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criticism for administrative faults-par- violating the city ordinances every day. ticularly his failure to suppress gambling. None of these violations of law was slight houses and keep the streets clean. Mr. or unimportant. The crossing was in any Stewart promises, if elected, to give the weather and at any time a most dangerous city a first-class business administration. place—such a grade crossing as a proper His critics contend, however, that, with railroad law would not permit to exist. the traction question unsettled, no man Unfortunately, New Jersey has no Railshould be elected Mayor of Chicago who road Commission, and the attempt to is without a record on that question, which carry through the Legislature a very modis the case with Mr. Stewart. The latter erate law for a Commission (a law the is subjected to some criticism, too-his only fault of which is that it is not suffifriends claim unjustly-because his nomi- ciently stringent) seems unlikely to sucnation came to him at the hands of a ceed. The Newark Grand Jury has now rather unpopular party machine. The acted with courage and independence. It favorite of the independent Republican has not only found indictments for manelement for the nomination was John slaughter against the roadmaster, general Maynard Harlan, son of Justice Harları, superintendent, division superintendent, of the Federal Supreme Court, who polled and assistant superintendent of the trolley seventy thousand votes as an independent line, but also has gone to the fountain of candidate for Mayor in 1897. Without authority, and has indicted the President, any organization to start with, Mr. Harlan Vice-President, and executive officers of secured more than a third of the delegates the North Jersey Street Railway Comto the recent Republican city convention pany. The list includes Mr. A. J. Casthat nominated Mr. Stewart. There is satt, President of the Pennsylvania Railalso a full labor ticket in the field, but it road, Mr. John D. Crimmins, a well-known is not expected to secure a heavy vote. contractor and capitalist of this city, Mr. The people of Chicago do not allow inter- E. F. C. Young, a prominent banker of est in a Mayoralty election to divert their Jersey City. The Grand Jury takes the attention wholly from the City Council, ground that the highest officials of the road thirty-five members of which are to be are not only technically but morally elected at the same time. Chicago boasts responsible for the deaths of these chilof having the best Council of any large dren. It may be hoped that this direct city in the country, and the nominations piacing of responsibility upon those highmade-largely through the activity of the est in authority may have throughout the non-partisan Municipal Voters' League- country the effect of increasing the watchassure the continued high quality of that fulness and administrative care which the body for the year to come.
officials of all such lines should undoubtedly exercise. The criticism has been
made that in such a case as this it may There has never been any be hard to secure actual punishment in Indictments question that the frightful the case of indicted officials who are only
trolley accident in Newark, remotely concerned with the actual occurby which nine school-children were killed,
It must be shown in this case was the result of criminal carelessness that the executive officers either did know and recklessness. The only difficulty in or should have known about the condifixing responsibility has been that the guilt tions at the crossing; the first is entirely is distributed among many people, all de- improbable, the second may be held at serving of severe censure. Thus, not only least in theory. As to the responsibility were the trolley conductor and motorman of the officials who directly control the clearly guilty of violating the regulations, working of the trolley line in Newark but the superintendent and other oper- there can be no question, and it may be ating officials of the trolley road were, it added that equal responsibility rests upon was shown, perfectly well aware that their the city officials who were willfully and rules were being violated daily, while the perhaps corruptly blind to violations of city officials were equally negligent in not the law. The citizens should watch for enforcing the city by-laws, and the steam- future violations of law as well as applaud railway company was also shown to be prosecution for past offenses,
The labor movement in Eng- government if returned to power with a Labor Politics in England
land has reached a critical slender majority.
stage. Trades-unionists are beginning to separate themselves from the two existing political parties, drawing
According to last week's des
Macedonia a hard and fast line of demarcation be
patches from Constantinople, tiveen Labor and Liberal or Labor and considerable dissatisfaction was expressed Conservative. The movement was ini- at the Austrian and Russian Embassies tiated. in the first place by Mr. Keir with the tardiness of the Turks in carryHardie, M.P., and now boasts a member- ing out the Macedonian reform plan. The ship of over 800,000, the constituent Embassies are unable to watch the manelements being the large trades-unions ner in which the Porte fulfills or fails to and members of the Independent Labor fulfill its engagements, because they have party and other Socialist organizations. not received copies of the code of regulaUp to this time the Miners' Federation tions drafted by the Turkish Council of has held aloof, and also the extreme State for the application of the reforms. Socialists represented by the Social Dem- Dissatisfaction has also been expressed ocratic Federation. At the last general in Macedonia even with the long-desired election fifteen candidates were voted for provision that the taxes shall not be asbut only two, Mr. Richard Bell, M.P., and sessed by the same person who collects Mr. Keir Hardie, were returned to Parlia- them. The prompt payment of the local ment. Mr. Bell has since been censured officials, especially the gendarmerie, profor the assistance which he rendered to vided by the reform which the Powers certain Liberal candidates. At the next have imposed on the Sultan, would seem general election it is quite probable that to remove the chief cause of bribery, some fifty candidates will be named. This outrage, and oppression, and we may great movement is largely the outcome of look for some relief from the oppressive the Taff Vale decision, a judgment which course taken by the civil and military seriously and radically affected the whole representatives of the Turkish Governposition of trades-unions. The Amalga- ment. The Sultan must certainly be mated Society of Railwaymen, of which allowed sufficient time in which to instiMr. Richard Bell is Secretary, has been tute the reforms to which he has agreed, mulcted in damages to the amount of though the continued arrival of Macedo£23,000. Trades-unionists, resolved to nian refugees in Bulgaria is a disquieting alter by legislative enactment the law as symptom. The Powers are bringing pressthus interpreted, are determined to place ure to bear upon Prince Ferdinand of their own representatives in the House of Buigaria to keep the Macedonian revoluCommons. This new political movement tionary committees quiet. The region on the part of trades-unionists is not in about Samakov in Bulgaria has been their open antagonism to either party, although headquarters for arming. Bands of brigat the present moment it seems to be antag- ands, representing the Macedonian comonizing the Liberals to a greater extent than mitrees, form in that region and march the Conservatives. It is probable that in over the border. After some weeks' the final issue the Radical wing of the absence they return without arms, and are Liberal party will compel the Liberals to again equipped. They declare martial make some sort of “give and take ” alli- law and condemn to death those who do ance with the labor men, apportioning to not fall in with their plans, or help supthem one seat in each of the large double- port the cause by contributions of money. member industrial constituencies, and re- In this way they have intimidated the ceiving in return the support of the trades- Christian subjects on the Turkish side of unionists and Socialists in constituencies the border, and especially the Greek where labor candidates would be without Christians, to whom they, as Bulgarians, any possible chance of success. Any are inimical. Last week the President of other solution would probably mean the the Græco-English Byron Society received keeping of the Liberal party out of office a letter from the Greeks of Macedonia for many years still to come, or at least a complaining that, after waiting for centuparalysis of that party as an engine of ries for deliverance from the Ottoman yoke,
“we are now scourged by the heavier atheistic Radical wing is now bent upon oppression of brigand bands aided by the a destructive policy towards all forms of Bulgarian committees, who not only rob, religion. However necessary it may have but do not stop at murder, cruelty to been to banish from France those monaswomen, and arson.” It would therefore tic orders which have been shown to be seem as if Turkey's recent mobilization of at enmity with republican government, it 240,000 men might find abundant police is not necessary to go beyond this and duty at home and de ensive work on the denounce the Concordat-a time-honored frontier.
pact, now a century old, between the
Vatican and the Government of France, Last week The Outlook chron- assuring financial support, not to the Chartreuse
icled the French Parliament's monks, but to the priests and bishops,
refusal to authorize a continu- who are, as a rule, of the admirable class ance of the work done by many of the described by Halévy in “L'Abbé ConRoman Catholic male teaching orders, on stantin." It would be better for the exthe ground that they fomented discontent tremists to follow the advice which Premier with the actual Government. By the Combes, himself a Radical, gave to them new Law of Associations every associa- last week. He would not say that the tion, religious or secular, must obtain day for the denunciation of the Concordat Governmental authority to exist. This would not sometime arrive, but declared week we have to record the Parliament's that the time for its denunciation had action in refusing authorization to the not yet come; and he declared that the commercial monastic orders. Of these, Government would maintain the Conthe Carthusian is the most important, as cordat if, on their part, the clergy would it is the wealthiest order in France. The keep out of politics. Carthusians (or Chartreux) have long been employed in the manufacture of a cordialchartreuse. Most of the money they
Before the Church Club make is nobly used in benefactions and
Captain Mahan on of New York, Captain
Personal Religion in the foundation of hospitals, schools,
Alfred T. Mahan, of the and churches throughout the country in . United States navy, who is widely known the neighborhood of their great monas- as the foremost writer on sea power and tery, as Abbé Lemire claimed in defending allied subjects, spoke last week on the them in Parliament last week; he also pre- subject of “Personal Religion.” It is sented a petition signed by nearly a hun- rare that this subject is touched upon dred thousand in habitants of the country without some appearance of disingenuoussurrounding the monastery begging that ness or sentimentality. Captain Mahan's the Carthusians be not banished. Re- address, notable of itself as coming from plying, M. Combes, the Premier, declared a man of his standing, was therefore the that the Carthusians should not be favored more notable because of its dignity, its because they were rich, or because their transparent sincerity, and the persuasive departure would certainly mean serious beauty of both its substance and its form. loss to the region in which their mother- The extent to which the Christian impulse house-La Grande Chartreuse—was situ- is to-day languid he attributed to two ated (the country just north of Grenoble). immediate causes : the advance of science, The fact was, he said, that the Carthu- by which God is revealing those forces sians had conducted an active propaganda which seem to some eyes to obscure against the Republic, culminating in the him; and criticism of the Bible, which signature of their Superior-General to a seems to necessitate a radical change in recent pamphlet urging all citizens not to our ideas concerning the nature of God's pay their taxes, and to boycott the Repub- revelation-ideas, as Captain Mahan lican officials. By a vote of almost three tersely expressed it, “which being ours to two, the Radical and Socialistic major- were not necessarily God's." Back of ity in the Chamber of Deputies then these immediate causes he placed, howrefused authorization to the Carthusians. ever, the ultimate cause--the habit of being It is evident to many friends of the Gov. governed by appearances rather than by ernment, however, that the extreme and love of God himsels. For this reason a certain benevolent feeling toward man- man's poem music whion has called forth kind has to a great degree been substituted a great deal of comment, much of it for personal loyalty to God as the con- praise, in England, in Germany, and now trolling impulse of the Christian life, and in the United States. The poem reprehumanitarian activity put in place of the sents the death of a man, the passage Christian life itself. The remedy for a lan- of his soul in the company of his guid Christian impulse, he declared, is the guardian angel up into the piercing restoration of the personal direct relation presence of God, and finally down to of the soul to God as the prime object. languish and to be cleansed in purgatory. This means that a man · should seek to It is a curious commentary, not only on save his own soul, not from hell, but from the mediæval character of this Roman sin; not for his own sake, but for the sake Catholic poem, but also on the mediæval of God, because sin is hateful to God; not spirit of some modern Protestants, that to satisfy himself, but to lay his life at the two or three of the chorus in New York feet of him who gave himself for that life. refused to sing because of the doctrines A man's soul is not his only charge, but embodied in the cantata! With enthusiit is the one specially committed to him astic devotion, Mr. Elgar, who is a sincere alone; as he fulfills that charge, so he Roman Catholic, has written music marshows his love to God. Then out of that velously expressive of the mystical spirit love and out of that duty duly performed of a mediæval church ; but instead of all other love and other duties will natu relying on antique devices, he has called rally flow. Love to man and service of to his use all the resources which the man will then rightly be the fruit of Chris- modern development of music offers. tian life instead of being substituted for And of these resources Edward Elgar that life. Such an address cannot be is a proven master. He wields the reported thus in outline without being orchestra with the confidence and somemarred and deprived of its best qualities; times with the daring of Richard Strauss. but we do thus report it because it states He weaves the voices of the chorus an aspect of religious truth that needs as only a master of counterpoint can, to-day especial emphasis. No ripple of so that in the midst of ultra-modern philanthropy in the sea of human life harmonies every part has strong melodic ought to be regretted because it has value. He uses the solo voices, too, extended so far that the original impulse not for singing recitatives and arias, which sent it on its course has been for- after the conventional fashion of Handel gotten; but, on the other hand, it will be or Mendelssohn, but rather for singing a the end of all service for man if that continuous melody, as Wagner uses them impulse ceases to be exerted. It ought in his music-dramas. Indeed, Elgar's to be said, however, that the highest relig cantata bears much the same relation to ious condition is attained when humani- the traditional cantata or oratorio that tarian service is more than mere benevo- Wagner's work does to the traditional lence, more than even the fruit of personal opera. The impressive chant-like Profireligious loyalty—when it is undertaken ciscere of the priest and assistants as they as one of the essential ways by which men bid the Christian soul go forth into the can identify themselves with him who unknown, the celestial song of the soul as went about doing good.
he wakes in the world beyond, the uncouth dissonances of the “ hubbub of
demons, who ages past were disinherited, Three times last “dispossessed, aside thrust, chucked Elgar's Cantata “The Dream of Gerontius”, week Edward El- down,” and now assemble, “ hungry ...
gar's “sacred can- to gather souls for hell,” the majestic tata,” “ The Dream of Gerontius," was hymning adoration of the choir of angeliperformed: once, on Monday, in Chicago, cals as they sing their “Praise to the by the Apollo Club; twice, on Tuesday Holiest in the height," the burst of sound and Thursday, in New York, by the Ora- as the gaze of God enters the soul of torio Society. Edward Elgar, who four Gerontius, the final quietude as the soul years ago was obscure provincial sinks content to suffer and be purgedmusician, has written to Cardinal New- so varied are the demands upon the
spiritually dramatic imagination of the hopeful of success along this line also. composer. Like Verdi's “Requiem,” the In Philadelphia the Jewish Co-operative “Dream of Gerontius ” witnesses to a Society has been in business for two years, composer who has a vivid religious faith, and has recently purchased its own buildmuch as the cathedrals of France or the ing. The hat and shoe stores conducted old morality plays are artistic monuments by the Philadelphia society have been to the faith of men in other ages. Whether prosperous and constantly growing estabthis work will separately long endure no lishments. Worcester, Baltimore, one with real critical judgment is likely New Britain, Newark, and other places to say; but it will be strange if it does where smaller societies have been started, not endure as at least an influence in plans for similar undertakings are being the future development of oratorio. The eagerly pushed. In some cases the capitypical British “ sacred cantata” has tal for these undertakings is obtained by been an uninspired thing that has done the sale of shares at five dollars each, much to vitiate English taste in music. and in other cases social entertainments “ The Dream of Gerontius” has dealt a are held to raise the needed funds. In blow at the enervating musical tradition New York the movement has awakened which has kept this form of music half- such popular interest that the Jewish alive among English-speaking peoples. daily paper "Forwards " now publishes a
weekly department devoted to the co
operative cause, which is read with keen Among the Jews in interest by the radicals of the Jewish Jewish Socialists
the United States the quarter. In this country, under Gentile Take up Co-operation
idealism of the race auspices, mercantile co-operation has never has for many years expressed itself largely been a success; but it is possible that the in the enthusiastic advocacy of revolu- business talent of the Jewish race, comtionary socialism. At the present time, bined in this undertaking with its instincthowever, the social unrest among them ive idealism, may lead to success. has resulted in an effort to give their ideals an immediate application in industrial life. In other words, they are turn- Peace for Ireland ing from declamations about the co-operative commonwealth that is to be, to Last week Mr. Wyndham, Chief Secpractical efforts to establish now co-oper- retary for Ireland, introduced the Govation in the management of the stores by ernment's Land Bill in the House of which they are served and the little fac- Commons. As already foreshadowed in tories in which they work. This new The Outlook, the measure largely follows movement, we are informed by a reliable the recommendations of the now famous Hebrew correspondent, was really inaugu- conference recently held between Irish rated about three years ago, but during these landlords and tenants, when, for the first three years has grown until the New York time in history, a plan of land settlement society has a membership of six hundred was agreed upon by the two parties. persons, the Philadelphia society a member- Nine-tenths of the discontent in Ireland ship of fifteen hundred, the Boston society seems to have arisen from agrarian disa membership of three hundred, and other tress. This discontent has, in turn, societies are being formed rapidly in other caused violence and sedition, making Jewish centers. The New York society still unhappier an island unhappy enough has for over a year conducted “a large by reason of falling prices for farm prodand prosperous hat and shoe and men's uce, industrial depression, absentee landfurnishing goods establishment, which lordism, and evictions. Conditions have sells the goods made by the Jewish labor improved, however, by reason, first of all, unions of the East Side workers.” Most of Gladstone's Land Act of 1881. The of the purchasers are in some way part- great Liberal Premier and his coadjutors ners in the undertaking, and all of them sowed the seed of which the Conservaof course will share in the profits from tives are now reaping the crop.
The their purchases. Very recently the New latter, however, are even outdistancing York society opened a tea store, and is the Liberals in radical land reform. Mr.