iii. p. 148. Q. Curt. I vii: c. 3-5. P. 552., 55.4., A. M. 3675. Ant: J. C. 329.


To prevent the ill consequences that might arise from this secret discontent, Alexander set out upon his march, and continued to pursue Bessus ; on which occasion he exposed himself to great hardships and dangers. After having passed through Drangania, Arachosia, and the country of the Arimaspi, where all things submitted to his arms, he arriv. ed at a mountain called Paropamisus, a part of Caucasus, where his army underwent inexpressible fatigues, through weariness, thirst, cold, and the snows, which killed a great number of his soldiers. Bessus laid waste all the country that lay between him and mount Caucasus, in order that the want of provisions and forage might deprive Alexander of an opportunity of pursuing him. He indeed suffered very much, but nothing could check his vigour. After making his army repose for some time at Drapsaca, he advanced towards Aornoş and Bactra, the two strongest cities of Bacs triana, and took them both. At Alexander's approach, about 7 or 8000 Bactrians, who till then had adhered very firmly to Bessus, abandoned him to a man, and retired each to his respective home. Bessus, at the head of the small number of forces who continued faithful to him, passed the river Oxus, burned all the boats he himself made use of, to prevent Alexander from crossing it, and withdrew to Nautacus, a city of Sogdiana, fully determined to raise a new army there. Alexander, however, did not give him time to do this ; and not meeting with trees or timber sufficient for the building of boats and rafts, or floats of timber, he supplied the want of these by distributing to his soldiers a great num; ber of skins stuffed with straw, and such like dry and light materials; which laying under them in the water, they crossed the river in this manner ; those who went over first, drawing up in battle-array, whilst their commanders were coming after them. In this manner his whole army passed over in six days.

Whilst these things were doing, Spitamenes, who was Bessus' chief confident, formed a conspiracy against him, in concert with two more of his principal officers. : Having seized his person, they put him in chains, forced his diadem from his head, tore to pieces the royal robe of Darius he had put on, and set him on horseback, in order to give him up to 'Alexander.

That prince arrived at a little city inhabited by the Branchidæ. These were the descendants of a family who had dwelt in Miletus, and whom Xerxes, at his return from Greece, had formerly sent inta Upper Asia, where he had settled them in a very flourishing condition, in return for their having delivered up to him the treasure of the temple

of age

called Didymaon, with which they had been intrusted. 'These received the king with the highest demonstrations of joy, and surrendered both themselves and their city to him. Alexander sent for such Melesians ás were in his army, who preserved an hereditary hatred against the Branchida, because of the treachery of their ancestors. He then left therr the choice either of revenging the injury they had formerly done them, or of pardoning them in consideration of their common extraction. The Milesians being so much divided in opinion, that they could not agree among themselves, Alexander undertook the decision himself. Accordingly, the next day he commanded his phalanx to surround the city ; and a signal being given, they were ordered to plunder that abode of traitors, and put every one of them to the sword, which inhuman order was executed with the same barbarity as it had been given. "An the citizens, at the very time they were going to pay homage to Alexander, were murdered in the streets and in their houses ; no manner of regard being had to their cries and tears, nor the least distinction made

or sex. They even pulled up the very foundations of the walls, in order that not the least traces of that city might remain. But of what crimes were these il} fated citizens guilty ? Were they responsible for those their fathers had committed upwards of 150 years before? I do not know whether history furnishes another example of so brutal and frantic a cruelty.

A little after Bessus was brought to Alexander, not only bound, but stark naked. Spitamenes 'held him by a chain, which went round his neck, and it was difficult to say whether that object was more agreeable to the barbarians or Macedonians. In presenting him to the king, he said these words : « I have, at last, revenged both you and Darius, my

kings and masters. I bring you a wretch who has assassi“nated his sovereign, and who is now treated in the same

manner as himself gave the first example of! Alas! why $ cannot Darius himself see this spectacle !" Alexander

, after having greatly applauded Spitamenes, turned about to Bessus, and spoke thus : s«Thou surely must have been in "spired with the rage and fury of a tiger, otherwise thou * wouldst not have dared to load a king, from whom thou “hadst received so many instances of favour, with chains, " and afterwards murder him! Be gone from my sight

, thot "monster of cruelty and perfidiousness." more ; but sending for Oxatres, Darius brother, he gave Bessus to him, in order that he miglit suffer all the ignominy he deserved ; suspending however his execution, that he might be judged in the general assembly of the Persians.

The king said no




ALEXANDER* insatiable of victory and conquests, still marched forward in search of new nations whom he might subdue. After recruiting his cavalry, which had suffered very nuch by their long and dangerous marches, he advanced to the † laxarthes,

Not far from this river, the barbarians rushed suddenly from their mountains, came and attacked Alexander's forces, and having carried off a great number of prisoners, they retired to their lurking holes, in which were 20,000, who fought with bows and Slings. The king went and besieged them in person ; and being one of the foremost in the attack, he was shot with an arrow in the bone of his leg, and the iron point stuck in the wound. The Macedonians, who were greatly alarmed and afflicted, carried him off immediately, yet not so secretly but the barbarians knew of it; for they saw from the top of the mountain every thing that was doing below. The next day they sent ambassadors to the king, who ordered them to be immediately brought in, when taking off the bandage which covered his wound, he showed them his leg, but did not tell them how much he had been hurt. These assured him, that as soon as they heard of his being wounded, they were as much afflicted as the Macedonians could possibly be ; and that had it been possible for them to find the person who had shot that arrow, they would have delivered him up to Alexander ; that none but impious wretches would war against the gods; in a word, that being vanquished by his unparalleled bravery, they surrendered themselves to him, with the nations who followed them. The king, having engaged his faith to them, and taken back his prisoners, accepted of their homage.

After this he set out upon his march, and getting into a litter, a great dispute arose between the horse and foot who should carry it, each of those bodies pretending that this honour belonged to them only : and there was no other way of

* Arrian. 1. iii. p. 148, 149. et I. iv. p. 150-160. Quint. Curt. # Quincus Curtius and Arrian call it the Tanais, but they are mistaken. The Tanais lieg mach more westward, and emptics ico fell

, not in the Caspian Sea, but in the Poncus Euxinus, and is now

1. vii. c, 6-11.

called the Don.

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