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The intellectual and physical strength of the nations, labor and capital, are for the major part diverted from their natural application, and unproductively consumed. Hundreds of millions are devoted to acquiring terrible engines of destruction, which, though today regarded as the last word of science, are destined to-morrow to lose all value in consequence of some fresh discovery in the same field.

National culture, economic progress, and the production of wealth are either paralyzed or checked in their development. Moreover, in proportion as the armaments of each Power increase, so do they less and less fulfill the object which the Governments have set before themselves.

The economic crises, due in great part to the system of armaments à l'outrance, and the continual danger which lies in this massing of war material, are transforming the armed peace of our days into a crushing burden, which the peoples have more and more difficulty in bearing. It appears evident, then, that if this state of things were prolonged, it would inevitably lead to the very cataclysm which it is desired to avert, and the horrors of which make every thinking man shudder in advance.

To put an end to these incessant armaments and to seek the means of warding off the calamities which are threatening the whole world,

such is the supreme duty which is to-day imposed on all States.

Filled with this idea, His Majesty has been pleased to order me to propose to all the Governments whose representatives are accredited to the Imperial Court, the meeting of a conference which would have to occupy itself with this grave problem. This conference should be, by the help of God, a happy presage

for the century which is about to open. It would converge in one powerful focus the efforts of all States which are sincerely seeking to make the great idea of universal peace triumph over the elements of trouble and discord.

It would, at the same time, confirm their agreement by the solemn establishment of the principles of justice and right, upon which repose the security of States and the welfare of peoples.

RUSSIAN CIRCULAR

JANUARY II, 1899 (DECEMBER 30, 1898, OLD STYLE)

When, in the month of August last, my August Master instructed me to propose to the Governments which have Representatives in St. Petersburg the meeting of a Conference with the object of seeking the most efficacious means for assuring to all peoples the blessings of real and lasting peace, and, above all, in order to put a stop to the progressive development of the present armaments, there appeared to be no obstacle in the way of the realization, at no distant date, of this humanitarian scheme.

The cordial reception accorded by nearly all the Powers to the step taken by the Imperial Government could not fail to strengthen this expectation. While highly appreciating the sympathetic terms in which the adhesions of most of the Powers were expressed, the Imperial Cabinet has been also able to collect, with lively satisfaction, evidence of the warmest approval which has reached it, and continues to be received, from all classes of society in various parts of the globe.

Notwithstanding the strong current of opinion which exists in favor of the ideas of general pacification, the political horizon has recently undergone a decided change. Several Powers have undertaken fresh armaments, striving to increase further their military forces, and in the presence of this uncertain situation, it might be asked whether the Powers considered the present moment opportune for the international discussion of the ideas set forth in the circular of August 12 (24, O.S.).

In the hope, however, that the elements of trouble agitating political centers will soon give place to a calmer disposition of a nature to favor the success of the proposed Conference, the Imperial Government is of opinion that it would be possible to proceed forthwith to a preliminary exchange of ideas between the Powers, with the object:

(a) Of seeking without delay means for putting a limit to the progressive increase of military and naval armaments, a question the solution of which becomes evidently more and more urgent in view of the fresh extension given to these armaments; and

(6) Of preparing the way for a discussion of the questions relating

to the possibility of preventing armed conflicts by the pacific means at the disposal of international diplomacy.

In the event of the Powers considering the present moment favorable for the meeting of a Conference on these bases, it would certainly be useful for the Cabinets to come to an understanding on the subject of the programme of their labors.

The subjects to be submitted for international discussion at the Conference could, in general terms, be summarized as follows:

1. An understanding not to increase for a fixed period the present effective of the armed military and naval forces, and at the same time not to increase the Budgets pertaining thereto; and a preliminary examination of the means by which a reduction might even be effected in future in the forces and Budgets above mentioned.

2. To prohibit the use in the armies and fleets of any new kind of firearms whatever, and of new explosives, or any powders more powerful than those now in use, either for rifles or cannon.

3. To restrict the use in military warfare of the formidable explosives already existing, and to prohibit the throwing of projectiles or explosives of any kind from balloons or by any similar means.

4. To prohibit the use, in naval warfare, of submarine torpedo boats or plungers, or other similar engines of destruction; to give an undertaking not to construct, in the future, vessels with rams.

5. To apply to naval warfare the stipulations of the Geneva Convention of 1864, on the basis of the additional Articles of 1868.

6. To neutralize ships and boats employed in saving those overboard during or after an engagement.

7. To revise the Declaration concerning the laws and customs of war elaborated in 1874 by the Conference of Brussels, which has remained unratified to the present day.

8. To accept in principle the employment of good offices, of mediation and facultative arbitration in cases lending themselves thereto, with the object of preventing armed conflicts between nations; to come to an understanding with respect to the mode of applying these good offices, and to establish a uniform practice in using them.

It is well understood that all questions concerning the political relations of States, and the order of things established by Treaties, as in general all questions which do not directly fall within the programme adopted by the Cabinets, must be absolutely excluded from the deliberations of the Conference.

In requesting you, Sir, to be good enough to apply to your Government for instructions on the subject of my present communication, I beg you at the same time to inform it that, in the interest of the great cause which my August Master has so much at heart, His Imperial Majesty considers it advisable that the Conference should not sit in the capital of one of the Great Powers, where so many political interests are centered, which might, perhaps, impede the progress of a work in which all the countries of the universe are equally interested.

I have, etc.,

(Signed) COMTE MOURAVIEFF

THE PEACE CONFERENCE OF 1899

ACTE FINAL DE LA CONFÉ-
RENCE INTERNATIONALE

DE LA PAIX

FINAL ACT

OF

THE INTERNATIONAL PEACE CONFER

ENCE

La Conférence Internationale The International Peace Conde la Paix, convoquée dans un ference, convoked in the best haut sentiment d'humanité par Sa interests of humanity by His Majesté l'Empereur de Toutes les Majesty the Emperor of All the Russies, s'est réunie sur l'invita- Russias, assembled, on the invition du Gouvernement de Sa Ma tation of the Government of Her jesté la Reine des Pays-Bas, à la Majesty the Queen of the NethMaison Royale du Bois, à La erlands, in the Royal House in Haye, le 18 Mai, 1899.

the Wood at The Hague on the

18th May, 1899. Les Puissances, dont l'énu The Powers enumerated in the mération suit, ont pris part à la following list took part in the Conférence, pour laquelle Elles Conference, to which they apavaient désigné les Délégués nom- pointed the Delegates named més ci-après :

below: Pour l'Allemagne :

For Germany: Son Excellence le Comte de His Excellency Count de MünMünster, Ambassadeur d'Alle ster, German Ambassador at magne à Paris, Délégué Pléni- Paris, Delegate Plenipotentiary. potentiaire.

M. le Baron de Stengel, Pro The Baron de Stengel, Profesfesseur à l'Université de Munich, sor at the University of Munich, Second Délégué.

Second Delegate. M. le Dr. Zorn, Conseiller Dr. Zorn, Judicial Privy CounIntime de Justice, Professeur à cilor, Professor at the University l'Université de Königsberg, Dé of Königsberg, Scientific Delelégué Scientifique.

gate. M. le Colonel de Gross de Colonel de Gross de SchwarzSchwarzhoff, Commandant du hoff, Commandant of the 5th

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