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them go, but would change and modify, what domestic architecture in town or redesign completely if necessary, and country should be. It may be the purely never be content until they did look right. domestic side shown in the country house, With what is generally considered less together with knowledge of and love for important work—i.l., domestic-Cope was the animals that are housed in stable and equally successful, but especially with barn, and the love of flowers and green houses set in the surroundings of the things that are fairly and in order set country he loved.
In such work he was about the house ; or it may be the grand exceptionally at home, and absolutely free town house, where is shown the knowlfrom any touch of that love of ostentation edge of the lives of gentlefolk, and means which makes so many of our country and methods for entertaining friends and houses seem merely vulgar when they performing those social duties which, if wish to look grand. It is true that the worth doing at all, are worth doing well. larger work affects a larger number of peo. His houses are quiet, simple, modest, unple, but I believe the architect can do no assuming, yet full of charming touchesnobler duty than to help to show people in short, quite like himself.
By Charlotte Fiske Bates
Eden-like apple-blooms, linger long,
For when your beauties have opened wide,
That the lovely things of the fresh young May
Winds, move softly, lest ye should blow
Is it because I am growing old
Because the curfew of life has rung,
Rather, if nearing Eternal Day,
Yet so I do, and I hold it fast,
Childhood of Nature ! I love thee so,
For I feel at my heart a subtle pain
UTLYING colonies, inadequately egist saw at a glance that her undoing lay
defended, are, in time of war, in her possessions in the East and West
sources of serious weakness to Indies, and that a campaign in the Peninthe mother country. This military axiom sula was inadvisable unless control of was never better exemplified than in the the sea were first obtained, and that, if case of Spain at the time of her struggle attempted, it would be productive of great with the United States. The naval strat- loss without compensating advantage.
On the other hand, destruction of SpanCopyright, 1902, by the Outlook Company. All rights ish power in the Philippines, Cuba, and reserved.
This is the sixth of a series of twelve papers to appear Porto Rico would force the Madrid Govin the Magazine Numbers of The Outlook. Other pa
ernment to its knees, while Continental pers will be: The Blockade of Cuba, Bottling up Cervera's Fleet, The Battle of Santiago, Valiant Deeds in the War with Spain; Samoa, the Philippines, and China; icy, would not be disposed to regard with
Europe, unfriendly to our action and polRecent Naval Lessons.
approval an American invasion of the demonstrated their birthright. The flagterritory of one of its powers, but, on the ship was the protected cruiser Olympia, other, could not question the destruction of 5,800 tons displacement, which had been of Spanish power in the Philippines, Cuba, laid down in San Francisco in 1890. and Porto Rico, although the result would Following her lead were the protected be to force the Madrid Government to cruiser Baltimore, of 4,600 tons, built at yield.
Philadelphia in 1887-88; the protected These conclusions caused the Navy cruiser Raleigh, of 3,217 tons, built at Department, in preparing plans for war, the Norfolk navy-yard between 1889-92 ; to fix primarily on the East and West the protected cruiser Boston, of 3,000 Indies as theaters of naval operations. tons, one of the pioneers of the New Navy, Annihilation of the Spanish squadrons in the keel of which was laid at Chester, those regions would require the despatch Pa., in 1883; the gunboat Concord, from Spain of new forces, which, deprived 1,710 tons, contracted for in 1888; and of support at points of destination and the gunboat Petrel, 892 tons, of date of embarrassed by voyages far distant from 1887. Accompanying them were
were the their initial bases, could be met and over- modern revenue cutter McCulloch, 1,400 come by superior commands. Observ- tons, used as a despatch-boat, the collier ance of a policy predicated upon these Nanshan, and the supply-ship Zafiro, the deductions assured complete defeat for last two purchased at Hongkong just the enemy, protection of our own shores before the outbreak of the war. and commerce, and achievement of the The possibility of a rupture with Spain humanitarian purposes of the war-free. existed during the closing year of the dom of Cuba and accordance to its peo- administration of President Cleveland, ple of the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and Secretary Herbert had taken precauand the pursuit of happiness.
tionary measures to maintain an effective Thus the campaign adopted by the naval force in Asiatic waters. ExaminaNavy Department had two main object- tion of the list of vessels on foreign ives—the absolute crushing of the Spanish stations in 1898 shows that the fighting squadron in Philippine waters and the ships in the East were the Olympia, Boscontrol of the sea in the Atlantic Ocean. ton, gunboat Machias, and gunboat YorkStrategical and tactical blunders by the town. The Machias and Yorktown reSpanish Admiral in the Far East, the quired overhauling and were ordered to demoralized condition of his command, return to the United States, but, that there and the promptness, magnificent courage, should be no diminution of the strength and high efficiency of the officers and of the squadron, they were replaced by men who fought under the Stars and the Petrel and Concord. Stripes, enabled the attainment of the Portentous signs of war caused the former object first. The victory gained Department under Mr. Herbert's succesin Manila Bay was important from a stra- sor to give the closest study to the numtegical standpoint, but, of far greater con- ber and character of the fleet stationed by sequence, was productive of far-reaching Spain in the Philippine Islands. Lieuinternational and territorial results. It tenant George L. Dyer was appointed must, therefore, take rank as one of the naval attaché in Madrid in the summer foremost achievements of modern wars. of 1897, and it was a comparatively easy
Seven hours only were required by the matter to ascertain through him the exact American squadron to place the Philip- number of Spanish ships in the East, and pine Archipelago at the mercy of the whether despatch of reinforcements was United States, and relieve this Govern- contemplated; but it was far more difficult ment of anxiety for the Pacific slope and to find out the condition of the vessels. its trans-Pacific trade. More than seven As a matter of fact, the Department was years, however, had been needed to pro- unable to learn the state of their effectivevide the ships and perfect the personnel ness. It knew that the Spanish force comwhich accomplished this result. The prised the iron cruiser Reina Cristina, flagmen-of-war participating in the actual ship, of 3,520 tons, built at Ferrol. Spain, fighting on that famous first of May, 1898, in 1887; the wooden Castilla, 3,260 ons, were born of the New Navy, and well they launched at Cadiz in 1881; the iron gun
THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY. TAKING THE CREW FROM THE BURNING REINA CRISTINA
The lower panel gives a general view of the battle at its height.
Drawn by Henry Routerdahl
boats Don Juan de Austria and Don entrance to the Bay of Manila is divided Antonio de Ulloa, 1,159 tons each, con- by the island of Corregidor into two structed at Cartagena and Carraca respec- channels, one known as the Boca Grande tively, in 1887; the steel gunboats Isla and the other as the Boca Chica. Boca de Cuba and Isla de Luzon, 1,045 tons, Grande was covered by three 6-inch Armlaid down at Elswick, England, in 1886; strong breech-loading rifles, three 12the Velasco, 1,152 tons, constructed at centimeter breech-loading rifles, and three Blackwall, England, in 1881; gunboats 16-centimeter Palliser muzzle-loading Marques del Duero, 500 tons, and Gen- rifles, and Boca Chica by three 8-inch eral Lezo, 525 tons; surveying ship Argos, muzzle-loading Armstrong rifles, three 18508 tons; and a score of mosquito gun- centimeter Palliser muzzle-loading rifles, boats. The march of events pointing and two 16-centimeter Hontoria breechinevitably to war, Spain made a feeble loading rifles. Within twenty-four days attempt to augment her shore defenses, the defenses of the entrance of Manila and sent to Manila the Isla de Mindanao, Bay were put in condition for action, and one of her large auxiliary ocean liners, just before the declaration of war the heavily laden with guns and other muni- battery at Sangley Point was reinforced tions of war.
by one 14-centimeter breech-loading rifle. None of the Spanish vessels in the Several hulks were sunk in the northwest Philippines was capable of operating at a channel of Subig Bay; but four 15-centiconsiderable distance from a well fur- meter guns sent to defend this harbor nished and protected base, but, if in effect lay unmounted when the American squadive condition, they comprised, with the ron arrived. shore defenses, a formidable force for the Every effort was made by our Navy small United States squadron to attack, Department to learn the number and especially as the latter was certain to caliber of the guns comprising the bathave the ports of Asia barred by the insti- teries defending Manila and Subig Bay, tution of unyielding neutrality, and was and while some information was obtained seven thousand miles from a port where through our naval attaché and confidenit could hope to obtain assistance. In tial sources in Madrid and through United estimating Spain's strength in the East States Consul O. F. Williams, who reIndies, therefore, it was necessary to con
mained in Manila until forced to leave, it sider the batteries placed at the points at was not sufficiently accurate to be of much which it was likely her feet would take value. The condition of the defenses in station for the battle.
A dispute with 1897 was reasonably well known. As Germany over the Caroline Islands had war approached, additional guns were threatened war a few years before Span. placed, but in what numbers and at what ish-American relations became acute; and, positions could not be ascertained. Mines to defend her possessions in the Pacific were also reported to have been laid. from German assault, Spain installed at The mistake of underrating the strength Manila and other important points high- of the enemy was not made. It was adpowered guns capable of sinking any of visable that our squadron should be supe the ships of our little squadron. Manila rior to that of Spain in order to offset the was defended in the fall of 1897 by four advantage lent to the latter by the shore 972-inch muzzle-loading rifles; four 57- batteries. The Olympia completed her inch converted breech-loading rifles, and tour of duty on the Asiatic Station in the fifteen 6.3-inch obsolete muzzle-loading winter of 1897–98, and was ordered to bronze rifled guns, distributed in front of San Francisco for repairs and alterations. and along the mediæval wall located on Ten days after the destruction of the the bay shore of the city. A casemated Maine, these orders were revoked and she earthwork of entirely modern character, was directed to remain in the East. The over which poked the muzzles of two 15. Raleigh was attached in 1897 to the centimeter Ordonez rifled guns, was built European Station, which was certain to be at Sangley Point. A stone redoubt at abandoned in case of war, and instrucCavite and the antiquated Fort San Felipe tions were sent to her in December of adjacent were the sites of three 6.3-inch that year to join the Asiatic Squadron. Armstrong muzzle-loading rifles. The The Baltimore was placed in commission