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matter as men will, the real question of the age is between Catholicity and infidelity. Protestantism, with its Protean forms, would excite only universal derision and contempt, did it not afford a quasi shelter for the multitudes who wish to conceal their doubts both from themselves and their neighbours. These multitudes are ashamed of their doubts, have a lurking sense that they are wrong, and that they ought to be believers; they therefore seek to hide their doubts from themselves and from one another. To this end, they catch, as drowning men at straws, at one form of Protestantism or another; but most of them feel that they do catch at straws, and nothing else. Protestantism is incapable of satisfying, for a single moment, a mind that thinks and knows how to reason.

It needed not to have been born and bred a Protestant to be aware of this. A few women among the Protestants, who silence their doubts by their gentler affcctions or their religious dissipation, may fancy that they are firm believers; but the great mass of the world, out of the church, are really at heart, we will not say disbelievers, but doubters. The great question, deny it as they may and probably will, which they want settled, is, whether Almighty God has actually made us a revelation of the supernatural order. We know they will not own this, for, as we have said, they are ashamed of their doubts, and do not like to avow them; but if they lay their hands upon their hearts and answer truly, they will confess that we have stated the real question they want settled. Once recall them to faith in the great fact of the Christian revelation, and it will require no labored arguments to bring them into the church. The only two armies now on the great moral battle-field of the world are those of Catholicity and infidelity, and between these the great battle is to be fought. We have felt this from the first, and have entered into the discussions we have, because we wished to carry all the outworks before attacking the citadel. These we think we have now pretty much carried, and whoever will read fairly the articles we have written against Anglicanism, no-churchism, and transcendentalism, will be troubled to find a single stronghold in which he may intrench himself between the Roman Catholic Church and infidelity.

The next article on transcendentalism will commence the war on infidelity, by showing that the facts, or at least a portion of the facts, of the religious history of mankind are not explicable on any hypothesis which excludes the su

pernatural intervention of Providence, and, therefore, that, on the plainest principles of inductive reasoning, we must admit the supernatural order, and that God has made us a revelation of it. In the meantime we would say, that we, as Catholics, are too well instructed to rely on argument alone for the conversion of unbelievers. No matter who plants and waters, 'tis God alone who gives the increase. The fervent prayers of the faithful, offered in secret, in the solitude of the closet or the cell, will avail more than all the elaborate arguments ever constructed; and one reason why the conversion of unbelievers is not more rapid is because we rely upon ourselves, upon our wisdom and strength, upon human efforts, rather than on Him without whose aid and blessing all labors are thrown away.


In the analysis we gave of the teaching of transcendentalists, we reduced that teaching to three fundamental propositions, namely :- 1. Man is the measure of truth and goodness; 2. Religion is a fact or principle of human nature; 3. All religious institutions, which have been or are, have their principle and cause in human nature. We have disposed of the first and second of these propositions; and there remains for us now to consider and dispose of only the third and last.

Transcendentalism is virtually the ground on which the enemies of the church, generally, are rallying and endeavouring to make a stand, and the ground on which they are to be met and vanquished. Protestantism, as set forth by the early reformers, is virtually no more. It yielded to the well directed blows of Bossuet, and other Catholic divines, in the seventeenth century. But its spirit was not extinguished. It survived, and, in the beginning of the eighteenth century, reappeared in England under the form of infidelity, or the denial of all supernatural revelation from God to men ; and, by the aid of Voltaire, Rousseau, and other French philo sophes, soon passed into France and Germany, and, to no inconsiderable extent, penetrated even into Italy and Spain. Forced to abandon the form with which it had been clothed by Luther and Calvin, and their associates, it found it could subsist and maintain its influence only by falling back on natural religion, and finally, on no religion. But this did not long avail it. The world protested against incredulity, and the human race would not consent to regard itself as a “child without a sire,” condemned to eternal orphanage. Either Protestantism must assume the semblance at least of religion, or yield up the race once more to Catholicity. But the latter alternative was more than could be expected of human pride and human weakness. The reform party could not willingly forego all their dreams of human perfectibility, “the march of mind,” “the progress of the species,” the realization of what they called "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity,” which they had emblazoned on their banners, and in the name of which they had established the Reign of Terror, and drenched Europe in her noblest and richest blood. To abandon these glorious dreams, these sublime hopes, to bow down their lofty heads before priests and monks, to sheathe the sword and embrace the cross, to give up the Age of Reason, and readmit the Age of Faith, was a sacrifice too great for poor human nature. Yet what other alternative was left? The race demanded a religion,—would have some kind of faith and worship. To stand on open, avowed infidel ground was impossible. To return to the elder Protestantism was also impossible, for that had ceased to exist ; and if it had not, a return to it would have been only subjecting itself anew to the necessity of going further, and reuniting with Rome, or of falling back once more on deism, and then on atheism. It must, then, either vanish in thin air, or invent some new form of error, which, in appearance at least, should be neither the Protestantism of the sixteenth century nor the unbelief of the eighteenth. The last hope of the party was in the invention of this new form. Germany, mother of the reformation, saw the extremities to which it was reduced, and charged herself with conceiving and bringing it forth, as sin conceives and brings forth death. The period of gestation was brief; the child was forthwith ushered into the world. France applauded; young America hurraed ; and even old England pricked up her ears, and calculated the practical advantages she might derive from adopting the bantling.

The bantling is named transcendentalism, and not inappropriately. The name defines the thing. The reform party found itself compelled to avoid in appearance alike the younger infidelity and the older Protestantisin, and both without any advance towards Catholicity. It must neither assert nor deny revelation, and yet must do both in the same breath ; it must be a believer to the believer, an unbeliever to the unbeliever ; appear to the Christian to assert the supernatural order, to the infidel to admit only the natural order; and thus reconcile all repugnances, harmonize all discords, and lay the firm and imperishable foundation of “union and progress.” The task was, no doubt, difficult and delicate; but life or death was at stake; and the reform party showed itself equal to the emergency. It boldly faced the difficulty, and solved, it, in general terms, by asserting that the soul iš furnished with a transcendental faculty, or power which transcends the senses and intellect, and places us in immediate relation with the world of spirit, as the senses do with the world of matter. This faculty receives various names, but all agree in asserting its reality; some call it instinct, some spontaneity, some consciousness, some the divine in the human, and others reason, distinguishing, or attempting to distinguish, between reason and understanding. These last suppose understanding to be in the centre of the human subject; on one side the five senses, through which the material world flows into it, and on the other, reason, through which flows in the spiritual world, or world of absolute and necessary truth. But, as all admit the reality of a faculty transcending the understanding and senses, however diversely named or defined, they are all denominated transcendentalists, and their doctrine, transcendentalism,--that is, a doctrine founded on that which transcends or surpasses sense and understanding.

According to Mr. Parker, this transcendental faculty is a sort of pipe, or conduit, through which the Divinity flows naturally into the human soul. The soul has a double set of faculties, one set on each side. Each at the terminus is furnished with a valve, which the soul opens and shuts at will. If it opens one set, the external world flows in, and it lives a purely material or animal life ; if the other, the Divinity flows in, it becomes filled to its capacity with God, and lives a divine life. As the pipe or conduit through which the Divinity is let in is a natural endowment essential to the soul, and as we open or close its valve, and let in or shut out God at will, the supply of God” obtained is said to be obtained naturally, and as it is really God who runs in and fills the soul, the influx is said to be divine, or divine inspiration. As it is of God, and received through a natural inlet in a natural manner, it is natural inspiration, and distinguishable, on the one hand, from the mere light of nature, and on the other, from supernatural inspiration, and may be termed, if you will, natural supernaturalism, natural spiritualism, or“ the natural religious view.”

Religious institutions are constructed by the human intel. lect and passions, on the ideas of God furnished the soul through this natural channel. They are the inore or less successful efforts of men to realize outwardly as well as inwardly the ideas and sentiments of God, of spirit, of the true, permanent, eternal, and absolute, which are supplied by this natural influx of God. Considered in their idea and sentiment, all religious institutions are true, sacred, divine, immutable, and eternal; but considered solely as institutions, they are human, partial, incomplete, variable, and transitory. They may even, as institutions, in relation to their time and place, when they are in harmony with the actual intelligence of the race and respond to the actual wants of the soul, be useful and legitimate. They spring from, at least are och casioned by, what is purest and best in the human soul, and do, then, really embody its highest conceptions of what is highest and holiest.

It is not necessary to denounce the race for having formed to itself religious institutions, nor even to denounce religious institutions themselves, regarded in relation to their legitimate time and place. We shonld rather view them with indnlgence and seek to explain them, to ascertain their real significance, the great and eternal ideas they are intended to symbolize. It is foolish, for instance, to unite with the unbelievers of the last century in their denunciations of the Bible. We should accept the sacred books of Christians; ay, and of all nations, the Veda, the Zendavesta, the writings of Confucius, the Koran, and the Book of Mormon. All are the sincere and earnest efforts of the soul to utter the Divinity with which it is filled, and each in its degree, and after its manner, is authentic Scripture. Every sincere utterance of an earnest soul is a divine word; for every sincere soul is filled with God, with an elemental fire, and is big with a divine message. Hence the worth of sincere souls; hence the importance of studying individualities, what is peculiar, exceptional, without regard to what is common to men in general. If you are a true man, you can make us a new revelation of God. What can you tell us? Under what new and peculiar phase can you show us the Universal Being? In what new tone are you able to speak?

As all religious institutions have a common origin in the soul, and do, in their degree and after their manner, shadow forth the same idea and sentiment, they are all, as to their idea and sentiment, identical. Mumbo-Jumbo of the Afri- .

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