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to him, even if they should feel so dis- A very interesting and picturesque story posed. In the present excited state of the story of the defeat of a powerful an public feeling, a Democrat who should strongly intrenched boss, is connecter vote for Mr. Addicks would probably be with Governor Garvin's election. Fa thrown out of one of the State House many years Rhode Island has been a boss windows. All that Addicks can do at ridden State, General Charles R. Brayto present, therefore, is to hold up the Legis- having been the commanding and contro lature and prevent the election of any ling figure in Republican State politics fo body, and this he can do only in case nearly a quarter of a century. Genera personal and factional ambitions and ani- Brayton was a brilliant soldier in the Civi mosities prevent the Democrats and Regu. War, and, like many of his fellow-officer: lar Republicans from combining against went into politics. He becanie postmaste him. If there be no choice of United of Providence, one of the most desirabl States Senator this winter, the responsi- offices in the State, but lost his positio bility for the failure to elect will rest, owing to an alleged improper politica first, upon Mr, Addicks, and, second, use on his part of Government money upon the Regular Republican party. For a time the machine politicians ignorer The Democrats are willing to enter him, but he soon regained his politica into a combination with the Regular position, and it is hardly too much to Republicans, provided the latter will give say that he has assumed and exercise them one of the two vacant Senatorial the function of a political dictator. Muc seats. They do not even insist on having of the time he has held no political office the long-term Senatorship, but will take but has had his desk in the State Capitol the short term and give the long term to from which he has guided and directe the Regulars if the latter will help them legislation. A few years ago he becam to eliminate Mr. Addicks as a factor in blind, but this did not interfere with hi Delaware politics. This, however, the control over the machine. At his desk hi Regular Republicans are not now disposed has received Representatives, Senators to do. Some of them are personally hos- and corporation agents on equal terms tile to Willard Saulsbury, who would prob- There is a current story that once hi ably be the Democratic nominee, while became impatient at a long session of the others have Senatorial ambitions of their House, and, after waiting for his luncheon own with which a coalition might interfere. until his hunger increased and his patience As The Outlook believes in the party diminished beyond the point of endurance system of government, it can understand he summoned the Sheriff and instructe the reluctance of Democrats to ally them- him to go in and see that the House selves with Republicans, or vice versa, in adjourned. What the Sheriff did is no ordinary political contests. But this is a matter of record, but it is known tha not an ordinary political contest; it is a when General Brayton reached his hotel National scandal.

the House had also reached it. Under

General Brayton's influence very obnoxious Rhode Island enjoys the corporation laws have been passed in The Defeat of a State Boss political distinction of being · Rhode Island. Indeed, his success in con

the only State north of the trolling and shaping legislation for purely Potomac and east of the Mississippi hav- material ends and with very little regard ing a Democratic Governor. Dr. Lucius to the rights and welfare of the people at C. Garvin was elected to the gubernatorial large brought him to that state mind chair last autumn on the Democratic which has preceded the downfall of so ticket by the astounding plurality of over many political bosses before him. 7,000 in a State which for years has been overwhelmingly Republican. While the Legislature of the State has a joint Repub

For nineteen years Gen

The Victory of a lican majority, it is not so large as to Persistent Reformer

eral Brayton and the make it impossible for Governor Garvin

"organization" have had to influence in a very considerable degree a quiet but persistent opponent. Dr. Luthe legislative as well as to direct the cius Garvin, a country physician, has been executive branch of the State government. constantly elected from his district as a

The Philippines: Philippine

Democrat even in years when the Re

The annual report of the publicans were overwhelmingly in con

Official Reports

Philippine Commission, trol. At first the bills that he intro

and also a separate report duced and the speeches that he made from Governor Taft, have just been made were either ignored or ridiculed. He public by the War Department. With was considered a crank and a radi- regard to existing conditions, the reports cal, but finally some of his measures agree in stating that armed opposition to began to attract popular support. He our forces has practically ceased, that persisted in writing to the papers and civil government has been extended in a making public speeches advocating the hopeful way, that ladronism continues to measures which he had unsuccessfully be the great curse of the islands, and that introduced into the House. In this way its prevalence is largely due to the lamentthe State at large gradually learned some- able condition of agriculture, caused partly thing about his personality, his character, by war and the ravages of cholera and and his political beliefs. He was instru- partly by the loss through disease of ninemental in the passage of the factory tenths of the water-buffalo, on which the inspection law, of the bill to make the cultivation of rice is entirely dependent. working day for motormen and conductors Governor Taft states that the Moros do ten hours, and in the abolition of the not understand popular government and landed-property qualification of the suf- do not desire it, and that the control by frage. This enlargement of the suffrage dattos or native chiefs may cease far in increased the vote of Rhode Island about the future, but at present it is necesa hundred per cent., and was of course of sary to provide “a paternal, strong, but direct and distinct advantage to those sympathetic government for these followwhom Lincoln called “the plain people.” ers of Mahomet.” During the year endThe serious street railway strike of ing June 30, 1902, imports have amounted the employees of the Rhode Island in full to forty-one millions, exports to Electric Railway last summer, which twenty-seven millions; capital seems to involved the cities of Providence and be timid in going to the Philippines. In Pawtucket in dangerous rioting, was a the recommendations of the two reports factor in the election. It was alleged stress is laid on the need of currency that General Brayton, the head of the reform and the reduction of duties on political machine, had practically acted imports into the United States from the as a special agent of the Rhode Island Philippines—the Commission recommends company in the passage of legislation a reduction of at least seventy-five per cent. favorable to its interests. ' Dr. Garvin, Governor Taft speaks earnestly about the who opposed the political injustices which labor problem, and commends the organhe believed were practiced by the Rhode ization of labor unions as likely, if propIsland company, not only surprised the erly directed, to give laborers a sense of the State by winning the Democratic nomina- dignity of labor and of their independence. tion against formidable opposition, but He declares the objections to the unlimited having been nominated, still more aston- introduction of Chinese to be logical, and ished the expert politicians by winning thinks it would prove an obstacle to the the election. It is another instance of opening of markets for Philippine products the fact that powerful boss rule may be, by the United States. The Commission, and often is, overthrown by patient, per- on this point, ask that power be given sistent, and upright effort to guard and to admit a limited number of Chinese, preserve the real interests of the public. certified to be skilled laborers, “on What Dr. Garvin will do in the executive the bond of the employer that for every chair time only can tell, but we earnestly Chinese skilled laborer en ployed he will hope that he will show such a combination employ a Filipino apprentice, and that he of practical wisdom and scrupulous integ- will return the Chinese skilled laborer rity that the political managers of the thus introduced within five years after his State may be convinced that honesty is admission to the country, and that he shall the best policy, even if they are unable to pay a tax of not exceeding $50 for each understand, aspire to, or practice honesty Chinaman so

so admitted to the insular on other and higher grounds,

government to meet the expenses of the

The Tariff on Art

enforcement of these restrictions.” It will seem as if the time were ripe for entirel be noted that this proposition contains at removing the tariff from works of art; bu least one important restriction not con- in the judgment of the men who have th tained in the plans for admitting Chinese matter in charge, it is better to tak labor which have hitherto been discussed one step at a time. The few peopl in this country. Nevertheless, the impos- who think that art can be protected ai ing of these restrictions does not meet the not opposed to the free importation ( objection that the plan essentially amounts works of art which are more than fift tò authorizing coolie contract labor, under years old. Mr. Ruckstuhl, who has ri which the laborers would for years have centiy resigned his position in charge no control of their own industrial con. the sculpture at the World's Fair to b ditions. Other important recommenda- held in St. Louis next year, declares tha tions of the Commission are that individ- he regards any tax on art from the poin uals or corporations may be allowed to of view of protection as absurd. It is hold interest in more than one mining in effect, a denial of American talent i claim; and that the amount of public art. The American artists are amply abl land which may be sold held by indi- to take care of themselves; they have mad viduals or corporations shall be increased great advances during the past few years to twenty-five thousand acres, the argu- they have developed men who rank wit] ment being that, as the Government owns the first artists of the world, and they arı sixty:five out of seventy million acres, creating a new school of art which promise: there is no danger of concentration of to take its place with the great schools o ownership in individuals or corporations. the past. In Mr. Ruckstuhl's judgment

the taxing of collections made in Europe

by such men as Mr. Pierpont Morgan The bill removing the composed as they are largely of works

duty on works of art pro- of art that can never be duplicated, is vides that works of art which were created absurd : fifty years before the date of importation We have first-class painters and sculptors shall be free of duty. Some obscurity of although not so many as there are in Europe statement in the comment of The Outlook

But a picture of an old master cannot possibly

compete with modern works of art, because it upon this bill two weeks ago led to mis

was painted when the art of painting was apprehension as to the provisions of the practiced as it never can be practiced again, bill. The movement of which the bill is It was the reflex of a spiritual and intellectual the expression seems to be gaining ground. condition which cannot be repeated here.

Our modern tendency is in a different direction. Mr. Kenyon Cox, the Secretary of the

A painting by an old master would be an Fine Arts Federation, recently said that, acquisition, as are the writings of Homer, while there might not be any action on Virgil, and Dante, which were the result of a the bill during the present session, it was to-day, and must be appreciated simply for

different spiritual atmosphere from that of hoped that a hearing would be given by their intrinsic beauty, for the expression of a the Ways and Means Committee in order life and a social state which are forever past, that the arguments in favor of the bill and, therefore, in a large measure must be might be laid before Congress and so

entered in the category of archæological and before the country. It is hoped also to ethnological things, se to speak. engage the personal attention of President Roosevelt, whose interest in all mat

The coal famine remains ters relating to the development of the

The Coal Scarcity unbroken, although the

and Dearer Oil higher civilization of the country, and

December output at the whose sympathy with art in all its forms, mines was the greatest on record. The would naturally commit him to a wise and mild weather in the anthracite-using dismost generous policy. The most notice- trict last week kept the situation from able aspect of the agitation is found in becoming acute, but even in New York the fact that there is no serious opposition City, where the coal roads converge, the to the proposed modification of the tariff great body of consumers are compelled to law. No official body or person has pay from eight to ten dollars a ton. recently declared in favor of the protec- Those who have turned to the use of oil ion of the American artist. It would in this emergency have been chagrined to

find the price of this fuel also advanced. divided into five grades according to the Almost at the same time that the Standard amount of their earnings, and those of the Oil Company announced another divi- fifth grade--getting $800 a year or lessdend—bringing the aggregate of the are permitted to invest 20 per cent. of their year up to forty-five per cent. on its year's earnings in the preferred stock, while $100,000,000 of capitalization—it ad- employees of the next higher grade may vanced the price of oil a cent a gallon in invest but 15 per cent., and those of the barrels, and two cents a gallon in cases. very highest grade only 5 percent. FurtherThe Standard Oil Company is so continu- more, the employees of the higher grades ously cited by trust apologists as their cannot purchase any of the preferred illustration of the possibility of lower prices shares until the subscribers of the lower through the monopolization of an industry grades have received their full allotment, that it is of interest to compare present if they care to buy shares. This feature of prices with those prevailing when the the offer calls attention to the fact that monopoly was established in 1882. An only a minority of the employees can examination of the record shows that oil become profit-sharers under this scheme, today is actually dearer than it was as there are only 25,000 of the “profittwenty years ago. Prior to that time the sharing shares and there are 168,000 price of refined oil had fallen, as a rule, persons in the employment of the Comfrom seven to ten per cent. each year ever pany. Expressed in simple terms, theresince petroleum was first put upon the fore, the amount of the offer is this: market at the beginning of the Civil War. The Company will help several thou. Export prices by the barrel mean little to sand of its employees to become sharethe ordinary consumer, but they form the holders, lending them, if necessary, at official basis of comparison. In the 5 per cent. interest, the money needed decade preceding the complete establish- to buy the shares. To these sharement of the trust the export price of oil by holders, so long as they remain in the the barrel in New York fell from 24 cents continuous employment of the Company, a gallon to 7%2 cents. During the two it will out of its profits distribute a bonus decades following this event, the price of of $5 a share, or $125,000 in all. This oil by the barrel has risen from 772 cents means a bonus of $10 a year to the worka gallon in 1882 to 872 cents a gallon in man who gets the two shares for which 1903. If improvements in manufactur- most of them are allowed to subscribe, ing and economies in production have but if it were distributed among the whole gone on as in the days of competition in body of the employees it would amount to the oil industry, the public has surely not less than a dollar apiece. The other porreceived the benefit.

tion of the profit-sharing offer is decidedly liberal. This is made only to those hold

ing official positions or in some way On New Year's Eve the responsible for economical management. The Steel Trust's Profit-Sharing

United States Steel Cor- To members of this class the Company

poration announced offers a share in the profits rising from 1 elaborate plan-or rather two elaborate per cent. when the profits aggregate plans—which it has adopted for sharing $80,000,000 a year to 272 per cent. when future profits with its employees. The first the profits reach $150,000,000. Upon the of these, which is open to all its employees, profits reported by President Schwab last but particularly to the ordinary wage May ($115,000,000), the bonus paid to earners, offers them the opportunity to officials under this plan would have been purchase on extremely easy terms 25,000 1.6 per cent., or $1,840,000-or fifteen shares of preferred stock at a trifle less times the bonus allotted to workmen than the current market price, and prom- becoming shareholders. The New York ises them thereon not only the regular “Tribune's” despatch from Pittsburg seven per cent. dividends whenever earned, reports that the higher officials warmly but also a further dividend of five dollars applaud the new plan of profit-sharing, a year for each share so long as the owner but that the workmen almost universally remains in the “continuous” employment condemn it, declaring that the bonus of the Corporation. The employees are offered them is of little value and bound by

an

Conditions

conditions lessening their freedom to quit after making specific recommendations work. Other despatches, however, indi- for municipal legislation on the points cate that some of the workmen are eagerly above stated, advised municipal control subscribing for the preferred shares, and and operation. Whether or not this recthe friends of profit-sharing hope that the ommendation by the Grand Jury is purpose of the Corporation to express beyond the usual scope of the action of and promote good feeling between em- such a body is a matter of no particular ployers and employed may yet be achieved importance ; it is of very great public among the wage-earners as it already is interest that an official and legal body of among the employees holding the more this kind should reach this solution. The responsible positions.

presentment of the Grand Jury declares that “the efficiency and advisability of

the participation of government in this Two important and definite sort of work has been abundantly demonStreet Railway

results have already fol. strated,” and it points to the water system

lowed the investigation into of New York and other large cities, the the intolerable conditions now existing economical conduct of gas plants owned on the street and elevated railways in in many cities of the United States and New York. The investigation of the New Great Britain, and especially the manYork Street Railway Commission was agement of the Brooklyn Bridge, as conreally forced by the fact that the crowding vincing examples of what may be done of the cars and other objectionable fea- through municipal control. Finally, the tures had reached such a point that the . Grand Jury recommends that the municipublic could no longer endure them. The pality of New York acquire all the street, Commission has now issued a peremptory elevated, and tunnel railway systems, and order directing the elevated railways to operate them for the benefit of the city, continue during what are called non-rush with the further suggestion that the hours the full service afforded in the Attorney-General might properly take rush hours; it has also directed that the action for the forfeiture of the franchises elevated roads shall by the end of of these companies on the ground that March add three hundred cars to those they have not performed the functions already in service (thus giving room for allotted to them by their charters, and fourteen thousand more passengers than that after such forfeiture the city could under the present service), and that a properly obtain control. It is not probthird track be constructed in certain parts able that these recommendations will be of the system.

While the officials of the followed immediately or as a whole, but road say, with some appearance of justice, the action of the Grand Jury has certainly that less than the full service may suffice set the people of the city thinking about to seat all passengers at certain times of the possibilities of municipal control in the day, it is certain that accommodation the future, and it should at least prove a has not been furnished at times when it warning to the companies involved that might easily have been provided, and it public utilities must be so managed that would be difficult to frame an order which public comfort and public decency shall would accomplish the end sought in any be maintained. other way than by demanding full service all the time. The other result of the

Last week's news from investigation to which we have referred

Morocco was hardly was the rather startling recommendation

of a reassuring nature. of the Grand Jury of Kings County in its The country is suffering from a case of presentment as to the service provided “ Pretender.” In the present instance by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company. the Pretender's name is Omar Zarahuni, The Grand Jury not only emphatically a native of the mountain district near asserted that the cars are poorly venti. Fez, the capital. He began his mission, lated, dirty, badly lighted and badly it is said, with such clever exhibitions of heated, and that the crowding of people conjuring tricks that the superstitious in them during the rush hcurs is shame- natives came to regard him as possessed ful and indecent, but it went further, and, of superhuman power. Omar was not

The Insurrection in

Morocco

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