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Perse. Sous réserve du
droit reconnu par la Conférence de l'emploi du Lion et du Soleil rouge au lieu et à la
place de la Croix rouge. Turquie. Sous réserve
du droit reconnu par la Conférence de la Paix de l'emploi du Crois
sant Rouge. XII. Chili. Sous la réserve
de l'article 15, formulée à la sixième séance plénière du 21 sep
tembre. Cuba. Sous réserve de
l'article 15. Equateur. - Sous réserve
de l'article XV. Guatémala. — Sous les
réserves formulées con
cernant l'article 15. Haîti. Avec la réserve
relative à l'article 15.
Persia. Under reserva
tion of the right, recog nized by the Conference to use the Lion and Red Sun instead of and in the
place of the Red Cross. Turkey. — Under reser
vation of the right recognized by the Peace Conference to employ
the Red Crescent. XII. Chile. Under reserva
tion of article 15, formu-
reservation of article 15. Ecuador. Under reser
vation of article XV. Guatemala. - Under the
concerning article 15. Haiti. With the reser
vation regarding arti
Perse. — Sous réserve de
l'article 15 Salvador. Sous réserve
de l'article 15. Siam. — Sous réserve de
l'article 15 Turquie. — Sous réserve
de l'article 15. Uruguay Sous réserve
de l'article 15. XIII. Allemagne. — Sous ré
serve des articles 11, 12,
Persia. Under reserva
tion of article 15. Salvador. Under reser
vation of article 15. Siam. Under reserva
tion of article 15. Turkey. --- Under reser
vation of article 15. Uruguay.
Under reservation of article 15. XIII. Germany. - Under res
ervation of articles 11, 12, 13, and 20.
With reservation regard
ing article 12. Great Britain. -- Under
reservation of articles
19 and 23. Japan. – With
reservation of articles 19 and
23. Persia. Under reserva
tion of articles 12, 19,
and 21 Siam.-Under reservation
of articles 12, 19, and
23. Turkey. - Under
reservation of the declaration concerning article 10, inserted in the procèsverbal of the eighth plenary session of the Conference of October 9, 1907.
Switzerland. Under res
ervation of recommendation No. I, which the Federal Council did not accept.
DOCUMENTS REFERRING TO AND EXPLANATORY OF THE
THE DECLARATION OF PARIS, 1856
DECLARATION respecting maritime law signed by the plenipotentiaries of
Great Britain, Austria, France, Prussia, Russia, Sardinia, and Turkey, assembled in Congress at Paris, April 16, 1856.
The plenipotentiaries who signed the Treaty of Paris of the 30th of March, 1856, assembled in conference, - considering:
That maritime law, in time of war, has long been the subject of deplorable disputes;
That the uncertainty of the law, and of the duties in such a matter, gives rise to differences of opinion between neutrals and belligerents which may occasion serious difficulties, and even conflicts;
That it is consequently advantageous to establish a uniform doctrine on so important a point;
That the plenipotentiaries assembled in Congress at Paris can not better respond to the intentions by which their governments are animated than by seeking to introduce into international relations fixed principles in this respect;
The above-mentioned plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized, resolved to concert among themselves as to the means of attaining this object; and, having come to an agreement, have adopted the following solemn declaration:
1. Privateering is, and remains abolished.
2. The neutral flag covers enemy's goods, with the exception of contraband of war.
3. Neutral goods, with the exception of contraband of war, are not liable to capture under the enemy's flag.
4. Blockades, in order to be binding, must be effective, that is to say, maintained by a force sufficient really to prevent access to the coast of the enemy.
The Governments of the undersigned plenipotentiaries engage to bring the present declaration to the knowledge of the states which have not taken part in the Congress of Paris, and to invite them to accede to it.
Convinced that the maxims which they now proclaim can not but be received with gratitude by the whole world, the undersigned plenipotentiaries doubt not that the efforts of their Governments to obtain the general adoption thereof will be crowned with full success.
The present declaration is not and shall not be binding, except between those powers who have acceded, or shall accede to it.
Done at Paris, April 16, 1856.
ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE,
Washington, April 24, 1863. The following “Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field,” prepared by Francis Lieber, LL.D., and revised by a Board of Officers, of which Major General E. A. Hitchcock is president, having been approved by the President of the United States, he commands that they be published for the information of all concerned. BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR
E. D. TOWNSEND,
Assistant Adjutant General.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF ARMIES OF THE UNITED STATES IN
MARTIAL LAW — MILITARY JURISDICTION — MILITARY NECES
A PLACE, district, or country occupied by an enemy stands, in consequence of the occupation, under the Martial Law of the invading or occupying army, whether any proclamation declaring Martial Law, or any public warning to the inhabitants, has been issued or not. Martial Law is the immediate and direct effect and consequence of occupation or conquest.
The presence of a hostile army proclaims its Martial Law.
Martial Law does not cease during the hostile occupation, except by special proclamation, ordered by the commander in chief; or by special mention in the treaty of peace concluding the war, when the occupation of a place or territory continues beyond the conclusion of peace as one of the conditions of the same.
Martial Law in a hostile country consists in the suspension, by the occupying military authority, of the criminal and civil law, and of the domestic administration and government in the occupied place or territory, and in the substitution of military rule and force for the same, as well as in the dictation of general laws, as far as military necessity requires this suspension, substitution, or dictation.
The commander of the forces may proclaim that the administration of all civil and penal law shall continue either wholly or in part, as in times of peace, unless otherwise ordered by the military authority.
Martial Law is simply military authority exercised in accordance with the laws and usages of war. Military oppression is not Martial Law; it is the abuse of the power which that law confers. As Martial Law is executed by military force, it is incumbent upon those who administer it to be strictly guided by the principles of justice, honor, and humanity – virtues adorning a soldier even more than other men, for the very reason that he possesses the power of his arms against the unarmed.
5 Martial Law should be less stringent in places and countries fully occupied and fairly conquered. Much greater severity may be exercised in places or regions where actual hostilities exist, or are expected and must be prepared for. Its most complete sway is allowed even in the commander's own country when face to face with the enemy, because of the absolute necessities of the case, and of the paramount duty to defend the country against invasion.
To save the country is paramount to all other considerations.
All civil and penal law shall continue to take its usual course in the enemy's places and territories under Martial Law, unless interrupted or stopped by order of the occupying military power; but all the functions of the hostile government - legislative, executive, or administrative whether of a general, provincial, or local character, cease under Martial Law, or continue only with the sanction, or, if deemed necessary, the participation of the occupier or invader.
Martial Law extends to property, and to persons, whether they are subjects of the enemy or aliens to that government.