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slow to take advantage of his opportunity and Algiers, and the Arabs no further and began to preach larger things, taking than the Moroccan lowlands. The people care also to preach humility of spirit. of the main part of the country, of the He rides only a donkey, so it is reported, mountains, have always been independent, and is preceded by a man carrying a fierce, fanatical. Neither France nor any prayer-rug. He inaugurated a jehad, or other Power will easily conquer those holy war, against the Sultan, and, in his mountain tribes. Yet if France does this own opinion, so close to success has he ultimately, the Powers will also demand, come that he has appointed viziers and and rightly, the fulfillment of certain conother officials and set up a court with ditions. Spain, as the nearest part of every symbol of royalty. After taking Europe to Morocco, as possessing Ceuta several strongholds, he besieged Fez itself, and Melilla on the Moroccan mainland, but, perhaps because of unexpected resist- and as having a greater number of subance, now claims that he is fighting, not to jects in Morocco than those from any seize the throne himself, but in order to other European country, might be pacified enthrone the Sultan's brother, who had by a great money equivalent in return for been unjustly degraded and imprisoned, Spanish-African territory, and by an enbut has now been released by the Sultan. trance into the Franco-Russian alliance. The army of the Sultan has been already England, as the possessor of Gibraltar, severely crippled ; he is now strengthen- opposite and close to Tangier, would de ing the defenses of Fez. As the insur- mand a guarantee that a free highway to rection extends to the wild tribes who the Orient should be preserved. Germany live on both sides of the still rather inac- would stipulate that her traders curately defined Moroccan frontier, France busily at work in building up a has ordered thither detachments from the market (ousting the English, who in Motwenty-five thousand zouaves and tirail- rocco have hitherto had twice the trade of leurs who guard the Moroccan-Algerian any other power) should be protected in hinterland, while Spain patrols the African their present extraordinary privileges. coast with war-ships. Thus the insurrec- This protection, however, should not be tion may yet involve the Powers, despite the exclusive possession of any one nation; their joint assurance last week that they it should be extended to all traders. As would regard it only as “an internal affair.” the brave Boers have fallen before the

British, so the savage Moors may fall

before the French. But, as the world's The Future of

Bismarck once prophesied commerce will be the gainer through the that the Moroccan question opening to it of South Africa, so the open

would set all Europe by the door policy should one day be applied to ears. But the question is simpler than it North Africa. was in his day. It is seen that France, because it now possesses all the land about Morocco, is the Power chiefly inter

The culmination of the ested in Morocco's future; indeed, were

The Imperial Durbar

splendid festivities at Morocco added to Algiers and Tunis (the

Delhi in honor of Edonly really admirable French colonies), the ward VII, was his proclamation as Emlast obstacle to a great, logically rounded peror of India on New Year's Day. India French North African empire would be is always fond of gorgeous spectacles, removed. Hence, France has long been and the ruling nation has always enlooking for an excuse to invade Morocco, couraged Oriental magnificence and has of course was a protective measure.” indeed cleverly used it for the support When that invasion occurs, it will be far of Occidental rule. Lord Curzon, the more significant of future control than Viceroy of India, and Lady Curzon, his Spain's descent upon Ceuta or England's American wife, were surrounded by a upon Tangier. Those are coast places brilliant group of notables, white and on the fringe of the great unconquered brown ; the Duke of Connaught reprecountry. For Morocco itself has never sented his royal and imperial brother; known foreign dominion. The Turks Lord Kitchener stood for the military progressed westward no further than Tunis might of the Empire ; native princes and


at Delhi

rajahs clad in silks and resplendent in directing from London the settlement o jewels surrounded

surrounded the amphitheater the complicated questions in South Afric whence the proclamation was made; on resulting from the war, Mr. Chamberlaii the plain around were thousands of sol- is giving his personal attention to then diers, not only British, but Pathans, Ghoor- on the ground itself. He has arrived in kas, and other native regiments, batteries Natal, and his visit will include all of th drawn by elephants, cavalry in picturesque British colonies in that part of the Africai variety of uniform, and beyond a vast continent. He purposes to confer with th multitude of the common people in cloth- representatives of all the different interest ing of many hues. The durbar was concerned, Boer and British alike. A opened with the flourish of trumpets, the to the latter, his speeches have already royal standard was raised on high, bon- excited much colonial enthusiasm. Oni fires were lighted far and wide, and of his critics remarked that, after th finally the Viceroy read a message from extraordinary achievement of inducing the King Edward, renewing “the assurances of people of Natal to shout themselve: my regard for the liberties of the Indian hoarse over the privilege of taxing them people ; of my respect for their dignities selves for the payment of millions of wa and rights; of my interest in their ad- losses, Mr. Chamberlain ought to be sen vancement, and of my devotion to their from one end of the Empire to the other welfare.” Lord Curzon's own address as the seductive recruiting sergeant and prophesied prosperity for India, and in practical tax-gatherer of the Imperia cidentally announced that it had been Federation. At all events, the Colonia decided not to exact interest for three Secretary's present undertaking consti years on all loans made or guaranteed by tutes a new and personal element in the the Government of India to the Native consolidation of the Empire. It is cer States in connection with the recent tainly a statesmanlike departure from the famine. One especially interesting fea- routine ruts of administration. It may ture of the durbar week (for a whole week even result in such a contribution to the was given up to ceremonies and func- growth of imperial feeling in England and tions) was the opening of the Indian Arts in the colonies that a series of official Exhibition. Lord Curzon's address was visits to each of the chief groups of British a strong plea for arresting the progress of possessions will be undertaken . decay in the native arts, and the debasing of modern models. He said that it was certain that if many old Indian arts and

The Chinese Indemnity

Wu-Ting-Fang, until handicrafts were to be revived and placed

a month ago Chinese in a flourishing condition, it could only be Minister to the United States, declared done by the patronage of the Indian chiefs, long since that his country would be found the aristocracy and cultured persons, but to be unable to pay in gold the entire so long as these preferred to fill their amount of the indemnity demanded by the palaces with fiaming Brussels carpet, cheap Powers for the Boxer outrages of 1900. British furniture, Italian mosaics, French When the first payment became due on oleographs, Austrian lusters, and German July 1, 1902, it was offered in silver, which brocades, there was not much hope. had then somewhat depreciated in value.

This payment was accepted under protest

by all the foreign Governments concerned. With more or less jus- Our own Government, accepting the stateMr. Chamberlain in tice, Mr. Joseph Cham- ment of Minister Wu and having an ear

berlain, British Colonial nest interest in the preservation of China's Secretary, has been regarded in many integrity and perpetuity as a nation, requarters as an instigator of the Boer war, served the right to demand any balance not only because of the character of his of the installment due if the entire settlecorrespondence with President Kruger ment should ultimately be made on a gold immediately preceding that conflict, but basis as agreed. This tolerant attitude also because of his attitude regarding the gave great comfort to the Chinese-who Jameson Raid. Friend and foe, therefore, now offer the second payment in a still will note with satisfaction that, instead of more depreciated currency--and propor

South Africa

tionate discomfort to the representatives wrote to Senator Gallinger, the sponsor of the other Governments at Peking. They of these bills, informing him of this fact. ascribe the present difficulty to the quasi- Thereupon Senator Gallinger replied at favor shown by the United States Govern- some length. Hegreatly weakened his case, ment to the silver argument. When the however, both by making an unworthy treaty arrangement was made, the value intimation that Dr. Keen was guilty oi in gold of the Chinese tael was nearly misrepresentation and was actuated by seventy-five cents; since then the tael's motives of self-advertisement, and by value has depreciated until it is now worth assuming to write with the authority of a slightly over sixty cents. To liquidate on medical expert rather than from the point a gold basis, therefore, China would be of view of a public man. Without these obliged to pay the difference between defects his argument is that “it is these figures on every tael, which in the unsafe to reason from the brains of aggregate, according to Minister Wu, animals to that of man," that experiments would deplete the Government's resources upon man based upon such reasoning and leave it bankrupt. Yet the Foreign have been “to a great extent disastrous," Ministers at Peking apparently in sist more that it is uncivilized to ignore the “altrustoutly than ever that indemnity payments ism” of prohibiting experiments upon should be made on a gold basis--that is, living animals and to prefer the “selfishin silver at the ratio of gold which existed ness” of using such experiments for the at the time when the indemnity was fixed. purpose of “helping humanity,” and that The present loss indicates some idea of there is “ undoubted testimony" to facts the tremendous burden under which any of horrible and malicious cruelty, cases country labors in attempting to do busi- of which he cites. ness with foreign nations on the silver standard. The opposition to payments in a depreciated currency may produce,

Dr. Keen, in his very dignipot only an immediately serious internal

Dr. Keen's Reply fied but incisive rejoinder, situation, so far as the actual Chinese calls attention to the fact that Senator Government is concerned, but also a far Gallinger took his medical degree many more difficult international complication years ago, and since that time there has in reopening questions which not long been a great advance in surgery, of which since threatened to bring about the par- Mr. Gallinger, occupied by other duties, can tition of China among the Powers. have but little knowledge, and infornis his stead of such a result, The Outlook prefers opponent that“ facts derived from experito think that out of the present imbroglio ments upon animals are applied surgically there may arise a new case to be sub- to the brain of man with greatest exactmitted to the Hague Tribunal of Arbitra- ness," and that he himself had applied tion.

such facts scores and scores of times.

“Were it not for experiments upon Anti-Vivisection Bills

For some time anti- animals,” he continues, “medicine would

vivisectionists have be in the wretched darkness of thirty been trying to put through Congress cer- years ago, and we surgeons would be tain bills to restrict and largely to pro- practicing the unintentional cruelty to hibit experiments upon living animals in man of the surgery of the Civil War." the District of Columbia. These bills, if As to the cases of cruelty cited by Mr. passed, would undoubtedly have great Gallinger, Dr. Keen calls attention to the influence upon the Legislatures of the fact that no data are given by which the various States. It happened that a recent original statements can be referred to surgical operation, which has attracted and verified. In closing he renews his much public attention, performed success- protest against the anti-vivisection bills, fully upon a midshipman of the Naval which, though offered with good intenAcademy, was made possible by discov- tion, would, if passed, be as inhuman as eries of vivisectionists. The surgeon who a law "forbidding any person to aid in performed the operation, Dr. W. W. Keen, rescuing a drowning man.” In discusof Philadelphia, one of the highest au- ons of this the scientific opinion of thorities of his profession in this country, such an expert as Dr. Keen ought to be

final in determining the opinion of the tion. While it is recognized as unwise layman, otherwise knowledge would be at to attempt to replace the uniform system the mercy of ignorance. As regards the of the International Lessons, suited as ethics of the discussion, it is plain that it is to the large majority of Sunday. the view which considers the prohibition schools, the immediate need in these, of experiments upon living animals as says the call, "is to inspire a higher “ altruism,” and the application of such educational ideal of Biblical, moral, and experiments for saving human life as religious instruction.” But it is not “selfishness," would logically place the intended “to duplicate or rival the work veterinary surgeon at the head of the which any organization is now carrying medical profession and would exalt the on;" rather, to co-operate closely with the Brahminical civilization above the Chris- churches, and to supplement and assist tian. On the legal side, the practice of the work of the various other organizavivisection, like everything else which tions. Under present conditions “the concerns physical pain and death, should greater number of children grow up withbe carefully guarded from inexpert hands, out correct and adequate religious and and should be limited to those who are moral education.” These conditions have thoroughly qualified for it by training; for years been recognized with increasing but to prohibit it because some surgeons dissatisfaction. Individuals have striven are cruel would be like abolishing law singly and in groups to better them, but courts and newspapers because some there is needed some leadership to unify lawyers and editors are immoral. The such efforts. This it is proposed to suppeople have the right to say that it is ply as the scheme is progressively worked unwise to allow the practice of vivisection out by the directors and committees of the in the public schools--and The Outlook proposed association. Its immediate work believes that they ought to say so—but will be the creation of an adequate literthey also have the right to profit by ature of the movement, exhibiting desirdiscoveries made and physiological laws able ideals and methods, and beginning a established as the result of vivisection campaign of education on the whole subcarried on by scientific men.

ject. The list of signers to the call includes the names of about a hundred presidents

and professors of colleges and seminaries, A forward movement of with a larger number of pastors and others For Better Religious Education great significance " for interested in Sunday-schools, including

the improvement of re- Dr. B. B. Tyler, President of the Interligious and moral education through the national Sunday School Association. ConSunday-school and other agencies " has ferences between the leaders of the movebeen inaugurated under the auspices of ment and the signers of the call are being the Council of Seventy directing the held in some of the larger cities, to prepare American Institute of Sacred Literature for the organization and work of the at Chicago. For this purpose a National Convention by preliminary comparison of organization is proposed, and a formal views, and by securing agreement on the call has been issued for a Convention to course to be pursued in an uncharted create it. The Convention will be held sea. The strength at present apparent in at Chicago, February 10-12. It will be the movement is highly auspicious. The remembered that at the International Outlook is in full accord with thu belief Sunday-School Convention in Denver last expressed by the Council of Seventy, that June the Lesson Committee reported that this movement ... is a normal, timely, the majority of Sunday-schools are so and vital step in the development of our inadequately organized and manned that Christian civilization.” The time is ripe only the simplest plans of study can for the proposed work, and the field is be made effective. The call for the large and open. Convention states that perhaps twentyfive per cent of cur Sunday-schools have

In the annual report

The Harput Orphanage reached a stage of development ready

of Consul Norton, of for the introduction of a gradation both Harput, Asiatic Turkey, we find a referof pupils and of the material of instruc- ence to the Harput Orphanage, conducted and sustained by American benevolence. large school building now being erected Most of our news from Asia Minor comes is to have the same protection. from the American missionaries there, and is naturally of great interest to the religious world, it is a satisfaction also to

The work of Father Damien chronicle tidings which show how valu

With Lepers in Hawaii, of Mary Reed in

in Surinam able the work of American missionaries,

India, and of other self-deeducators, and philanthropists may be voting spirits elsewhere, has been inauguin the direction of industry. Speaking rated recently in Surinam, South America, of textiles, Mr. Norton says that, although among the victims of the living death of his region produces an excellent grade of leprosy, who there are numbered by huncotton, the native manufacture, which, dreds. The Dutch colonial government owing to the abundant water-power, should established an asylum for lepers in 1897, be a large one, is quite the contrary, as it to which every leper found on the streets is dependent entirely upon hand-power. is consigned. Dreading this as an AmerThe only advance is due to the Harput ican dreads the poorhouse, the lepers Orphanage, which has introduced the rarely venture out-of-doors; but interwearing of attractive patterns to meet the course with them in their homes, where popular taste, and is doing much to enable they support themselves by the sale of local industry to compete with English, small commodities, is an evil still unreGerman, and French looms. As to rug- stricted. Near the Government asylum weaving, the production from the Kurdish the combined Protestant churches of Surlooms of the region extends but little inam established in 1899 a leper settlebeyond local needs, while the rug depart ment possessing the attractiveness of a ment of the American orphanage is stead- Christian home and named “Bethesda " ily perfecting its work and turning out (the House of Mercy).

(the House of Mercy). Friends in Euproducts which find a ready sale in the rope and America have given aid, and a United States. The Harput Orphanage tiny village of little houses, each accomis able to command a dollar per square modating two patients in separate rooms, foot for its rugs, a price much in excess is now full. A young married couple, the of the average of Oriental make, and this Rev. H. T. Weiss and wife, with two deais due largely to the fact that the yarns conesses, Sisters Philippina and Martha, employed in our orphanage are dyed ex- have devoted themselves to this charge, clusively with vegetable coloring matter. dangerous but divine, and to the naturally The increasingly widespread use of the repulsive but humane services it requires. crudely brilliant but fugitive aniline dyes. Mr. Weiss, a clergyman of the Moravian in coloring materials for rug-weaving in Church, is now on a visit to this country Turkey is distinctly deplorable, and has to solicit aid for the expansion of this already led to a steady depreciation of good work, still unprovided with some their value in the eyes of American and important requisites. His mission is offiEuropean connoisseurs, when contrasted cialiy indorsed. He will be glad to send his with the products of Persian and Indian printed story of Bethesda, and all desired looms. Another indication of Ameri- information, to any who address him at can advance in commercial conditions at 225 West Twenty-third Street, New York. Harput is an incidental one. The various edifices of Euphrates College and of the American mission station at Harput were

A Southern correspondent in

A Correction destroyed in the massacres of 1895. In

forms us that the Georgia Legthe rebuilding of these structures Ameri- islature still meets annually and that the can steel roofing was used. Its manifest child labor bill defeated at the recent superiority to fragile tile roofs and to the session will be presented again at the next ponderous mud roofs hitherto in vogue session in June, with the prospect of comthroughout the Orient has now been rec- manding greater strength. It is the kind ognized. The city hall at Harput is of a bill that grows stronger every time it covered with American roofing, and a is “ killed.”

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