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No. 14 The delegation which tion with a staff representative of The The Tenement-House went to Albany from Outlook. “We are,” he said, “ constantly
the city of New York passing legislation for the protection of last week to protest against any changes fish and game in the country, and it seems in the amended Tenement-House Bill as though we might legitimately pass legisprepared by the Tenement-House Com- lation for the protection of women and missioner, and passed unanimously by children in the crowded sections of the the State Senate, is said to have been one great cities.” of the largest and most influential that has ever been seen in Albany. Some
After an exciting contest three hundred citizens, including repre
in each house, the New
Canal Referendum sentatives from the tenement-house dis.
York Legislature last tricts, went up on a special train, and some week passed the bill submitting to the forty or fifty more went up on one of the voters of the State the proposition to issue regular trains. Both delegations visited the $101,000,000 worth of bonds for the conGovernor, and received explicit assurance struction of a thousand-ton barge canal in from him that no legislation would receive the place of the present Erie Canal. In his approval which had the effect to impair the Senate the vote stood 32 to 14, in the efficiency of the present law in the pro- the House 87 to 55. In both bodies a tection it affords to the poorer people in small majority of the Republicans voted New York. A hearing was to have been against the bill, while all the Democrats given on the bill by the Assembly Commit- in the Senate and all but three in the tee which has it in charge, but the canal bill House supported it. The division, howoccupied the attention of the House until ever, was in no sense partisan.
It was eight o'clock in the evening, so that most altogether sectional. The representatives of the delegation had been compelled to of Greater New York and of Buffalo, return to the city before the Committee without regard to party, supported the bill, could be convened. The selected speakers, while a majority of the representatives of however, remained, and presented the the rural counties, without regard to party, cause of the people to the Committee, voted against it. The smallness of the and they included, besides representa- Democratic vote against the bill was due tives of the Tenement-House Commis- to the smallness of the Democratic vote sion, others who represented the better from the rural counties not bordering class of builders. The opposition to the upon the canal. The arguments used bill in its present form comes mainly against the canal were the enormous cost from speculative builders, who wish to of the project, the decreasing value of put up cheap and poor tenements, and canals because of railway competition, owners of old tenements built before and the injustice of taxing rural New the present law, not constructed for York to cheapen the transportation of tenement-houses, and unequipped with Western grain.
Western grain. The replies made by the any proper sanitary provisions. These friends of the canal are badly reported in the law requires them to add, and to this the despatches, but are briefly as follows: some of the landlords object. The argu- (1) The cost of the improvement is less ment for the Commissioner's bill in proportion to the wealth of the State tersely put by an Assemblyman from one than was the cost of the original canal of the river counties in private conversa- in 1817 or its widening in 1835. The
original canal cost the State $9,000,000, or involving corresponding appropriations for $9 per capita for the million people then all other States represented by efficient living in the State; the widening (and log-rollers in Congress. The producers deepening) in 1835 cost $25,000,000, or of the lake regions already have an open $12 per capita; while the present project waterway to foreign markets through calls for an expenditure of $101,000,000, Canada. It is primarily for New York or less than $14 per capita at a time State that the car al is designed, and the when the average wealth is treble that State must and should meet the cost of in the former periods. (2) Water trans- the improvements demanded. Neither portation is still far cheaper than rail. will it do to say that a vote of “no” at the road transportation, and barge canals referendum opens the way for the improveequipped with electric traction bid fair to, ment of the present canal. This used to furnish effective competition for railways be true, but to-day the students of canal for a long time to come. Not only would problems are practically a unit in declaring they lower the transportation rates for that the barge canal equipped with electric building materials, coal, and manufactur- traction is the only businesslike proposiers' materials of all sorts carried by them- tion under modern conditions. It is this selves, but they would regulate the charges proposition which the great commercial imposed by the consolidating railroads. bodies of New York City have indorsed (3) The argument that the rural counties as essential to preserving the city's commust not be taxed for the benefit of New mercial ascendency, and it is this propoYork and Buffalo is untenable, as these sition which canal advocates throughout cities, with barely one-half of the people the State indorse as essential to effective of the State, contribute more than two- regulation of railway rates. The aggrethirds of the State taxes in which the rest gate expenditure proposed is enormous, of the State takes an equal share. Many but is only the sum expended every year by of the individual benefits of the canal the city government of Greater New York. reach nearly the whole State, and it in- If it promises to add as much to the volves no sectional injustice in the use of future wealth of the State, it should be State funds.
indorsed. We speak with diffidence upon
the problem, but we prefer to risk the That the bill which has large expenditure to the abandonment of The Alternatives Presented
passed the Legislature will canal competition.
be signed by Governor Odell was virtually pledged in his letter accepting the nomination for Governor.
Boss Brayton, of Rhode
Boss Brayton The people of New York State must
Island, appears to wear therefore proceed to educate themselves
his crown-or rather upon the great business proposition to be wield his whip—with almost as easy an voted upon in November. Practically indifference to public condemnation as there are but two courses of action. Either Boss Addicks, of Delaware. When interthe proposed barge canal should be con
viewed last week by the New York“ Evestructed, or canal transportation should ning Post's " New York correspondent, be abandoned. The latter course seems
who has so forcibly exposed his misrule, to us the more hazardous of the two. Yet General Brayton talked with the utmost this is the course prescribed if a majority calmness of the situation and answered of the people of New York vote “no” at freely and fully every question put to him the approaching referendum. It will not -except one. In brief, his statement do to say that a vote against the barge was as follows: canal proposition opens the way to the
I don't think there is much outright voteconstruction of a ship canal by the Na- buying done; the voters are paid for their tional Government. In every State many
time, because they have to leave their work
and come down to the polls. Sometimes that of the firmest believers in canal competi- takes all day. The manufacturers in the State tion for railways would oppose this stu- are really to blame for present conditions. pendous project for the National Gov- Some of them haven't treated the party just
right. The Republicans have never passed ernment, because it could be inaugurated
any legislation ihat would bother them, like only as part of a bankrupting scheme thé ten-hour law and things like that, until
Defines His Position
there was such a strong demand from the labor wholesale grocery house of W. M. Hoyt & people and the citizens that the party had to do it, and then, with the people voting against mitteeman from Illinois, and a man of
Co. He is the Republican National Comus because we didn't pass such laws, and the manufacturers not helping us as they should, good personal standing in his community. we have been caught between two fires. ...I The chief issue of the campaign is the am an attorney for certain clients, and look out for their interests before the Legislature. I
traction question. Many of the most am retained annually by the New York, New important street railway franchises expire Haven, and Hartford Railroad Company. As on July 30 of the present year, and the every one knows, I act for the Rhode Ísland questions involved in the renewal of those Company [street-railway interests), and I franchises have constituted for the last have been retained in certain cases by the Providence Telephone Company. In addition half dozen years the most important topic to these, I have had connections, not perma- of local political discussion. During the nent, with various companies desiring fran- past winter the Council Committee on chises, charters, and things of that sort from
Local Transportation entered into negothe Legislature. I never solicit any business. It all comes to me unsought. You see, in
tiations over the question of franchise managing the campaign every year I am in a renewals with representatives of the composition to be of service to men all over the panies, among the latter being Mr. AuerState. I help them to get elected, and natu- bach and Mr. Govin, of New York, rally many warm friendships result; then when they are in a position to repay me they are representing Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan, glad to do it.
and Mr. W. F. Harrity, of Philadelphia, Apparently this statement is as accurate the noted Democratic politician, repreas it is bold. The power of the machine senting the Widener-Elkins interests. The in Rhode Island-and in every other negotiations were broken off by the repreState except Delaware-does not rest sentatives of the companies, who claimed upon the personality of the boss, but upon that the terms proposed by the city were the campaign-contributing interests for too onerous. Mayor Harrison has recently which he acts as agent. So long as the said that Messrs. Harrity and Auerbach, public conscience tolerates the giving of during the progress of these negotiations, ill-disguised corruption funds by corpora- boasted to him of their power in National tions and the receiving of ill-disguised Democratic politics, and intimated that bribes by voters and legislators, the boss higher political honor might be in store system will endure and the removal of one for him if he would but assist them to agent will but make room for another. In secure the desired franchise renewals. conclusion, it may be noted that the one The platforms of both the Republican question which General Brayton declined and Democratic city conventions take to answer was the prospective fate of the progressive ground on the street railway bill-repealing the special act forcing a bar- question. Both favor State legislation room upon the people of Block Island, authorizing cities to own and operate despite their vote. The repeal is de- street railways. Both declare against manded by well-nigh the whole public, franchise renewal grants for a longer but the boss seems to think the public period than twenty years. Both declare interest in it will die down. The private that any such grant must contain a clause interests, he knows, will remain alert. reserving to the city the right to take over
the property at or before the expiration
of the grant. The chief difference appears In Chicago at the present to be as to the referendum. Mayor HarriThe Chicago time interest centers in the son's platform demands that the people City Election
city election that is to take be given an opportunity to vote on the place Tuesday, April 7, when a Mayor renewal grants before they shall become and one-half the City Council are to be effective. Mr. Stewart's platform is silent chosen. The opposing candidates for on this phase of the question. Mr. HarMayor are Carter H. Harrison and Graeme rison, during the six years that he has Stewart. Mr. Harrison, the Democratic been Mayor, has won favor with the peonominee, is now finishing his third con- ple and has excited the enmity of some secutive term as Mayor of Chicago. Mr. of the heavy financial interests by his Stewart, the Republican nominee, is a stand on the traction question. He has, successful merchant and a member of the however, been the subject of considerable
criticism for administrative faults-par- violating the city ordinances every day. ticularly his failure to suppress gambling. None of these violations of law was slight houses and keep the streets clean. Mr. or unimportant. The crossing was in any Stewart promises, if elected, to give the weather and at any time a most dangerous city a first-class business administration. place-such a grade crossing as a proper His critics contend, however, that, with railroad law would not permit to exist. the traction question unsettled, no man Unfortunately, New Jersey has no Railshould be elected Mayor of Chicago who road Commission, and the attempt to is without a record on that question, which carry through the Legislature a very modis the case with Mr. Stewart. The latter erate law for a Commission (a law the is subjected to some criticism, too—his only fault of which is that it is not suffifriends claim unjustly-because his nomi- ciently stringent) seems unlikely to sucnation came to him at the hands of a ceed. The Newark Grand Jury has now rather unpopular party machine. The acted with courage and independence. It favorite of the independent Republican has not only found indictments for manelement for the nomination was John slaughter against the roadmaster, general Maynard Harlan, son of Justice Harlar, superintendent, division superintendent, of the Federal Supreme Court, who polled and assistant superintendent of the trolley seventy thousand votes as an independent line, but also has gone to the fountain of candidate for Mayor in 1897. Without authority, and has indicted the President, any organization to start with, Mr. Harlan Vice-President, and executive officers of secured more than a third of the delegates the North Jersey Street Railway Comto the recent Republican city convention pany. The list includes Mr. A. J. Casthat nominated Mr. Stewart. There is satt, President of the Pennsylvania Railalso a full labor ticket in the field, but it road, Mr. John D. Crimmins, a well-known is not expected to secure a heavy vote. contractor and capitalist of this city, Mr. The people of Chicago do not allow inter- E. F. C. Young, a prominent banker of est in a Mayoralty election to divert their Jersey City. The Grand Jury takes the attention wholly from the City Council, ground that the highest officials of the road thirty-five members of which are to be are not only technically but morally elected at the same time. Chicago boasts responsible for the deaths of these chilof having the best Council of any large dren. It may be hoped that this direct city in the country, and the nominations piacing of responsibility upon those highmade-largely through the activity of the est in authority may have throughout the non-partisan Municipal Voters' League - country the effect of increasing the watchassure the continued high quality of that fulness and administrative care which the body for the year to come.
officials of all such lines should undoubtedly exercise. The criticism has been
made that in such a case as this it may There has never been any be hard to secure actual punishment in The Newark Indictments
question that the frightful the case of indicted officials who are only
trolley accident in Newark, remotely concerned with the actual occurby which nine school-children were killed,
It must be shown in this case was the result of criminal carelessness that the executive officers either did know and recklessness. The only difficulty in or should have known about the condifixing responsibility has been that the guilt tions at the crossing ; the first is entirely is distributed among many people, all de- improbable, the second may be held at serving of severe censure. Thus, not only least in theory. As to the responsibility were the trolley conductor and motorman of the officials who directly control the clearly guilty of violating the regulations, working of the trolley line in Newark but the superintendent and other oper- there can be no question, and it may be ating officials of the trolley road were, it added that equal responsibility rests upon was shown, perfectly well aware that their the city officials who were willfully and rules were being violated daily, while the perhaps corruptly blind to violations of city officials were equally negligent in not the law. The citizens should watch for enforcing the city by-laws, and the steam- future violations of law as well as applaud railway company was also shown to be prosecution for past offenses,
The labor movement in Eng- government if returned to power with a Labor Politics in England
land has reached a critical slender majority.
stage. Trades-unionists are beginning to separate themselves from the two existing political parties, drawing
According to last week's des
Macedonia a hard and fast line of demarcation be
patches from Constantinople, tiveen Labor and Liberal or Labor and considerable dissatisfaction was expressed Conservative. The movement was ini- at the Austrian and Russian Embassies tiated. in the first place by Mr. Keir with the tardiness of the Turks in carryHardie, M.P., and now boasts a member- ing out the Macedonian reform plan. The ship of over 800,000, the constituent Embassies are unable to watch the manelements being the large trades-unions ner in which the Porte fulfills or fails to and members of the Independent Labor fulfill its engagements, because they have party and other Socialist organizations. not received copies of the code of regulaUp to this time the Miners' Federation tions drafted by the Turkish Council of has held aloof, and also the extreme State for the application of the reforms. Socialists represented by the Social Dem- Dissatisfaction has also been expressed ocratic Federation. At the last general in Macedonia even with the long-desired election fifteen candidates were voted for provision that the taxes shall not be asbut only two, Mr. Richard Bell, M.P., and sessed by the same person who collects Mr. Keir Hardie, were returned to Parlia- them. The prompt payment of the local ment. Mr. Bell has since been censured officials, especially the gendarmerie, profor the assistance which he rendered to vided by the reform which the Powers certain Liberal candidates. At the next have imposed on the Sultan, would seem general election it is quite probable that to remove the chief cause of bribery, some fifty candidates will be named. This outrage, and oppression, and we may great movement is largely the outcome of look for some relief from the oppressive the Taff Vale decision, a judgment which course taken by the civil and military seriously and radically affected the whole representatives of the Turkish Governposition of trades-unions. The Amalga- ment. The Sultan must certainly be mated Society of Railwaymen, of which allowed sufficient time in which to instiMr. Richard Bell is Secretary, has been tute the reforms to which he has agreed, mulcted in damages to the amount of though the continued arrival of Macedo£23,000. Trades-unionists, resolved to nian refugees in Bulgaria is a disquieting alter by legislative enactment the law as symptom. The Powers are bringing pressthus interpreted, are determined to place ure to bear upon Prince Ferdinand of their own representatives in the House of Buigaria to keep the Macedonian revoluCommons. This new political movement tionary committees quiet. The region on the part of trades-unionists is not in about Samakov in Bulgaria has been their open antagonism to either party, although headquarters for arming. Bands of brigat the present moment it seems to be antag- ands, representing the Macedonian comonizing the Liberals to a greater extent than mitrees, form in that region and march the Conservatives. It is probable that in over the border. After some weeks' the final issue the Radical wing of the absence they return without arms, and are Liberal party will compel the Liberals to again equipped. They declare martial make some sort of “give and take ” alli- law and condemn to death those who do ance with the labor men, apportioning to not fall in with their plans, or help supthem one seat in each of the large double- port the cause by contributions of money. member industrial constituencies, and re- In this way they have intimidated the ceiving in return the support of the trades- Christian subjects on the Turkish side of unionists and Socialists in constituencies the border, and especially the Greek where labor candidates would be without Christians, to whom they, as Bulgarians, any possible chance of success. Any are inimical. Last week the President of other solution would probably mean the the Græco-English Byron Society received keeping of the Liberal party out of office a letter from the Greeks of Macedonia for many years still to come, or at least a complaining that, after waiting for centuparalysis of that party as an engine of ries for deliverance from the Ottoman yoke,