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Burbie, and are to be sold at his Shop nere the Royal Exchange, 1594.' Compare this with the title of "The Taming of a Shrew.' Each is a "Historie;" each is without an author's name; each is published by Cuthbert Burbie; each is published in the same year, 1594. Might not the recent death of Greene the reputation which he left behind him-the unhappy circumstances attending his death, for he perished in extreme poverty —and the remarkable controversy between Nash and Harvey, in 1592, "principally touching Robert Greene"-have led the bookseller to procure and publish copies of these plays, if they were both written by him? It is impossible, we think, not to be struck with the striking resemblance of these anonymous performances, in the structure of the verse, the extravagant employment of mythological allusions, the laboured finery intermixed with feebleness, and the occasional outpouring of a rich and gorgeous fancy. In the comic parts, too, it appears to us that there is an equal similarity in the two plays a mixture of the vapid and the coarse, which looks like the attempt of an educated man to lower himself to an uninformed audience. It is very difficult to establish these opinions without being tedious; but we may compare a detached passage or two :



"Fer. Tush, Kate, these words add greater love in me,

And make me think thee fairer than before: Sweet Kate, thou lovelier than Diana's purple robe,

Whiter than are the snowy Apennines,

Or icy hair that grows on Boreas' chin.
Father, I swear by Ibis' golden beak,
More fair and radiant is my bonny Kate
Than silver Xanthus when he doth embrace
The ruddy Simois at Ida's feet;

And care not thou, sweet Kate, how I be clad;
Thon shalt have garments wrought of Median

Enchased with precious jewels fetch'd from far
By Italian merchants, that with Russian stems
Plough up huge furrows in the terrene main."

Take a passage, also, of the prose, or comic, parts of the two plays, each evidently intended for the clowns :


"Tom. Sirrah Ralph, an thou 'It go with me, I'll let thee see the bravest madman that ever thou sawest.

Ralph. Sirrah Tom, I believe it was he that was at our town o' Sunday: I'll tell thee what he did, sirrah. He came to our house when all our folks were gone to church, and there was nobody at home but I, and I was turning of the spit, and he comes in and bade me fetch him some drink. Now, I went and fetched him

"Orl. Is not my love like those purple- some; and ere I came again, by my troth, he

coloured swans,

That gallop by the coach of Cynthia?

Org. Yes, marry is she, my lord.

ran away with the roast meat, spit and all, and
so we had nothing but porridge to dinner.
Tom. By my troth, that was brave; but,

Orl. Is not her face silver'd like that milk- sirrah, he did so course the boys last Sunday;

white shape,

When Jove came dancing down to Semele?
Org. It is, my lord.

Orl. Then go thy ways and climb up to the

And tell Apollo, that Orlando sits
Making of verses for Angelica.

And if he do deny to send me down
The shirt which Deianira sent to Hercules,
To make me brave upon my wedding-day,
Tell him, I'll pass the Alps, and up to Meroe,
(I know he knows that watery lakish hill,)
And pull the harp out of the minstrel's hands,
And pawn it unto lovely Proserpine,
That she may fetch the fair Angelica."

and, if ye call him madman, he 'll run after you, and tickle your ribs so with flap of leather that he hath, as it passeth."


"San. Boy, oh disgrace to my person! Zounds, boy, of your face, you have many boys with such pickadenaunts, I am sure. Zounds, would you not have a bloody nose for this?

Boy. Come, come, I did but jest; where is that same piece of pie that I gave thee to keep?

San. The pie? Ay, you have more mind of your belly than to go see what your master does.

Boy. Tush, 't is no matter, man; I prithee give it me, I am very hungry I promise thee.

San. Why, you may take it, and the devil burst you with it! one cannot save a bit after supper, but you are always ready to munch it up.

Boy. Why, come, man, we shall have good cheer anon at the bride-house, for your master's gone to church to be married already, and there's such cheer as passeth.

San. O brave! I would I had eat no meat this week, for I have never a corner left in my belly."

"The Historie of Alphonsus King of Aragon' one of the plays published with Greene's name, after his death-furnishes a passage or two which may be compared with the old "Taming of a Shrew :'

ALPHONSUS KING OF ARAGON. "Thou shalt ere long be monarch of the world. All christen'd kings, with all your pagan dogs, Shall bend their knees unto Iphigena. The Indian soil shall be thine at command, Where every step thou settest on the ground Shall be received on the golden mines. Rich Pactolus, that river of account, Which doth descend from top of Tivole mount, Shall be thine own, and all the world beside." "Go, pack thou hence unto the Stygian lake, And make report unto thy traitorous sire, How well thou hast enjoy'd the diadem, Which he by treason set upon thy head; And, if he ask thee who did send thee down, Alphonsus say, who now must wear thy crown.

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That damned villain that hath deluded me,
Whom I did send for guide unto my son.
Oh that my furious force could cleave the

That I might muster bands of hellish fiends,
To rack his heart and tear his impious soul!"

The English commentators and dramatic antiquaries, in looking around for a probable author of "The Taming of a Shrew,' named Greene, and Peele, and Kyd. A correspondent of the editor of 'The Pictorial Shakspere,' on the other side the Atlantic, has brought forward some remarkable resemblances between this unknown author and Marlowe. He says, "A peculiarity of expression (‘Russian stems') in Marlowe's first play, 'Tamburlaine,' which had before puzzled me in the old "Taming of a Shrew,' led me to compare the two passages, and (judge my surprise) I found the one an almost verbatim reprint of the other. This coincidence induced me to compare more closely the style of the metrical portion of 'The Taming of a Shrew' with that of 'Tamburlaine,' and afterwards of Marlowe's other plays, in which I found so strong a general resemblance, as, conjoined with many direct transfers of lines from one to the other, seem to afford good ground for attributing both to one author. As the first witness in this case, I will place side by side such passages from Marlowe's acknowledged works as are copied into the one without a claimant :


'Now that the gloomy shadow of the night, Longing to view Orion's drizzling look, Leaps from the antarctic world unto the sky, And dims the welkin with his pitchy breath.' Faustus, p. 8, ed. 1818. 'Fairer than rocks of pearl and precious stone,

Whose eyes are brighter than the lamps of heaven.'

Tamburlaine, I., Act III., Sc. 3.

(Applied to a Man.)

⚫ Image of honour and nobility

In whose sweet person is comprised the sum
Of nature's skill and heavenly majesty.'
Tamburlaine, I., Act V., Sc. 2.

'Eternal Heaven sooner be dissolved,
And all that pierceth Phoebus' silver eye,
Before such hap fall to Zenocrate.'

Tamburlaine, I., Act III., Sc. 2.

"Thy garments shall be made of Median silk, Enchased with precious jewels of mine own.' Tamburlaine, I., Act I., Sc. 2. 'And Christian merchants that with Russian


Plough up huge furrows in the Caspian Sea.' Tamburlaine, I., Act I., Sc. 2. "The terrene main.' II., Act I., Sc. 1. 'Wagner. Come hither, sirrah boy!

Robin. Boy! oh disgrace to my person! Zounds, boy in your face! You have seen many boys with beards, I am sure.'

Faustus, p. 12, ed. 1818. With ravishing sounds of his melodious harp.' Faustus, p. 20.


'Now that the gloomy shadow of the night, Longing to view Orion's drisling looks, Leaps from th' antarctic world unto the sky, And dims the welkin with her pitchy breath.'

Taming of a Shrew, p. 161, rep. 1779. 'Whose eyes are brighter than the lamps of heaven,

Fairer than rocks of pearl and precious stone.' P. 167.

(Applied to a Woman.)

'The image of honor and nobility,

In whose sweet person is comprised the summe Of nature's skill and heavenly majesty!'

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'Boy. Come hither, sirra boy!

Sander. Boy! oh disgrace to my person! Sounes, boy of your face! You have many boys with such pickadenaunts, I am sure.' P. 184. 'And ravishing sounds of his melodious harp.' P. 200. "In other the imitation is strong, passages but not so direct; for example,

'Her sacred beauty hath enchanted heaven; And, had she lived before the siege of Troy, Helen (whose beauty summon'd Greece to


And drew a thousand ships to Tenedos)
Had not been named in Homer's Iliades.'
Tamburlaine, II., Act II., Sc. 2.
Whose sacred beauty hath enchanted me;
More fair than was the Grecian Helena,
For whose sweet sake so many princes died
That came with thousand ships to Tenedos.'
Taming of a Shrew, p. 169.

"The 'thousand ships' is a favourite allusion of Marlowe's. We have it again in 'Faustus.' It seems to have been in unison with his characteristic love of the magnificent."

The writer then proceeds to say, "Whatever view is taken of such glaring imitations, they may be well termed extraordinary. That an author should so closely repeat himself is at least unusual. That any one should so openly plagiarise from the works of a living writer universally known, and where detection would be certain, is next to incredible. Is not the latter hypothesis, also, rendered peculiarly improbable from the fact that the thefts are not from a single work, but are scattered over three distinct plays? Does it not appear more reasonable to suppose that the author of those three works should use a second time images familiar to his mind, than that another should to such an extent collect and appropriate them?

"A point naturally suggested here is, 'Are there any repetitions, like those under consideration, in the acknowledged works of Marlowe ?'-which I think may be answered in the affirmative. For, on very hastily running over them, a number have presented themselves, not, perhaps, so striking as those

by which they have to be paralleled, and yet sufficiently for the purpose." The passages subsequently quoted certainly bear out this assertion.

The writer then proceeds to show that the versification of this play, stiff and monotonous though it is, appears not to move so slowly as that of Greene; the poetical figures are poured out with a vehemence which he could not afford; and there is a glow, a voluptuous warmth, in the descriptions of female beauty, before which even the classical allusions (so cold in Greene) acquire something of life and heat. There are pictures of wealth also, which could scarcely have come from any one but the author of the 'Jew of Malta.' No dramatist that he remembers at all approaches Marlowe in such gorgeous passages. Further, there is scarcely a single classical reference in the "Taming' which does not occur in 'Faustus' or 'Tamburlaine.' The only existing speci- | men we have of Marlowe's comic power is in 'Faustus.' The Sander and Boy of 'The Taming a Shrew' are pretty much a repetition of the Wagner and Robin of that play, from which indeed they borrow verbatim the commencement of a dialogue. Nor does the horse-play of the taming scenes appear out of Marlowe's reach. There is in them a violence done to the modesty of Nature,' a pandering to coarse taste, analogous in comedy to the monstrous rants and the bloody feasts which disfigure his tragic efforts. Attempt what he would, Marlowe's 'fiery soul' could not be restrained from 'working out its way.'

Do we, then, entirely agree with our correspondent that Marlowe was the author of 'The Taming of a Shrew,' in every sense? We do not go quite so far. We think that he has clearly made out that Marlowe has as good a title to the work as Greene-perhaps a better. Be it one or the other, they each belonged to the same school of poetry; Shakspere created a new school. But there are passages and incidents in 'The Taming of a Shrew' which are unlike Marlowe-such as the scenes with Sly ;—these are unlike Greene also; they are fused more readily into Shakspere's own materials, because they are natural. We now propose a second theory.

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| Was there not an older play than 'The Ta-
ming of a Shrew,' which furnished the main
plot, some of the characters, and a small part
of the dialogue, both to the author of 'The
Taming of a Shrew' and the author of 'The
Taming of the Shrew?' This play we may
believe, without any violation of fact or pro-
bability, to have been used as the rude ma-
terial for both authors to work upon. There
was competition between them;-one pro-
duced a play for the Earl of Pembroke's ser-
vants,-the other for the Lord Chamberlain's
servants,-out of some older play, much of
which was probably improvisated by the
clowns, and whose main action, the discipline
of the Shrew, would be irresistibly attractive
to a rough audience, without the pompous
declamation of the one remodeller, or the
natural poetry or rich humour of the other.
Whether the author or improver of the play
printed in 1594 be Marlowe or Greene, there
can be little question as to the characteristic
superiority of Shakspere's work.
His was,
perhaps, a more careful remodelling or re-
creation. In 'The Taming of a Shrew' it is
not difficult to detect, especially in Sly and
Sander, coarser things than belong either to
Greene or Marlowe.

But there is a third theory,-that of Tieck -that 'The Taming of a Shrew' was a youthful work of Shakspere himself. To our minds that play is totally different from the imagery and the versification of Shakspere.

Shakspere's undoubted play, 'The Taming of the Shrew,' was produced in a "taming' age. Men tamed each other by the axe and the fagot; parents tamed their children by the rod and the ferrule, as they stood or knelt in trembling silence before those who had given them life; and, although England was then called the "paradise of women," and, as opposed to the treatment of horses, they were treated "obsequiously," husbands thought that "taming," after the manner of Petrucio, by oaths and starvation, was a commendable fashion. Fletcher was somewhat heretical upon this point; for he wrote a play called 'The Tamer Tamed, or the Taming of the Tamer,' in which Petrucio, having married a second wife, was subjected to the same process by which he conquered

"Katharine the curst." The discipline appeared to be considered necessary for more than a century afterwards; for we find in 'The Tatler' a story, told as new and original, of a gentleman in Lincolnshire who had four daughters, one of whom was "so imperious a temper (usually called a high spirit), that it continually made great uneasiness in the family," but who was entirely reclaimed by the Petrucio recipe of "taking a woman down in her wedding shoes."

We are the happier our fortune—living in an age when this practice of Petrucio is not universally considered orthodox; and we owe a great deal to him who has exhibited the secrets of the "taming school" with so much spirit in this comedy, for the better belief of our age, that violence is not to be subdued by violence. It was he who said, when the satirist cried out

"Give me leave

To speak my mind, and I will through and through

Cleanse the foul body of the infected world"—

it was he who said, in his own proper spirit of gentleness and truth,—

"Fie on thee! I can tell what thou wouldst do

Most mischievous foul sin in chiding sin."

It was he who found "a soul of goodness in things evil," who taught us, in the same delicious reflection of his own nature, the real secret of conquering opposition :—

"Your gentleness shall force, More than your force move us to gentleness."* Pardon be for him, if, treading in the footsteps of some predecessor whose sympathies with the peaceful and the beautiful were immeasurably inferior to his own, and sacrificing something to the popular appetite, he should have made the husband of a froward woman "kill her in her own humour," and bring her upon her knees to the abject obedience of a revolted but penitent slave:

“A foul contending rebel, 'And graceless traitor to her loving lord."

*As You Like It.'

Pardon for him? If there be one reader of Shakspere, and especially if that reader be a female, who cherishes unmixed indignation when Petrucio, in his triumph, exclaims— "He that knows better how to tame a shrew, Now let him speak,"—

we would say, the indignation which you feel, and in which thousands sympathize, belongs to the in which you live; age but the principle of justice, and of justice to women above all, from which it springs, has been established, more than by any other lessons of human origin, by him who has now moved your anger. It is to him that woman owes, more than to any other human authority, the popular elevation of the feminine character, by the most matchless delineations of its purity, its faith, its disinterestedness, its tenderness, its heroism, its union of intellect and sensibility. It is he that, as long as the power of influencing mankind by high thoughts, clothed in the most exquisite language, shall endure, will preserve the ideal elevation of women pure and unassailable from the attacks of coarseness or libertinism, -ay, and even from the degradation of the example of the crafty and worldly-minded of their own sex-for it is he that has delineated the ingenuous and trusting Imogen, the guileless Perdita, the impassioned Juliet, the heart-stricken but loving Desdemona, the generous and courageous Portia, the unconquerable Isabella, the playful Rosalind, the world-unknowing Miranda. Shakspere may have exhibited one froward woman wrongly tamed but who can estimate the number of those from whom his all-penetrating influence has averted the curse of being froward?

If Shakspere requires any apology for 'The Taming of the Shrew,' it is for having adopted the subject at all-not for his treatment of it. The Kate of the comedy to which this bears so much resemblance, upon the surface, is a thoroughly unfeminine person, coarse and obstreperous, without the humour which shines through the violence of Shakspere's Katharine. He describes his Shrew

"Young and beauteous; Brought up as best becomes a gentlewoman." She has a "scolding tongue," "her only

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