siness for himself, and it would be a sufficient sum for any one who has, by a good character, won the confidence of the community, to begin business with, without a single cent of inheritance from his parents.

But now let us take those $10 per month clear gain, as it may be, and see how free spending will reduce it to nothing. Let that young man attend theaters, shows, circuses, just once a week in an average, and $1 is gone in the month. Then let him go to an oyster-cellar or restaurant, three times a week, (and many do it every evening in our larger towns) and another $3 is gone with the month. Then count the ice-creams, the lemonades or other drinks, which come, in many cases, once a day, and generally in company with one or more. Then count cigars, sweetmeats, and the hundred other penny-eaters which nibble at the careless young man's pocket every day of the week-add them all up, and the remainder of the $10 is gone!

This is not a fancy calculation. The experience of hundreds will prove it to be a true calculation. Though it may vary in items, it is nevertheless the same in the result, which is this: The year finds the hard-working journeyman with empty pockets! Not one dollar saved for future use when the year's labor is past! All the result of free spending.

Now, is not this true? Hundreds will answer yes. Is it a wise course for a young man to take? Thousands will answer no! and especially such as foolishly squandered all their earnings, during the best period of their life.

Look for a moment at the consequences of such a course. These are precisely the years of his life in which he can best of all save something to give him a start in life. He is single, and has only himself to maintain, and does not, therefore, need all he earns. But these years pass away, and he has saved nothing. At length he takes a wife, with barely enough to meet the expenses connected with marriage. He now rents a house, procures on trust some needed articles; and soon finds that there are many little items of expense confronting him which he dreamed not of before. Besides this, he needs a small capital to begin business with, which he has not; and consequently begins in a crippled manner. He labors year after year-lives in a rented house-and if not in debt, still in a way which is called "from hand to mouth." After years of struggling, he finds himself surrounded with a dependant family, whose necessary wants he can barely satisfy. He did not start right, and consequently he never got right. He is as one who lost time

in the morning, and consequently was behind hand all the day.

Again we say this is a true picture. It has been verified in the case of hundreds; and judging from the increased extravagances of the times, it will be still more abundant in bitter fruits, among the generation of spendthrifts that are now candidates for a future of misery.

Now look at a picture the reverse of this which is equally a true one. A young man, during his young or single years, by avoiding the spendthrift's course, saves $120 a year, or say $100. He has $500 in his possession when he takes a wife. Besides this, and what is of even more value to him, he has a good character for industry and economy. Every person is convinced from his past care and caution, that he is taking a wise and sure course. In this sum, and in the possession of this character, he has what is amply sufficient to give him an humble start in his business; we say an humble start, for that is much better than a dash and a smash! which two things generally go together.

The story is short. He has the cage. He catches the bird, He prospers in business; and like a man who begins early in the morning, and begins right, he is up to his work all day.

If the young man who reads these thoughts, will consent to practice on the advice, we may both live to see the day when he will thank us heartily for this small chapter on "taking care of the fragments."


On the cross the dying Saviour

Heavenward lifts his eyelids calm,
Feels, but scarcely feels, a trembling
In his pierced and bleeding palm.

And by all the world forsaken,
Sees how he with zealous care
At the ruthless nail of iron

A little bird is striving there.

Stained with blood and never tiring,

Wth its beak it doth not cease,

From the cross 't would free the Saviour,

Its Creator's Son release.

And the Saviour speaks in mildness:
"Blest be thou of all the good!

Bear, as token of this moment,

Marks of blood and holy rood!”

And that bird is called the crossbill;
Covered all with blood so clear,

In the groves of pine it singeth
Songs, like legends, strange to hear.

Translated from the German by Rev. B. Bausman.




You are perfectly correct, my honored friend! You have reached a point of view, where I have eagerly desired to see you. You ask what it may profit that we first discuss and agree concerning the aim and end of woman, whilst properly speaking no person can pre-determine such an end for herself.

You seem to think we need apprehend no danger with your from this source. You assign as a reason, that there are few women who, in their education, have such a definite end in view, and are in constant alarm, who would still suffer any serious injury, even if the end were false.

You then plainly tell me the course you are accustomed to pursue in your own family; namely, that you admonish and educate them in every thing that is good, punish and guard them against evil, that you instruct and have them instructed in all useful knowledge, whether it be designed for the use of the wife or the mother, without any special reference to either. You moreover state that in this respect you feel perfectly easy about the future destiny of your daughters, fully aware that this is entirely under the control and direction of divine Providence.

I think you are perfectly correct. I wish that all mothers would act so wisely, educate their daughters after the same manner that they had been educated, only endeavoring to guard them against those errors and defects which their own experience has taught them to detect. In other words, it would be well if all mothers had a good training and would educate their daughters after their own model, only endeavoring to make them more perfect.

But in my first letter I simply intended to direct your attention to the difficulties involved in searching after the leading aim and end of woman; not only to convince you that the views hitherto held on the subject, are not satisfactory, and must prove fruitless in actual practice. I am happy to see that you apprehend the object I have in view, which is partly by incidental remarks to enlarge, correct and alter many of the views you have thus far advanced, and partly to present a new view respecting the true aim and end of woman.

But, however much we may differ on some other points, I little suspected to be charged with holding views that are vision

ary and impracticable. You say that although my position seemingly is practical and adapted to be carried into fruitful effect, that in the main I still bear a striking resemblance to those writers whose thoughts and principles are too fanciful and unreal to be of any practical utility for mothers, and most of all, that my leading idea is visionary. I say I was not prepared for such a reproof, since I have hitherto simply repelled and refuted some general thoughts, which certainly would not justify your accusation. Since this is the case we must both contend with the same weapons.

Shall I frankly tell you what I believe? You seem to be indignant and alarmed about the concluding part of my letter, because I attempted to discover your sentiments. I am convinced of this, and had I succeeded, you would scarcely have owned them as yours. But you are especially displeased with me, because you suspect me of entertaining a view with reference to the aim and end of woman, that is far more useless and pernicious in its consequences than those already alluded to, which at least have some bearing upon the general interests of practical life.

I will therefore pursue a course differently from what I had originally intended. I will commence the subject with the most common, simple features of real life; consider different classes of society; give a brief description of the prevailing method of education as I have observed it; and draw a few practical conclusions to prove my position relative to the independent aim and end of woman. Bear with me a little, in the end I hope to conciliate you again.

In the case of a young man, for instance, we have not the least doubt about the purpose and end of his life. Here the above named difficulties do not exist. If there is any thing of vital importance in the education of young men, it is so entirely social and universal that we are disposed to think the highest ends of our race primarily depend upon the sterner sex. The gentler sex are supposed to have a very limited influence upon these ends, and withal that they derive this influence not so much from their essential social position as from the merciful favor of the more important factor of the race. With a view of rectifying this error, the theory has been started that the chief end of woman is to become a wife or a mother. But why can we not in like manner say that the chief end of young men is to become husbands or fathers, and why do we never find that parents educate their sons with a view to this end. This is very singular. It really seems as though men thought it unnecessary

and impossible to educate young men for husbands or fathers. It is supposed that young men cannot be educated for husbands, or fathers, but that this relation is determined by their nature. and constitution. This is perfectly correct, and therefore the more surprising that we should deny the same thing to woman. Why not admit that the power of reaching the aim and end of her life is also derived from the constitution of her nature?

Such writers, in my opinion, have paid a poor compliment to woman. The cause, however, is doubtless owing to the difficulty of apprehending the difference between the nature and constitution of the sexes. I will say more of this hereafter. The education of young men first claims our attention.

Let us take a lad from one of the lower classes of society. After he has attended school until the time for his confirmation, parental culture ceases. The youth is old enough to serve an apprenticeship. He is bound over to a mechanic, or he learns the trade of his father, or he spends his life in some humbler occupation. Or perhaps the father consults with him as to what trade he wishes to learn. In certain instances perhaps he has his own choice. He chooses according to his taste, which depends upon the horizon of his past history. Among the higher classes of society the disposition and inclination of the youth usually becomes stronger and more decided. He remains longer at school, grows riper in his views, more fixed and firm in his taste, and consequently the more independent in his choice. Among all classes of society, the choice of a trade or occupation depends upon accidental or essential family relations. In every instance, however, the lad or the youth is set apart for some future calling, that he may be engaged in a real active sphere, whether it be for a mechanic, for one of the arts or sciences, for a civil office, or for an humbler employment. When he has made a choice of the business to which he wishes to devote himself, he still continues to receive instruction, but with special reference to his calling.

But how is it in this respect with daughters? Can we prescribe such a calling to them? They have no chance to be educated for any particular calling. They are doomed to perpetual dependence. Their calling, and their only calling, is to become the companions of their lovers-aye, now we again recur to our old and seemingly exploded view-she is destined to become a wife or a mother! I deny this. If the present number of young ladies would be multiplied in a tenfold degree, and every one of them would marry, I would never admit that this was the end or calling of their life, or the standard by which to

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