« 上一頁繼續 »
**a 2.2-11 13 3 R.CO. 25. 5. ne S102 f ic : Ver
. : cr11974 12.2 cr it. IC3 I M.0154 06 20 Berg 5. hai. a. esta IP::
05 20:31 * PROTOWE
The Czar's Decree ' , *, . *Tact
T51.t e peći -C 12er page : the people ab...
: 21 esce egus fea: . -g
- RUS Hs scoses et :: e estas ben: ie Hode:201s lead Azer::
sta favor 5.-765...ca: brices Feed. They a5e : ciced 1,170, j. 5, party, raiser
cccpetsasedzote grocs persecu011 7-0 Hes
2,5 nicc of scare measure of local rike nith a strong sc gorcnda fcriber entrarchise 1,4
*. a fine scor 6.-:ci beserts. We wish very ruch te: 320** *1-rd the tribe-diser, at TK caraku readig of the edic ji stie 161, "se le a Comercial ad:ant ze ia He any such interpretation. We are ?..• ma'ket, 29 si emcietin pois c med to cccc.ude that it does not fine, or a roi of Satisaal bark-Dites at ina: cae decree is important rather for
what is indicates than for what it pro in10 9:05 Ten as this to act for us ises. As a Septom of political and in our pin:, (*). State, and Satin,
svai uzrest it is sigrifcant; as an earthis is t., pramint issue.
It is because fiest of regious or political reform it is the American people believed that they unimportant It does not order anything had in Mr. Kursevet such a man that he that is of real value, nor mark the beginhay aroused an enthusiasm greater than ning of a new era, nor indicate any that around by any President since important change in the policy pursued Abraham Lincoin. Any act of his that by the Russian Government since the casts a shadow of suspicion on his recog. death of Alexander II.
What genuine nition of the principle that pu lic honestyness of desire for reform it may indicate is the paramount issue chills that enthusi- in the Czar we do not undertake to deterasm and robs him of his power. Those mine; but measured by its actual or proswho love and honor him the most feel pective effects it is little more than a most deeply any acts which makes possi- bureaucratic attempt to placate, by means ble such a suspicion. “ Hating covetous- of vague promises and trivial concessions, ness" is a spirit hard to maintain in the a fully aroused public sentiment in favor malarial atmosphere of Washington; but of liberal reforms. the life of the Nation depends upon main- The clause in the decree which has taining it.
“ Principles, not men” is attracted the most attention is that apparthe devil's motto. Principles are abso- ently proclaiming religious liberty. In it lutely useless except as they are incarnate the Czar says: “ We ... have deemed in men.
Men are worse than useless it expedient to strengthen and decree except as they incarnate principles. Prin the undeviating observance of the principles in men, men of principles, this is ciples of tolerance laid down by the funthe absolute condition, not only of Na- damental laws of the Russian Empire, tional strength and National prosperity, which, recognizing the Orthodox Church but of National existence. It were better as the ruling one, grant to all of our to adopt free trade and shut down half subjects of other religions, and to all our factories, and free silver and close foreign persuasions, freedom of creed and half our banks, provided we still kept worship, in accordance with their rites.” honest, than to purchase a short-lived This paragraph does not change in any commercial prosperity by condoning or respect the existing law, or add anything ignoring or being indifferent to the crimes whatever to the religious privileges of the
Russian people. Mohammedans have had decree. He merely says, in effect : “ You their mosques, Jews their synagogues, and shall continue to have as much religious Roman Catholics and Lutherans their freedom as you have enjoyed, under the churches in Russia for many years, and provisions of the Penal Code, during the have worshiped in them, according to past half-century;" but he says it in such their respective creeds and rites, without a solemn and impressive way as to make let or hindrance. The thing that is the outside world think that he is conferdenied in Russia is the right of an Ortho- ring a great favor and inaugurating a dox Christian to think for himself in momentous religious reform. religious matters, and, as the result of The next statement in the document is such thinking, to change the form of his scarcely more significant. religious faith and leave the Orthodox lows : “ We are further resolved to conChurch. The denial of that right is not tinue the active carrying out of measures affected in the slightest degr.e by the for the improvement of the material posiCzar's proclamation of religious liberty. tion of the Orthodox rural clergy, while Tine law, as it now stands, is as follows: enabling them to take a larger share in
All persons who leave the Orthodox Church public life.” In point of fact, the rural for the Church of any other Christian denom- clergy form, numerically, a small part of ination shall be turned over to the spiritual the Russian population; they have never authorities for admonition and instruction, and shall then be dealt with in accordance made any particular complaint with regard with ecclesiastical rules. Until they shall
to their “material position ;" they are return to Orthodoxy, their minor children generally men of limited education, and shall be taken in charge by the Government, the “share” that they have hitherto taken in order that they may not become perverted, and their lands, if occupied by Orthodox
“ in public life” has been to discourage Christians, shall be put under guardianship the liberal movement, oppose secular and they shall not be permitted to live there. schools, and serve as an instrument of the upon.: (Penal Code, Revised Edition, Section reactionary party. 188.)
The Czar next says that measures are The punishment for inducing or persuad “impending ” “ for the consolidation of ing another person to leave the Orthodox the national economy "—whatever that Church is much more severe. The Code may mean--and that, in accordance says:
with these measures, the banks should For inducing an Orthodox Christian to be “strengthen and develop the welfare and come a member of any other Christian Church, fundamental pillars of Russian village the guilty one shall be deprived of all special, life, and that of the local nobility and personal, and acquired rights, and shall be exiled to Siberia, or imprisoned at hard labor, peasantry.” This may have some meanfor a period of from one year to a year and á ing in the original Russian, but it is hall. (Penal Code, Section 187.) For persuading or inducing an Orthodox translation. From the next sentence it
very vague and obscure in the English Christian to adopt the Jewish or any other non-Christian faith, the guilty one shall be
appears that the “laws of the rural popudeprived of all civil rights and sent into penal
lation" are to be “revised,” and, when servitude for a period of from eight to ten formulated, are to be “referred to the years. (Penal Code, Section 184.)
provincial government councils ” för furIf a man or woman who is a member of ther development and adaptation. It is the Orthodox Church marries a woman or this clause which is supposed to imply man who is a Lutheran or a Roman some measure of local self-government, Catholic, the children must be trained up but this implication is not justified by the in the Orthodox faith. If parents disobey text. If the words “provincial government this law, they are to be punished with councils" are a translation of "gubernskoe imprisonment for a period of from eight pravlenie," the revised laws are to be subto sixteen months. (Penal Code, Section mitted to boards of bureaucratic officials 190.) These laws, and many others from whom the Russian people have which limit freedom of conscience, free- already suffered much, and from whom dom of teaching, and freedom of speech no adequate measures of relief are to be in religious matters, as well as freedom to expected. But even if the words mean criticise and discuss the Bible and the the provincial assemblies or “zemstvos,” Church, remain untouched by the Czar's there is no assurance that these bodies
are to have anything more than an discussion and joint action ; (8) lack of a advisory voice, and their advice, when free press; (9) the passport system, and it has conflicted with the views or the restriction, in general, of personal moveinterests of the bureaucracy, has always ment and individual initiative. The disbeen disregarded.
trict committee of Sudja, in the province The clauses which are supposed to of Kursk, sets forth specifications of reenlarge the freedom of the serfs are movable evils to the number of twentynot much more significant. The order three ; but the nine above stated are conthat “means are to be found to render tained in a more or less definite form in it easier for the individual to sever con- the reports of nearly all the local commitnections with the community” (the vil- tees. Not one of them is touched or lage commune) “ to which he belongs ” alluded to in the Czar's decree. The is very good as far as it goes, but as Imperial proclamation amounts to little measure of relief it is trivial. The
a vague general statement assurance that measures shall be taken of benevolent intentions, and, however without delay“to release the peasants from well meant by the Czar, was probably the present burdensome liability of forced intended by the Czar's advisers to placate labor" has little importance. The only the educated liberal class and quiet the “forced labor” to which the peasants are public feeling aroused by the widespread now liable is the mending of roads at cer- agrarian disturbances and student distain seasons of the year, and the carrying of orders of last year, the great labor strike officials from place to place, off railroads, on the Don, and the bold and frank reports when such officials are traveling on Gov- of many of the agricultural-inquiry comernment business. This is a desirable mittees. It is a hopeful sign chiefly be. reform, but it is insignificant. The prom- cause it indicates that the Russian disise that “thorough reform shall be effected content has reached such proportions that in the provincial governments and dis-' the bureaucracy has at least been comtrict administrations by the local repre- pelled to recognize that such discontent sentatives” has a hopeful sound, but, exists. inasmuch as it does not specify what the reforms shall be, nor indicate whether The Dead Soul they are to be brought about by the local representatives ” of the people or the The old man had come a long way, and “local representatives” of the Minister of was burdened not only with years and the Interior, it is vague and unsatisfactory. sorrows, but with the knowledge of good
In short, there is little in this decree to and evil. As he looked back and retraced indicate any purpose on the part of those the road he had traveled over, the weariwho have prepared it to furnish any real ness of the journey gathered upon his relief for the evils from which the Rus- spirit until it seemed to him as if the sian people are suffering. For a clear spring of life had been choked at its and definite statement of those evils we source, and nothing remained save the need only turn to the reports of the dry and dusty channel through which the district and provincial committees ap- stream had once run shining in the sun. pointed a little more than a year ago He was so worn with labor and grief and to consider the needs of the Russian unfulfilled hope that he thought of little peasantry and ascertain the reasons for save rest ; the soul in him had fallen into the steady and progressive decline in a sleep so deep that he had lost the sense their economic condition. Some of those of life which is keen and quick when a evils, briefly stated, are as follows: (1) man feels his immortality. He cared for Insufficient land ; (2) high and inequi- nothing but forgetfulness; so far had the table taxation ; (3) deprivation of legal iron of the futility of thought and know! rights enjoyed by the higher classes ; edge and effort entered into his soul. (4) inadequate educational facilities; (5) The irony of life never seemed so poigntoo much bureaucratic interference and ant and piercing as when he caught the control ; (6) a tariff which favors manu- faint echoes of the old songs of his youth, factures at the expense of agriculture; (7) the ghostly cheers that had rung around restrictions upon the right to assemble for his early achievements and had become mocking echoes of labors which brought voices had often called to him as he no gain and applause, which lay in the passed, imploring his aid, and sometimes ear for a moment and then dissolved in through his growing self-absorption the that appalling silence in which at last all anguish in these voices had reached his human cries and songs are hushed. It heart and stung the old human sympathies was a dead past which lay behind him; into life; but he looked up at the far a path through a desert without bloom or heights and hardened his heart and passed shelter or the shadow of trees in which on resolute and unshaken. The morning birds rest and sing; the desolate and soli- was already moving toward noon ; why tary way of a lonely man through a world should he waste the hours that were to which always bloomed as he advanced carry him to the goal ? What claim had and withered as he stretched out his hand common souls, content with the small to grasp its offerings.
gains and losses of life, with love and the Tired as he was to the verge of extinc prattle of children and the cheer of friendtion, he had not wholly lost the remem- ship, on one who sought the highest and brance of the energy which once sent him the remotest secret of life? They were with vigorous step along the ascending content with the hour; he would accept way, of the high things which summoned nothing less than the full content of him from their inaccessible fastnesses, of eternity. the steady and unbending purpose which Long ago love had left him; long ago kept him to his task. He had set him- men had ceased to call upon him for help self to go alone to the end of the journey ; as he passed swift and unswerving on his to break all bonds which held him in way. And the way had grown more silent place among his fellows that he might and solitary, until nothing was audible follow
save the touch of his own foot, and he "Knowledge like a sinking star
had no companionship save his own Beyond the utmost bound of human thought.” thought. He had broken every tie, disOthers might be content with nearer carded every hindrance; and freedom and lesser things; he gave himself to the had brought him measureless weariness remoter and greater ends. Others might and a passionate longing for death! carry the common burdens and share the He had learned much by the way, and common fortunes ; his way led him apart that wisdom of old age was his which had from the crowd to some remote and soli. been distilled, drop by drop, out of distary place where the mystery of the uni- illusion and despair—that wisdom which verse would suddenly disclose itself in is often called knowledge of life, but cloud and fire and splendor unspeakable; which is really knowledge of death. What a fate too large and terrible for any save had been born of the man's long travel those who had taken the path of solitude the knowledge of himself. The and lonely watching of sun and star in world about him was so vast that as he the awful silence of space.
scanned it there seemed neither measure There had been a time when the hopes nor limit; but it was hard, barren, dead that men cherish had knocked at his to the uttermost verge.
The order which heart, and more than once he had struggled pervaded it was the rigid regularity of long before he barred the door. But the death ; no seed was germinating in the path lay before him, and he who walked soil, no egg was brooded over in any nest, in must be free of hindrances. In those no throat was swelling with its song, no earliest years love had held him for a sap was rising in any tree; vastness there moment with eyes that looked into his was and sublimity, but it was without strangely sorrowful, and had walked a the speech of beauty; for the soul of the little way with him, not pleading, but with man was dead, and saw only its own desoa touch on his hand so full of pity that lation. Long ago the power of vision his pride flung it aside. There was no had faded within him, and he saw only room for such companionship on that the shell of things: the secret was farther narrow path; no smoothness for such from him than when he set out on his tender feet on that rough highway. What journey! He had gained knowledge, but had he to do with love whose heart was without love there is neither wisdom nor set on knowledge? In those first years life.
Lenten Meditations court of Caiaphas and before the judg
ment-seat of Pilate. They were mistaken. The Day of Judgment He was the Judge; Caiaphas and Pilate Every day is a day of judgment.
a day of judgment. were brought before him for trial. He Christ's fan is in his hand, and he is uttered no sentence; they adjudged themseparating the chaff from the wheat. The selves, and wrote the sentences so clearly Son of man has already come, and before that all the world has read them ever him are gathered all people, and he is since. Each actor in that tragedy unconseparating the sheep from the goats. We sciously announced his own judgment of are taking our places, each one selecting condemnation or approval on himself:his own, and we know it not. We classify John-I am a loyal friend; Peter-I am ourselves by various artificial and temporal a cowardly disciple ; Judas--I am a desdistinctions—as rich and poor, laborer picable traitor ; Caiaphas-I am an unand capitalist, employer and employed, scrupulous ecclesiastic; Pilate-I am a cultured and ignorant, white and black; trimming politician. Still the vociferous and all the time we are sorting ourselves tragedy of life is enacted while Christ unconsciously by the only real, eternal stands silent by. Without word or movedistinction, that of character. The rists ment he compels iniquity to tear the mask and chasms in society are shallow and from its countenance, and the treacherous superficial; the fellowships of society are follower, and the cowardly friend, and the apparent and temporary. Virtueard ambitious ecclesiastic, and the trimming vice, honor and shame, probity and cor- politician appear as what they really are, ruption, live side by side in the same silhouetted in their hideous blackness street, shoulder against each other in the against his luminous judgment presence. same tenement, work together in the same Christ convicts the world of sin because political party, chat together in the same he is the revealer of righteousness. Not club, kneel together in the same church. by what he says, but by what he is, he It is better so; for only so can virtue and condemns the world. His life is the honor and probity do anything for the standard for all life; his character is the world's redemption. But all the time the measure for all characters. The world great gulf is imperceptibly increasing be instinctively accepts him as the only tween them--the gulf which presently will measuring-rod. Not the Bible, but Christ, become impassable. And all the time He is the only infallible rule of faith and sees, He knows, He understands.
practice. His utterances are the rule by And wh n the Comforter is come, he will which all other utterances are to be measconvince the world of sin, bcause they have ured; his character is the standard by not had faith in me; of righteousness, be- which all other characters are to be tested. cause I go to my Father, and ye see me no By him we measure Abraham and David more ; of judgment, because the prince of and Isaiah and Paul no less than Gregory this world is judged.
VII. and Martin Luther and Oliver CromChrist convinces the world of sin. well and John Wesley. By his utterances The great picture judges the two men we measure the Books of Deuteronomy who stand before it. Their judgment of and of Leviticus no less than the Puritan the picture is the picture's judgment of code of morals and the Roman Catholic them. The great symphony judges the canons. Not “God is a man of war," but two hearers who sit side by side appar- “Our Father which art in heaven," is the ently listening to it. What one hears the rule of faith. Not Paul before Ananias, other does not hear. In their judgment but Christ before Caiaphas; not “God of the music they reveal their own musical shall smite thee, thou whited wall," but capacity. The measure of our apprecia- “If I have spoken evil, bear witness of tion of Christ is the measure of our own the evil : but if well, why smitest thou character. Faith in Christ is not faith in me?" is the rule of practice. what the Church has said about Christ; By Christ is the prince of this world that is faith in the Church. Faith in Christ judged. Betrayed, denied, forsaken, conis understanding him, appreciating him, victed, executed-his death draws all loving him. Both his friends and his foes men unto him. His defeat is his victhought that Christ was put on trial in the tory. Judas, Caiaphas, Pilate, crown him