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sea, and took the train back to Toronto sprout, so to speak, in every direction; the next morning. I dared not leave; I I could see things. In a few months I did not know what would happen if I left. conceived the whole idea of what a city But when I began to see light and get on parish ought to be. I longed to make my feet again, I went off for a glorious St. James's such a parish, and I was certain holiday of nine weeks in the Rocky Moun- I could do it. Almost everything that I tains ; an while I was away the call came later carried out in St. George's Church from St. George's. Some one, no doubt, had was born in my mind in that year. heard me preach occasionally in the tent, I believe that the seizing of a fundaand at intervals I spoke in some church mental idea will change everything. I in the States, but rarely. The St. George's was not then entirely out of the maze, but people did not know anything about the I had the thread in my hand that led to condition of my church in Toronto; and if the maze's center. The whole thing came they had investigated towards the end, they to me with marvelous continuity; and, as would have found an immensely successful I say, the whole idea of what a great city church. The outside world knew nothing parish ought to be blossomed in my of my struggles. I had not spoken of them mind--a staff of young clergy being eduto one single friend but Phillips Brooks, cated to teach the people; above all, and to him I had said but little. I knew helped to learn to preach ; frequent servsomething about St. George's, having ices suitable to the special needs of the stayed with Dr. Williams, who succeeded people. I felt that we could have jammed Dr. Tyng, senior, right here in St. George's St. James's with thousands of people in Square; and Williams had thrown up his the way people used to throng Trinity hands in despair at the condition of affairs. Church, New York, in Lent, when they

When the call came from St. George's, were given a good preacher. Mrs. Rainsford could not find me I was I did not say a word to a soul, but kept off in the Rocky Mountains; but when I on working the thing out in my mind. got home she told me about it; and I said, No one knew about my struggles but God; “ I cannot take it ; I cannot go anywhere; there was only one man in Toronto I I must not leave here."

spoke at all freely with Dr. J. D. McThen suddenly the Dean died. I had Donnell, a Presbyterian. He had his own refused St. George's; and my way seemed troubles, and passed for a heretic, though perfectly plain. I had the pledge of my

I had the pledge of my I fancy no sivgle man in Toronto wielded wardens that I should be rector, and I more influence for good in those days. had the hearty support of my people. I He was a man who comforted and helped expected, as a matter of course, to be elected rector, and I was elected rector with In the midst of this deadlock came the practical unanimity. But, some little time second call from St. George's. Here I before, a new Bishop had been elected to was; my life mission was broken up; the the Diocese of Toronto, and he, standing Bishop had set his teeth and would not for the letter of the canon, which had not confirm my nomination-I could see that. been at all rigorously applied in Canada, My friends felt bitterly about it; but I felt said that he would not confirm my appoint- that the call from St. George's might be a ment because the vestry had not consulted way out. About this time I also had a call him before electing me. So here was to return to England; and if it had not everything changed again. The people been for the Athanasian Creed, I might perwere almost unanimously for me, but the haps have gone; I did not believe I could Bishop took a firm stand, and refused to repeat that creed; and, besides, I had a taste confirm the appointment. Nothing could of the new wine in a new country, and I be done. The deadlock was maintained began to want to stay. I received word that for several months, a very strong feeling Mr. Morgan and Mr. Stearns would come being developed against the Bishop in the upand talk with me, but I telegraphed back church. I felt that there was nothing to be that I would come to see them. On the way gained by staying under such conditions. down to New York I turned the situation It was a terrible disappointment to me; over in my mind. Dr. Williams had told I longed to stay there. My mind by this me he had been beaten ; that the Roman time was perfectly clear; it seemed to Catholics would not even take St. George's as a mission ; the only chance to do any. St. George's, and I determined to propose thing with it was to move uptown ; but he those conditions to the vestry. I had also had said that there was an immense very little hope that they would agree to population here that the church had never them. However, I also made up my touched. I knew the neighborhood a little, mind that if they would not agree I would and by that time I had absolutely fixed not accept the rectorship. in my mind that the only church worth I arrived in New York, and was most serving was a church that served the kindly received. I met the vestry in Mr. people, not one set or class of people Morgan's study, and they asked me to chiefly, and the people in the neighbor- become rector of St. George's Church. I hood of St. George's were the ones I had said: “I think the church has gone too made up my mind to work for. My far to be pulled up; I do not think I have church in Toronto was a pew church ; the strength or the capacity to pull it up; but the tremendous wave of religious but," I said, “I will undertake the work fervor had swept the pew idea out of on three conditions." the people's minds altogether; that is, “ Name your conditions," said Mr. the spirit diffused throughout the church Morgan; and I did: was so real that the people did not bother “ First, you must make the church absoabout their pews very much ; so the fact of lutely free-buy out all those who will not its being a pew church did not bar my way. surrender their pews; next, abolish all com


I want you to understand that the plans mittees in the church except the vestry; I have made and carried out here at and, third, I must have $10,000 for three St. George's were not suddenly formu- years, apart from my salary, to spend as I lated. Many, nearly all indeed, of the see fit; my salary I leave to you." ideas came to me during my last year in “ Done,” said Mr. Morgan. Toronto.

That which I did not expect had come On the train coming down I made up to me. But it was none of my seeking. my mind that a few conditions were abso- I bowed my head and thanked God. lutely essential to success in the work at


Collegeville—A Community in Miniature

By Ernest Hamlin Abbott

N a recent evening I was present ples of government; that, indeed, the

at a reception given by the offi- young man who has come from a foreign

cials of a city within a city. The land to the United States is likely to have hall was decorated with American flags; acquired some understanding of the printhe guests were assembled; a cornet ciples of democratic government by reason sounded ; and in came some thirty or of the very novelty of his surroundings; forty young men who were the hosts of and that what passes for such underthe occasion—the Mayor and other offi- standing among young American citizens cials of Collegeville, Lincoln County, is usually only an acquaintance with the N. Y. This was the last meeting for the machinery, rather than with the principles, year of a class in municipal government. of democracy. He has, therefore, formed

The method by which the class is con- classes or clubs of young men in different ducted is picturesque aud unique ; it was branches of the Association, and, instead devised by Mr. W. H. Sherman, Educa- of giving them lectures on what is comtional Director of the Twenty-third Street monly considered a rather dry subject, Branch of the Young Men's Christian he has trained them in establishing for Association in New York City.

themselves forms of civil government. result of his wide acquaintance with young The members of these classes are about men he has become convinced that there the same age as college undergraduates. is very little knowledge among young Among their number have been graduates American citizens, as well as among the of important American colleges. young foreigners, concerning the princi- The pre-assumption in the course un

As a

dertaken by these classes is that emotional may be five thousand dollars or a hundred patriotism, however indispensable, is not thousand dollars, or some sum between the force that will develop intelligence in the two. Hereupon suddenly these men performing civic duties; but that it is find the new problems that arise with interest engendered by holding property inequality of station and power. They that most simply and directly leads to have to find some way of getting at their interest in the principles of government. money, and so a bank is established, It is in order to make clear the partner- each man subscribing what he feels he ship that exists between property and can afford for some share of stock in the government that the first problems pre- enterprise. News is announced of the sented are those involved in the owner- hope of a railroad, and a committee is ship of property, in particular the owner- chosen to see that the town of Collegeville, ship of land.

as it is called, is nr i overlooked in the Let it be supposed, for example, that selection of the route. Money is subthere is a club of thirty-five young men, scribed by each according to his means ranging from eighteen to twenty-two years for shares in the railroad, and at last the of age, among them Italians, Irish, Ger- citizens have the satisfaction of seeing mans, possibly a Swede or Dane, and some the line appear on the map of their town. natives of America. They meet in a room The section which has been voted for the at the Association, and are informed that benefit of the railroad is laid off in lots. they are going to settle a township in New The store moves up near the station. York as a Western township on the public The cluster of houses about the station domain. The map, imaginary, of the is called Collegeville Center. Village life township is put before them, with its begins. A hotel is erected. This now sections and quarter-sections marked out, becomes the meeting-place. Churches and to each man is assigned a homestead. are organized, and funds are subscribed

As soon as these men find themselves for their maintenance. A church organthere in fancy, they meet with some very ization in order to be valid must have at pressing problems: Who is going to build least three adherents. Denominational the highways ? how are they going to get enthusiasm, mingled with considerable across the river? Some one will have to emulation, develops new groups among make roads and construct bridges or the citizens. Men owning land around establish (erries ; so they meet together the station divide their land in lots and offer and organize. Thereupon is established it for sale. Some opportunity for speculathe regular New England town meeting. tion and investment appears in the life of This form of government is adopted be- the town, and new problems evolved in cause it is the simplest, most elemental, all this growth have to be decided in town and most natural way in which democratic meeting. Questions of county governgovernment appears. Some committee has ment are also brought up by the necessity to be formed, and so they select their of transferring deeds and by the general selectmen. Highway Surveyors are chosen. growth occasioned by the railroad. There has to be a school established (a last, one evening, as the citizens assemble, section they already find allotted by the they are informed that a boom” has Federal Government for the school pur- struck the town and a city government poses), and so a School Committee is must be formed. elected. To one of the men falls the lot With the alteration of Collegeville from of being storekeeper, and after that the a town to a city, the distinctive problems room in which they meet in the Associa- of municipal government as they arise in tion is in the second story of his store. American cities begin to appear. The Gradually roads are constructed, build- election of Mayor is among the first. ings put up, dogs licensed.

Party politics shows its head. When party Up to this time they have been perfectly caucuses are called for, the Republicans equal in their opportunities, but one night start in one direction and the Democrats upon assembling they find bank-books in another, and some uncertain ones waver spread about on the table, and as each in the middle of the room until they see man picks one of them up he finds that where their companions go, and distribute he has fallen heir to a sum of money—it themselves accordingly. Nominations are

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made ; and then the question is asked, guests. The floor of the hall was filled What is the use of having an election ? with desks for the various officials, and They can see for themselves how the their designation indicated by placards question is decided. In this concrete hung above them. After an address of wel. way they see that if all Democrats always come by the Mayor, admirable speeches, voted as Democrats and all Republicans marked by a real, intimate, and lively always as Republicans, there would never knowledge of the subjects, and with a be any need of election. The power and considerable amount of wit, were made indispensableness of the independent vote by certain of the officials selected for the thus appear.

occasion. The Superintendent of Schools After that the municipal voting is for was a young Dane who had been in this the best man, irrespective of party pref- country a year or less. His command of erence. Heads of departments are ap- the English language and of the real prinpointed. Parks are established. Ques- ciples underlying the most enlightened tions of lighting and water supply are methods of municipal schools was remarkdealt with. As it is no longer possible able. Each of the other addresses had for all the citizens to meet together- in its way something striking and interfor Collegeville now boasts a population esting that gave it real distinction. of two hundred thousand !-a Board of The impression made upon more than Aldermen is established. Each man finds one guest was that these men had a practhat he is called upon to defend before tical knowledge of the subject of municipal the citizens his conduct of the department government that could be obtained other. with which he is connected. Consequently, wise only by experience in the governa Commissioner of Charities, for instance, ment of an actual and not imaginary city, finds that he is under the necessity of and that in their intelligent understanding knowing something about what the expe- of the problems of city government, as rience of city governments has established well as in their ideal of what city governas to the care of the sick, poor, and de- ment should be, they were more than the pendent portion of the population. So equals of many experienced city officials. with the Police Commissioner, the Fire If these men, whose interest in municipal Commissioner, the Corporation Council, government has been so quickened and the Superintendent of Schools, and the whose enthusiasm for the subject was others; each finds an especial subject of indubitable, keep clear the ideals that study in his own department.

they have received in their picturesque The last meeting in the Young Men's course, it will be by no means surprising Christian Association Building on Fourth if they are heard from in the future as Avenue and Twenty-third Street-before participating in the government of some its final abandonment by the Association American cities where high ideals of for other quarters--was the reception, to municipal government are sorely needed. which I have referred, given on April 8, In any event, they are certainly better able 1903, by his Honor the Mayor and the by reason of their training to perform the Aldermen and other officials of the city of function of citizenship and to contribute Collegeville to a large number of invited their share to enlightened public opinion.

To the Hepatica

By May Morgan
The earth all winter sleeping lies,
Then wakes from dreams of blue
To find above her April skies
And on her bosom-you!


By Edward A. Steiner
URING the counter reformation and unphonetic language, and occasion-

under Ferdinand II., Austria sent ally a sentence in the same queer speech,

her Protestants to the gallows or one might imagine himself anywhere to America, and among the large number among any American people of the workof those who preferred giving up their ing class ; nor is there a trace of the native homes to their faith were many Bohe country in the interiors, where one finds mians—the best and stanchest from stuffed parlor furniture, plush albums, lace that historic kingdom. In Baltimore the curtains, ingrain carpets, and a piano or churches they founded still stand, and a organ—all true and sure indications of sort of Forefathers' Day is observed by American conquest over inherited foreign their descendants, who, though they have tastes and habits. Yet the conquest is lost the speech of their fathers, still cling only on the surface, for it takes more than to the historic date which binds them to a carpet-sweeper to wipe out the love of a band of noble pioneers-close comrades that language for which Bohemia has in spirit to the Pilgrims of New England. suffered untold agony, to which it has Under Austrian rule Bohemia became clung in spite of the pressure brought to impoverished physically, mentally, and bear upon it by a strong and autocratic spiritually, and after the misgovernment government, and which it is trying to preof Church and State had done its worst, serve in this new home in which the Engthe food-tide of emigration set in anew lish language is more powerful to stop toward this country.

foreign speech than is the German in Bohemia grew to be in the last century Austria, though backed by force of law an industrial State, and the emigrants and force of arms. With five Bohemian who came here were half-starved weavers daily newspapers, with publishing houses and tailors, who naturally flocked to the printing new books each day, with preachlarge cities. In New York nearly the ing in the native tongue, and with sociewhole Bohemian population turned itself ties in which Bohemian history is taught, to the making of cigars, and the East Side, the Czechish language will not soon disfrom Fiftieth to about Sixty-fifth Streets, appear from the streets of Chicago; and is the center. In Cleveland, Ohio, 45,000 language to the Bohemian, as, indeed, to Bohemians live together, while Chicago all the Slavs, is history, religion, and life. boasts of a Bohemian population

The Bohemian emigrant comes to us 100,000, who nearly all live in one dis- burdened by rather unenviable charactertrict, which begins on Twelfth and Hal- istics, which his American neighbor soon stead Streets, and stretches southward discovers, and the love between them is almost to the stockyards, with a constant not great. Coming from a country which tendency to enlarge its boundary toward has been at war for centuries and in the better portions of the city. The large which to-day a fierce struggle between tenement-house is almost altogether ab- different nationalities is disrupting a great sent from this locality, the little frame empire and clogging the wheels of popular house of the cigar-box style being the government, he is apt to be quarrelsome, prevailing type of dwelling, and most of suspicious, jealous, clannish and yet facthe homes are owned by their tenants. tious; he hates quickly and long, and is This part of the city is as clean as the unreasoning in his prejudices; yet that people can make it in a place where street- for which a people is hated, and which we cleaning is a lost or never learned art, call characteristic of race or nation, soon and the prevailing dirt is clean dirt, with disappears under new environment, and here and there an inexcusable morass the miracle which America works upon which offends both the eye and the nostril. the Bohemians is more remarkable than The whole district is typical of Chicago any of our National achievements. The rather than of Bohemia, and if it were downcast look so characteristic of them not for the business signs in a strange in Prague is altogether gone, the surliness


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