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ORIGINAL ESSAYS ON POLITE LITERATURE, THE ARTS AND SCIENCES;

A REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS;

POETRY; CRITICISMS ON THE FINE ARTS, THE DRAMA, &c.

Biography,

CORRESPONDENCE OF DISTINGUISHED PERSONS;

ANECDOTES, JEUX D'ESPRIT, &c.

SKETCHES OF SOCIETY AND MANNERS;

PROCEEDINGS OF PUBLIC AND LITERARY SOCIETIES;

POLITICAL SUMMARY, LITERARY INTELLIGENCE, &c. &c.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR THE PROPRIETORS,

By W. Pople, 67, Chancery Lane,

AND PUBLISHED AT THE LITERARY GAZETTE OFFICE, NO.362 (EXETER CHANGE), STRAND;

SOLD ALSO BY BELL AND BRADFUTE, EDINBURGII; JOHN CUMMING, DUELIN;

AND ALL OTHER BOOKSELLERS, NEWSJIEN, &c.

1820.

TO OUR READERS.

It is the custom of periodical works to say something to their Readers at stated periods ; such as the close of the year, the end of their volumes, the commencement of a new series, or the completion of a century's publications. As we hardly expect, personally, to enjoy the last mentioned opportunity, we are prone to seize the occasion of our attaining to the fifth year of our age, most cordially to thank our friends for yourishing us into so stout and vigorous a constitution, as to leave little doubt upon our minds, that this centenarian delight will be experienced, literarily, by our heirs and successors. To them we shall bequeath it, in trust, to dilate upon the influence their labours have had in diffusing a taste for literature, and in promoting, with letters, the dearest interests of Society ; in encouraging all the beneficent arts of Peace and Civilization ; in propagating a knowledge of Science; and in spreading over the mass of mankind a love for those pursuits which refine, and ennoble, and bless humanity. Ours is a humbler duty. Through the kindness of our public reception, we have established this new species of literary production in a degree of reputation which our most sanguine hopes could not have anticipated for any thing in the lowly form of a weekly journal, and invested it with a weight and importance which we can without presumption declare is felt through almost every ramification of the subjects embraced by our plan, at home and abroad. Convinced that nothing could have obtained for us this enviable distinction, but the strictest devotedness to truth in all we write, we have made truth the basis of our labours : and in Truth, the indispensable principles of Independence and Impartiality are comprehended. Thus, at the end of four years, no readers of the Literary Gazette can say that it ever deceived them, by its report or misrepresentation of any fact.

Our Index for 1820 (to be given in an early Number) will best exemplify our zcal and diligence in providing for the general gratification of our subscribers : our success attests that our exertions have not passed unnoticed nor unrewarded : and we shall only add, that as we grow in time our strength increases, and our sphere enlarges so much, that we can now with ease accomplish what was wont to be difficult or impossible. We therefore look forward to the possession of a power which may extend our utility and enhance our value: and as proof that we are not inclined to slacken in our career, we shall only cbserve, that within the last two months, Original Letters from Paris, the admired essays entitled Wine and Walnuts, the first accounts of Discoveries in the Arctic and Antarctic Circles, the important Experiments on Galvanism, Magnetism, and Polarity, the only details of the Royal Society of Literature, and many other matters of great general interest, have appeared in our columns.

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We trust we may take leave, without imputation of egotism. In this stirring commercial country, every dealer, to obtain even due notice, must describe his wares, and adopt means to make them known. Beyond this, we despise effort ; and resting on the character of the Literary Gazette, bid our Readers' Parewell!

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Journal of Belles Lettres, arts, Sciences, etc.

AND

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its iminediate transmission, by post, we beg to recommend the LITERARY GAZETTE, printed on stamped paper, price One Shilling.

No. 154.

SATURDAY, JANUARY 1, 1820.

PRICE 8d.

REVIEW OF NEW BOOKS.

which took 35 days to perform on dro-, shef to accompany me, but know nothing of medaries, to Mahass and back again, my business ;, which was really true; for I the author' says

had never allowed him to see me taking notes Travels in Nutia ; by the late John

during our journey. Lewis Burckhardt. Published by the In two hours and a balf we came to a The two brothers, the Kashefs Hosseyn and Association for promoting the Discovery plain on the top of the mountain, called Mohammed, had come to Mahass, in order of the Interior of Africu. London. Akabet el benat, the rocks of the girls. to besiege the castle of Tivareh, which had 1819. 4to. pp. 543.

Here the Arabs who serve as guides through been seized by a rebel cousin of the king of

these mountains have devised a singular Mahass: The latter being Hosseyn Kashief's Burckhardt has excited an interest mode of extorting small presents from the father-in-law, the Kashef was bound to come in the British public only inferior to traveller: they aliglit at certain spots in the to his aid, and had accordingly brought with poor Mungo Park; and has been so very Akabet el benat, and beg a present ; if it is him about sixty men, with whom I found often the subject of articles in the Lite, refused, they collect a heap of sand, and him encamped, or rather hutted, on the rary Gazette, that our readers must be mould it into the form of a diminutive tomb, western side of the river, close under the familiar with the leading features of his and then placing a stone at each of its ex- walls of the castle, while his brother Mo

tremities, they apprize the traveller that his hammed had possession of the eastern bank, life and pursuits. This would induce tomb is made ; meaning, that henceforward, with an equal number of men. They had us to dwell very briefly on these points there will be no security for him, in this been here for several weeks, and had often at présent, even were we not influenced rocky wilderness, Most persons pay, a suinmoned the castle, to no purpose, alby another consideration of more irre-tritling contribution, rather than have their though the garrison consisted only of fifteeu sistible temporary importance. It is, graves made before their eyes : there were, men. They at length conceived the idea of and we have reason to anticipate will however, several tombs of this description cutting off the water from the besieged,, by continue to be, a marked characteristic dispersed over the plain. Being satisfied placing close in shore, just below the castle, of our Review (from the superior access which he was content. with my guide, I gave him one piastre, with a vessel, which they had sent for from Argo,

and on board of which they put soine men to the novelties in literature with which

March 13th. The eastern mountains armed avith musquets, who were protected we are favoured,) to be at least the again approach the river, and consist here, from tủie fire of the garrison by a thick awnearliest reporter of the cases of new as at the second Cataract, of grunstein. We ing formed of the trunks of date trces throurn publications. In executing this task, followed the narrow shore in an easterly di- across the deck; these men, by their fire, we trust it will be readily allowed to rection, and passed several of the villages of having etfeetually prevented the besieged us, that any defects in our first notice of

Mahass. The houses are constructed only from obtaining water from the river, the gara work, should be pardoneu in considera- of mats, made of palm-leares, fastened to rison was under the necessity of making protion of the speed with which we bring consirferably above the roof. The counte- were promised them, and the castle was sur

high poles, the extremities of which rise posals for peace, pardon, and safe conduct it before the general tribunal, and nances of the people are much less expressive rendered on the evening preceding my arrival. show, if not immediately preceding, of good nature than those of the Nubians ; When I reached the camp of Mohamıner contemporaneously with its appearance, in colour they are perfectly black; their lips Kashief, he was not present, but occupied of what kind and nature it is. As this are like those of the Negro, but not the with his brother, in taking possession of the highly valuable volume, therefore, is nose or check bones ; nnmbers of the men castle. Ilis people crowded round me and only published to-day, we hope that go quite naked, and I even saw sereral grown my guide, desirous to know what business extracts rather than an epitome will be the middle. The Nubian language here has that I belonged to the suite of the two

up girls without any thing whatever round had brought me among them, and supposing accepted from us as efficient service. certainly superseded the Arabic, which none Mamelouk Begs, of whose arrival at Derr The life and travels of Burckhardt occupy of the peasants understand.

they had already been apprized. Shortly 92 pages ; next follors a journey along the In approaching the place where the Nu- afterwards Mohammed came over from the banks of the Nile, from Assouan to Mabass, bian governors were encamped, I found se- opposite bank with his suite, and I immeon the frontiers of Dongola ; then a des- veral of the villages descrted; their former diately went to salute him. Born of a Darcription of a journey from upper Egypt inhabitants had preferred abandoning their four slave, his features resembled those of through the deserts of Nubia tu Berher and cotton-fields, and their prospects of a har- the inhabitants of Soudan, but without any Sonakin, and from thence to Djidda in vest, to submitting to the oppressive conduet thing of that mildness which generally chaArabia ; and the whole conclà:les with an of the followers of the governors, whose racterises the Negro countenance. On the appendix, containing an Itinerary from the lorses and camels were now fcediug amidst contrary, his physiogno.ny, indicated the frontiers of Bornou, by Bahr el Ghazal, and the barley, while the mats of the deserted worst disposition ; he rolled his eyes at ine Darfour, to Shendy-gonie notices of Soudan houses had been carried off to the camp, to like a maduan ; and, having drank copiously -vocabularies of the Bergho and Bornou serve as fuel. After a ride of four hours, of palm-wine at the castle, lie was so intoxlangriages-Sand a translation of the notices we reached the camp of Mohammed Kashef, icated that he could hardly keep on his legs. on Nubia in Makrizi's llistory of Egypt: the opposite the Wady Tinareh, a cluster of ham- All his people now assembled in and around whole illustrated with maps and other eluci- lets, situated round the brick castle of that his open hut; the vanquished rehels likewise dations.

name, and the chief place in Mahass; here came, and two large goat skins of palm wine We shall make our selections from warls. I had told my guide to be cautious the company in small cups neatly made of

was the termination of my journey south were brought in, which was served out to the travelling narratives, without much in iris answers to Mohammed Kashef, and if calahashes; a few only spoke Arabic; the attention to order. Leaving Seras, in he should be questioned respecting me, to Kashef himself conly scarcely make himself his Nubinn journey from Assouan, say that he had been ordered by Hassen Ka- understood; but I clearly forind that I was

VOL IV.

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the topic of conversation. The Kashef, al- of seeing the king of Mahass, a mean looh-, were sold to a merchant of Siout. Another inost in a state of insensibility, had not yet ing black, attended by half a dozen naked continued its course northward, aml was seen asked me who I was, or what I came for. slaves, armed with shells and lances. From beyond the cataract at Assouan, at Derali, In the course of half an hour, the whole hence, along the Nile to Sennaar, about thir- one day's march north of that place. camp was drunk; musquets were then ty-five days journies, there are upwards of

The remainder of our quotations here brought in, and a feu-de-joie fired with ball, twenty kings and kingeoms, every independin the hut where we were sitting. I must ent chief being styled Melek. The power with which Nir. Burckhardt concludes

are from the general remarks on Nubia, confess, that at this moment I repented of of each of these petty sovereigns is very

his first narrative. having come to the camp, as a gun might bitrary, as far as relates to exactions

upon have been easily levelled at me, or a random the property of his own subjects, but he Nubia is divided into two parts, called ball have fallen to my lot. I endeavoured dares not put any of thein to vleath, without Wady Kenous, and Wady el Nouba (often several times to rise, but was always pre- entailing npon his own family the retaliation named exclusively Savd); the former esvented by the Kashef, who insisted upon of blood by that of the deceased. All the tending from Assouan to Wady Sebona, anid my getting drunk with him ; but as I never respectable inhabitants of Mabass are mer- the latter comprising the country between stood more in need of my senses, I rank chants; they buy slaves in Dángola; Berber, Seboua and the northern frontier of Dónvery sparingly. Towarıls noon, the whele and in the country of the Sheygya, and dis- gola. The inhabitants of these two divisions camp was in a profound sleep; and in a few patch a (aravan to Cairo twice a year; are divided by their language, but in manhours after, the Kashef was sufficiently sober Mahass is the nearest place in the Black ners they appear to be the same. to be able to talk rationally to me. I told country, from whence slave traders ur According to their own traditions, the prehim that I had come into Nubia to visit the rive at Cairo; the distance is abont a thou- sent Nubians derire their origin from the ancient castles of Ibrim and Say, as being sand miles. A male slave in Mahass is Arabian Bedouins, who invaded the country the remains of the empire of Sultan Selyon; worth froin twenty-five to thirty Spanish after the promulgation of the Mohammedan that I had had recommendations from Isne dollars, a female from thirty to forty. At creed, * the greater part of the Christinn into himself and his two brothers, and that I Cairo they sell at a profit of one hundred halsitants, whose churches I traced as far as had come to Mahass merely to salute him and and fifty per cent. ; and the merchandize Sukikot, haring either fled before them or his brother, conceiving that I should be guilty taken in return produces from two to three been killed; a few, as already mentioned, of a breach in good manners, if I quitted hundred per cent., or even more under the embraced the religion of the invaders, and Say without paying my respects to them. present circumstances, as the Mamelonks their descenılants may yet be distinguished Unfortunately, iny letters from Esne, ad- are eager purchasers.

at Tafa, and at Serra, north of Wady Malfa. dressed to the three brothers, were in the Bornou is said to be 25 or 30 dare hands of Hassan Kashef, who would not re- distant from Mahass, with but little At present, the political state of the coninturn them to me when I quitted Derr, saying water on the road

try may be said to be, noininally at least, the that I should not want them, as he had not

same as when llossan (oosy (a leader of soine

Dángola is noted for its breed of horses, Bosnians, sent by the Grand Signior to Nubia, given me permission to go beyond Sukkot. My story was, in consequence, not believed : great numbers of which are imported by the and, in short, wiiut the Normans were to EngKashef's Arabic secretary; " but,'at Mahuss the natives seldom riding inares: The breed vernors, Hlösseyn, Hassan, and Mohamıned, we spit at Mohammed Aly's beard, and cut finest I have seen, possessing all the supe- Suleyman, and has acquired some reputation

are his descendants ; their father was named off the heads of those who are enemies to the rior beauty of the horses of that country, from his vigorous system of government. Mamelouks.”. I assured him that I was not with greater size and more bone. All those The title of Kashef, assumed by the three an enemy of the Mamelouks, and that I had which I have seen had the four legs white, brothers, is given in Egypt to governors of waited upon the two Begs at Derr, who had received me very civilly.” The evening

as high as the knee, and I was told that districts. The brothers pay an annual tripassed in sharp enquiries on one side, and there are very few of them without this dis hute of about 1201. into the treasury of the sat up late with his confidents, to deliberate price, from five to ten slaves being paid for bia, for which the Pasha is accountable to what was to be done with me, while I took one. These horses do not thrive in northern the Porte. In the time of the Mamelouks,

climates, not even at Cairo, though Moham- this tribute was seldom paid, but Mohampost with my camels, under corer, behind his hut. No one had the slightest idea that Grand Signior, for which he gave 750 Spanish three years. The three Kashefs have about

med Aly has lately sent one as a present to the med Aly has received it regularly for the last I was an European, nor did I, of course, dollars. The greater part of them are fed for one hundred and twenty horsemen in their boast of my origin, which I was resolved to ten months in the year inerely on straw, and service, consisting chiefly of their own reladisclose only under the apprehension of im- in the spring, mpon the green crops of bar- tions, or of slaves ; these troops receive no minent danger.

ley. The Mamelouks, since their irruption regular pay; presents are made to them ocHe is compelled by these rude go- into Dángola, are all mounted upon these casionally, and they are considered to be vernors of Nubia to change his route. horses. The inhabitants of Mahass pretend to be There are no clephants in Dongola ;, but upon duty only when their inasters are upon

a journey. Derr is the chief residence of the descendants of the Arabs Koreysh, the tribe the hippopotamus is very common in the to which the prophet Mohamnned belonged, river. "Its Arabic name is Barnik, or Farass governors ;t but they are alınost continually and who, as is well known, were partly Be- el-Bahr; the Nubians call it Ird. It is a louins, and partly husbandmen.' It is the dreadful plagne on account of its voracity, hippopotamus, and form an article of commerce

name of Korbadj, are made of the skin of the tralition of Mahass, that a large party of and the want of means in the inhabitants to with the Sennaar and Darfour caravans. Koreysh took possession of the Wady at the destroy it. It often descends the Nile as far as The greater part of the Egyptian peasants same period when numerous Bedouins from Sukkot : the peasants, as I passed, told me north of Benisouef have the same origin : they the cast invaded Egypt and Nubia. The that there were three of them in the river are the descendants cither of Moggrebyn or chief, or king of Mahass, is of the family of between Mahass and Sukkot. Last year Arabian tribes. In Egypt I have even met with Djama. He collects the revenue of his king- screral of them passed the Batn el Hadjar, the descendants of Syrian Bedouins. dom, and pays tribute to the governors of anıl made their appearance at Wady Halfa

+ When the Turkish troops, under Ibrahim Nubia, who receive, annually, from cach of and Derr, an occurrence unknown to the Beg, after driving the Mamelouks into the the six principal places in his dominions, oldest inhabitant. One was killed by an

eastern mountains, occupied Nubia as far as five or six camels, as many cows, two slaves, Arab, by a shot orer its right eye; the pea- followers into Dongola, and remained there till

Wady Halfa, the three princes retired with their and about forty sheep, besides making ex

sants até the flesh, and the skin * and tecth the Turks withdrew towards Assouan, kben traordinary requisitions. I had the honour • The whips known in the East under the they returned to Derr,

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