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free exercise of their religion and laws, but put them on the

same foot in every respect with the Macedonians, whom he: : settled there. From thence he went to Memphis, where he spent the winter.

Varro observes, that at the time this king built Alexan. dria, the use of papyrus, for writing was found in Egypt; but this I shall mention elsewhere.

* During Alexander's stay in Memphis, he settled the affaits of Egypt, suffering none but Macedonians to command the troops. He divided the country into districts, over each of which he appointed a lieutenant, who received orders from himself only ; not thinking. it safe to intrust the general conmand of all the troops to one single person, in so large and populous a country. With regard to the civil government, he invested one Doloaspes with the whole power of it; for, being desirous that Egypt should still be governed by its ancient laws and customs, he was of opinion that a native of Egypt, to whom they nrust be famižiar, was fitter for that office than any foreigner whatsoever.

To hasten the building of his new city, he appointed Clea omenes inspector over it; with orders for him to levy the tribute which Arabia was to pay. But this Cleomenes was a very wicked wretch, who abused his authority, and oppressed the people with the utmost barbaritv.


THE FAMOUS BATTLE OF ARBELA. ALEXANDER having settled the affairs of Egypt;t set out from thence about spring-time, to march into the east against Darius. In his way through Palestine he heard news which gave him great uneasiness. At his going into Egypt, he had appointed Andromachus, whom he highly esteemed, goverjor of Syria and Palestine. Andromachus coming to Samaria to settle some affairs in that country, the Samaritans mutinied, and setting fire to the house in which he was, burned him alive. It is very probable, that this was occasioned by the rage with which ihat people were fired, at their having been denied the same privileges that had been granted the

Arrian. I. iii. p. 108-110, Q. Curt. l. iv. c. 8. Diod, I. xvii. p. 530-536. Arrian. 1. iii. p. III.--129. Plut. in Alex, p. 681...685. Q. Curt. I. iv. c. 9. 16. Juscia, od zi, c, 12--14.


Jews their enemies. 'Alexander was highly exasperated a: gainst them for this cruel action, and accordingly he put to death all those who had any hand in it, 'banished the rest from the city of Samaria, supplying their room with a colo: ny of Macedonians, and divided the rest of their lands among the Jews, . He made some stay in Tyre, to sett'e the various affair's of the countries he left behind him, and advanced towards new conquests.

* He was scarce set out, when an eunuch brought word that Darius' consort was dead in child-bed. Hearing this, he returned back, and went into the tent of Sysigambis, whom he found bathed in tears, and lying on the ground, in the midst of the young princesses, who also were weeping ; and near them the son of Darius, a child, t who was the more worthy of compassion, as he was less sensible to evils, which concerned him more than any other. Alexander consoled them in so kind and tender a manner, as plainly showed that he himself was deeply and sincerely afflicted. He caused her funeral obsequies to be performed with the utmost splen. dour and magnificence. One of the eunuchs who superintended the chamber, and who had been taken with the princesses, fled from the camp, and ran to Darius, whom he informed of his consort's death. The Persian monarch was seized with the most violent affliction upon hearing this news ; particularly, as he supposed she would not be allow, ed the funeral ceremonies due to her exalted rank. But the eunuch undeceived him on this occasion, by telling him the honours which Alexander had paid his queen after her death, and the civilities he had always shown her in her life time. Darius, upon hearing these words, was fired with suspicions of so horrid a kind, that they did not leave him a moment's quiet.

Taking the eunuch aside, he spoke to him as follows: "If " thou dost still acknowledge Darius for lord and sovereign, 6 tell me, by the respect and veneration thou owest to that

great splendour of Mithres, which enlightens us, and to “ this hand which the king stretches out to thee; tell me, I

say, whether, in beroaning the death of Statira, I do not “ bewail the least of her evils; and whether, as she fell into “ the hands of a young monarch, she did not first lose her

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* A. M. 3644. Ant. J. C. 330.

Ob id ipsum miserabilis, quod nondum sentiebat calamitatem, maxima ex parte ad ipsum redundantem, Q. Curt.

$ The Persians worshipped the sun under the name of Mitbres, and the moon vader that of Mithra,

honour, and afterwards lter life." The eunuch, throwing himself at Darius' feet, besought him not to think so injuri. ously of Alexander's virtue ; nor dishonour his wife and sis. ter after her death ; and not deprive himself of the greatest consolation he could possibly have in his misfortunes, viz. to be firmly persuaded that the prince, who had triumphed over him, was superior to the frailties of other men ; that he ought rather to admire Alexander, as he had given the Persian ladies much stronger proofs of his virtue and conti. nence than he had given the Persians themselves of his val. our. After this, he confirmed all he had before said by the most dreadful oaths and imprecations; and then gave hima particular account of whatpūblic fame had related, concerning the wisdom, temperance, and magnanimity of Alexander.

Darius, returning into the hall where his courtiers were assembled, and liftmg up his hands to heaven, he broke into the following prayer : "Ye gods, who preside over the birth “ of men, and who dispose of kings and empires, grant that, « after having raised the fortune of Persia from its dejected " state, I may transmit it to my descendants with the same “ lustre in which I received it ; in order that, after having " triumphed over my enemies, I may acknowledge the fac s vours which Alexander has shown in my calamity, to per« sons who, of all others, are most dear to me ; or, in case " the time ordained by the fates is at last come, or that it s must necessarily happen, from the anger of the gods, or I the ordinary vicissitudes of human affairs, that the empire ss of Persia must end ; grant, great gods, that none but AlexIk ander may ascend the throne of Cyrus."

In the mean time, Alexander having set out upon his march, arrived with his whole army at Thapsacus, where he passed a bridge that lay across the Euphrates, and continued his journey towards the Tigris, where he expected to come up with the enemy. Dárius had already made overtures of peace to him twice ; but finding at last that there were no ħopes of their concluding one, unless he resigned the whole empire to him, he therefore prepared himself again for battle. For this purpose, he assembled in Babylon an army half as numerous again as that of Issus, and marched it towards Nineveh : his forces covered all the plains of Mesos potamia. Advice being brought, that the enemy was not far off, he caused Satropates, colonel of the cavalry, to advance at the head of 1000 chosen horse ; and likewise gave 6000 to Mazæus, governor of the provir.ce; all of whom were to prevent Alexandler from crossing the river, and to lay waste the country through which that monarch was to pass ; lut he arrived too late.

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