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of publicity by printing eight pamphlets and ready to trust to the future good upon the Panama treaty first proposed. sense of our Government to avoid entangleIn these pamphlets the main objections ments with the clerical and anti-clerical urged by Senator Morgan to the ratifica- factions in Colombia. As to present tion of the treaty were as foilows: property rights in the canal, the acceptance
1. That the French courts had no vuthority of the pending treaty by the Colombian to transfer the Panama property of the old Government would certainly transfer all canal company to the new; that the dissolu- such rights to ourselves. tion of the old company, under its charter, transferred all its rights in Panama to the Government of Colombia, and that the Colombian Congress alone could now give a valid
For a long time past patri
Bribery in title to the property in question. 2. That the
otic citizens of Rhode Island new Panama Canal Company, by furnishing
have been protesting against money to continue a state of war in the United the control of their politics by sordid and States of Colombia, had “trampled upon” the constitution of that country in order to sell its corrupt money influences, and last week claims to the United States for $40,000,000. Governor Garvin gave expression to this Senator Morgan charges that one million protest in a message which calls for action. dollars was expended by the Panama Company, in this illegitimate way. 3. That the
After freeing his charge from the appearpolitical turmoils in the United States of ance of partisanship by admitting that Colombia, turning as they do upon the issue both parties have resorted to bribery, and of clericalism, make the purchase of the after freeing it from the appearance of Panama Canal a source of public danger. Senator Morgan asserts that the Jesuit order exaggeration by admitting that the bribery now controls and is likely to control the poli- has rarely changed the results in State cies of Colombia, so that disagreement with elections, Governor Garvin proceeds to Colombia brings us into conflict with a relig- state the manner in which the use of ous order of international power. Our Gov. ernment becomes involved in questions of money enables a corrupt machine to keep Church and State, from which it is now free.
its grip upon the State Legislature. Apart from these objections presented Among other things he says:
In a considerable number of our towns in the printed pamphlets, Senator Morgan, bribery is so common and has existed for so in common with many other Senators, many year3 that the awful nature of the crime has urged that the present treaty is am- has ceased to impress. In some towns the biguous in its provisions for a divided bribery takes place openly, is not called bribsovereignty over the strip of land leased
ery, nor considered a serious matter. The
money paid to the voter, whether two, five, or to us for the control of the canal. The
twenty dollars, is spoken of as a payment for treaty provides that Colombia shall fur- his time. The claim that the money given to nish the forces necessary for the protection the elector is not for the purpose of influenc of life and property upon this strip of ing his vote, but in compensation for time lost
in visiting the polls, is the merest sophistry, land, and that if she is unable the United and should not deceive any adult citizen of States must secure her consent before ordinary intelligence. It is well known that providing the forces herself. This stipu- in such towns, when one political party is lation, though it aims merely to preclude şupplied with a corruption fund and the other
is without, the party so provided invariably territorial sovereignty on the part of the elects its Assembly ticket, thus affording posiUnited States, was declared out of har. tive proof that the votes are bought and the mony with the general tenor of the Spooner voters bribed. Act authorizing the negotiation of a treaty In a subsequent interview Governor Garfor the construction of a canal under the vin named the places in which bribery was perpetual and exclusive control of the particularly rampant. The charge that United States. In order to make certain he brings does not relate to the immigrant that the United States of Colombia under- voters in the cities, but to the native stands the provisions of the Spooner Act, American voters in the rural towns. Senator Morgan has insisted that the These rural voters are by the State Context of the act should be incorporated stitution given a representation in the within the treaty. Upon the remaining Legislature out of all proportion to their points urged by Senator Morgan the numbers, and this unjust political power Senate seems ready to accept the legal has been the occasion of their systematic judgment of Attorney-General Knox as political corruption. In these towns, to present property rights in the canal, says Governor Garvin, “ the men who constantly accept bribes are often men of gages. Even with the increase in the substance, owning their homes, and some- liquor taxes license fees in New York will times other property. They don't need still be lower than in a few other Statesthe money. Long years of bribery have ranging from $1,200 in New York City deadened their conscience.” The Provi- down to $300 in rural townships—but the dence “ Journal," in commenting on the aggregate public revenue from the licenses situation, brings the responsibility for it is expected to reach $18,000,000, or home to still another self-esteemed portion twelve dollars for every family in the of the community. It says:
State. In this estimate it is reckoned The blame for the present order of things that the number of liquor-dealers will : belongs with the educated manufacturers be reduced about one-tenth by the inand business men of the State who are too crease in the fees.
At present the busy making money to pay any attention to State receives but one-third of the liquor political conditions; they get what they want taxes, and the local governments twoand fail absolutely to exercise any influence toward the lessening of corrupt and country
thirds. According to the new programme domination at the State House.
the State will receive a half-or nine mill
ion dollars. Compared with this aggreThe readiness to profit by corruption is
gate the estimated receipts from the proonly one shade removed—in courage as posed extension of the inheritance tax to well as guilt--from the readiness to par
cover real estate as well as personalty ticipate in corruption, and the purification
seems small indeed, being only seven of conditions demands a moral awakening hundred thousand dollars. The proposed all along the line. Governor Garvin nar
four-mill tax on mortgages does not appear rates that in one Rhode Island town,
to apply to railroad mortgages, but is exSouth Kingston, a few resolute men, under the leadership of Thomas G. Hazard, put of $12,000,000—to be equally divided be
pected, none the less, to yield a revenue down bribery by vigorously prosecuting tween the State and the localities. This bribe-givers. The Governor asks the Legislature to authorize the appointment burden upon mortgaged real estate that
mortgage tax is illogical, and imposes a of a State commissioner whose duty it
does not rest upon real estate mortgageshall be to bring to justice offenders
free. Nevertheless it is a compromise in against the present bribery law. Such
the direction of fairness and honesty, for action cannot be refused by the Legisla- under the present rarely enforced law ture without blackening the good name
the owner of a mortgage is liable to be of the State—the good name which the
taxed upon it at the full rate-generally condoners of corruption have hitherto
about two per cent. in the cities. It is claimed to guard by ignoring the growing thought that the reduction of the nominal evils.
tax rate on mortgages from twenty mills to four mills may so increase the number
of investors willing to lend money on The Republican caucus in mortgages that interest rates will not be Tax Programme the New York Legislature materially raised by the systematic collec
has agreed upon Governor tion of the small tax now proposed. There Odell's tax programme, by which the State are certainly to-day many honest capitalmay meet the interest and sinking-fund ists who refuse to lend money on mortcharges upon the $101,000,000 of bonds gages because of the legal liability to which must be issued to cover the proposed oppressive tax.
If the present tax probarge canal improvements, and also to do gramme goes into effect, there will ceraway with all State taxation upon property tainly be no need of any State levy upon assessed for local purposes. This pro- the local tax duplicates. There is danger, gramme includes an increase of one-half in however, as Connecticut's experience the present rates for liquor licenses, a tax shows, that greater extravagance in State of one per cent. upon inheritances of real appropriations will ensue when legislators estate where the property of the decedent are no longer restrained by their constituexceeds in value $10,000, and, finally, a ents' desire for a low tax rate on their yearly tax of four mills on recorded mort- property.
Las rek's as iesise sede details in advance. Sua zaiczasz 312 ste present is not the
E-me Is zesoses of reorganiza2. STV ir cita 220 i Regents. The other *ve cazSE 24 Emre Biggestion of taking the
05:12:4-escoceSacs épisis awaiting settle 2:2 1:2 semasaNares e State's educational -18 21.920 Pose Saias were bees an opportunity like
e prese: : scire dis isag vexed probCsis : ce se a Tvais cear. Pass the Stevens
a cé les Tc Bo Tribe sais question settled,
23.2.3 ct igers ejed the source of Regents' reorganiza ze Laguna STT OCC as propers be left to subsequent
22 2235-23e esiace. The process is easy, since, 13ze zase zade-320 e Csessoa, the Legislature has 1:50:32:24-26 pesca pe to deal with these details. To $2-ris ct 12 ---:ecce 25259 DOT to settle details on which Ir-4. sé P... "Stics, ccc- tee are cereaces of opinion is to t-se em 27 raiseda rte disaster from the start. a strated by the Legs ::cócrater cice seas Itsese t*C2556s di Scorcsobre bees
Asesments to the
Six of the ten amendkes separate, there *bare bees
ments submitted to the a Corvet arricasce si frictios, o
voters of New Hampo cara te so keps as bas a ready seire by the recent Constitutional Conventeen raised in these cines. Hence ton were rejected at the polls. Popular there is a naisrai and presencris desire is terest centered chiefly in the woman's on to sides for unit.cats. If this were sutirage amendment. Prominent repre acconished under the Regents control, sentatives of the National organizations as provided by the Sezens bo now before for and against the proposal played an the Legisiature, ai the schoo's of the State active part in the campaign. By massword be taken out of pɔrics; if accom- meetings, petitions, and free discussions plished by the Brown bil, also before the the voters had been well lined up before Legislature, the Regents would be gradu- election day, but instead of the two-thirds aliy eliminated, and the schools kept in yote necessary to its adoption, it was lost politics by creating a politically controlled by very nearly a two-thirds negative Board of Education within the present vote. In a State in which over 92,000 Board of Regents, thus increasing the votes were cast in a Presidential year, subjection of the schools to politics. Of only 13,000 voters, in round numbers, course educationists whose opinions are favored woman suffrage strongly enough best worth considering are practically to vote for it; and scarcely more than unanimous in the conviction that the 35,000 cared enough about it to vote schools ought to be free from all political either for or against it. In some places control. Hence the Stevens bill should barely a half of those who actually went be passed and the Brown bill killed. to the polls took the trouble to vote on This, however, does not prevent many the question-a fact which apparently educationists from thinking that the Board indicates that the amendment was not of Regents is too unwieldy a body, and taken very seriously. Next in public that its members should not enjoy life interest was the proposed amendment tenure. If the Regents will accept changes empowering the Legislature to tax franin these directions, “ all genuine friends chises and inheritances. It was adopted, of education will. zealously rally to their as was also an amendment regarding support," says the New York - Evening the control of trusts. The latter has Post," apparently overlooking the fact little significance except as showing the that three years ago the proposition to disposition of the people on the subunify the Empire State's educational ject; it seems to confer no new power. interests was defeated by its friends through Two other amendments were adopted :
an unimportant one regarding militia with cars, but could not make it ride. In officers, and one requiring that henceforth refusing to patronize merchants who did no new voter be qualified who is not able not join in the boycott the unionists, of to read the Constitution in English and course, acted in accordance with Revoluto write. One rejected amendment was tionary precedent, as they are so fond of designed to lessen the size of the New pointing out; but the effect of their boyHampshire Legislature, which is one of cott, as of the Revolutionary boycott, was the largest legislative bodies in the world. greatly to embitter class hatreds. The The vote against this desirable measure effect of this bitterness showed itself in a was probably due to the form in which succession of petty outrages, and finally, the amendment was presented. The on Saturday night before last, in the other proposed amendments, with one dastardly murder of a policeman guardexception, received little attention. This ing a car in a lonely spot at the end of exception is interesting. The Bill of one of the lines. Naturally, this crime Rights, dating from the days of Church awoke the moral indignation of the establishment, contains in Article 6 a city, and the unions made haste to derecognition of the Protestant evangelical nounce it in unmeasured terms, but pubreligion as the religion of the State. It lic opinion justly held that the union's also empowers the Legislature to authorize deprecation of crimes should not end “ towns, parishes, and religious societies” in words, but should lead to positive to support teachers of religion and moral- disciplinary action by which such crimes ity. The Constitutional Conventions of would be prevented.
would be prevented. Outrages upon non1850, 1876, and 1889 proposed amend- unionists occur only where respectable ments reducing the partiality of this article, union sentiment looks upon the crimes but they failed of adoption. A similar with toleration. Last week in Waterproposal to strike out the words “ Prot- bury the people hostile to the boycott estant," "evangelical,” and “ town” has began to organize to assert their indejust met the same fate. As the Legisla- pendence, with the prospect of success, ture has long since surrendered its Consti- but at the close of the week certain ele. tutional powers for the support of religion, ments on the anti-union side attempted to and as the old article is practically repealed secure a speedier victory by recourse to by the actual separation of Church and the process of injunction. Through Judge State, the voters of New Hampshire have Elmer, of the Superior Court, obtained evidently determined not to part with the an injunction directed against seventeen heirloom.
Waterbury unions, their officers, over a
hundred members by name, and all whom The Waterbury Boycott the street-car riots It was thought, when the writ might concern, forbidding any fur
ther interference with the operation of the Murder and Injunction
in Waterbury were street-car service of the Connecticut Railput down, and the company was able to way and Lighting Company, efforts to run its cars on regular schedules, with induce its employees to leave its service, non-union men, that the strike would picketing or loitering in the streets for speedily collapse. This result, however, the purpose of interfering with such did not ensue. The strike was not de employees, and all forms of the boycott, clared off, but, instead, the united unions whether of the company, its employees, of Waterbury kept in force a most per- local merchants, persons riding in the sistent and successful boycott, not only of company's cars, or those having dealings the street-car company, but of all who with the company. Here we have perhaps patronized it. It is roughly estimated the most sweeping injunction yet issued that the city of Waterbury contains eight in an American labor conflict, and its thousand trades-unionists among a popu- effect has been to arouse the unions to new lation of ten thousand families, and this zeal in their conflict. Many of the things force acting unitedly was able to terrorize forbidden, however immoral, are apparmerchants, and others not in sympathyently not illegal. Employees have a legal with the boycott, to obey its edicts. The right to buy where they please, just as Waterbury “ American” remarked that employers have a legal right to hire whom the company was able to supply the city they please. Wherein the boycott was
immoral, moral weapons should have the new treaty's plan of settlement of the been relied upon to cope with it.
Alaskan boundary difficulty, provided that the Commissioners were to be “ impartial
jurists.” “ As soon as the matter is settled Last week a new session of on this basis and the treaty signed,” says The Canadian Parliament
the Canadian Parliament be- one trusted exponent of Canadian opin
gan. To those on this side ion, “the President nominates as Comthe border the principal event so far has
missioners men who certainly cannot be been the attack on the Government by appropriately classed under this head.” Mr. Borden, the Opposition leader, for On the other hand, the English papers not opposing the Hay-Herbert Treaty, have taken such a different tone as to recently negotiated and ratified between lead the Montreal “Herald” to remark: the United States and Great Britain. “The fulsome flattery of the Americans Mr. Borden declared that the Clayton- used by the Spectator' and certain Bulwer Treaty should not have been abro other English journals will have a tendgated without provision first having been ency to make Canadians angry, for it made for the delimitation of the Alaska lends British encouragement to what is boundary, and added that the American not fair play.” Canadian dissatisfaction Commissioners were not "impartial jur- may be somewhat lessened if, as is now ists,” as required by the Hay-Herbert reported, the Dominion Government's Treaty. Replying, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, the recommendation that two of the three Premier, as reported, showed the possibil- British members of the Commission shall ity always present of unpleasantness as long be Canadians has been approved by the as the boundary question was unsettled. Imperial authorities. Thus he regarded the treaty as a distinct victory over the position previously taken by the United States because of the aban
The diplomatic note sent donment of the condition that territory now
Argentina and the
by the Argentine Repubin America's possession, such as Dyea and
lic through its representSkagway, must be recognized as Ameri- ative in Washington to our Government, can in any event. The present provision as at first inadequately reported in the on this point is fair and honorable to both newspapers, had something naïvely huparties, he said. Decision or no decision, morous about it. It seemed to be a prophe continued, one result of the Commis- osition that the United States should enter sion would be the best possible educa- into an offensive and defensive alliance tion for the American and British people with the Argentine Republic to prevent on the points contended for by Canada. such a forced collection of debt by He also had expected that the Ameri- foreign nations as we have just seen can Commissioners would be “impartial carried out in the case of Venezuela. jurists” of repute. Mr. Root was much When one comes to read the full text of in the position of a party to a suit trying the note, however, this seems an exaggerhis own case. Senator Turner, he under-ated view of the proposal. It has long stood, was an interested party in connec- been held by some nations and some aution with the enterprises in the Northwest- thorities on internationa: law that such a
Senator Lodge had expressed method of debt collection, namely, by naval very strong opinions against the claims or military force, ought not to be recogof Canada, upon which he will be called nized as in accordauce with the sound to pass judgment. Sir Wilfrid declared, principles of international law. This behowever, that the British Commissioners lief is often called the Calvo doctrine, should really be "impartial jurists,” the and (whatever may be said for and best to be found in the Empire. Sir Wil- against it) it is at least debatable. The frid, like most of his compatriots, evidently Government of Argentina in its note to feels aggrieved by the choice of the Amer Secretary Hay really argues for the ican Commissioners. He has always been acceptance of this principle by the nations friendly to this country, but is now being generally and by the United States in assailed by the Conservative press through- particular. It would be one thing for the out the Dominion because he consented to United States, through its representatives