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own moral superiority, it must, in God's We offered the work to a negro contractor eyes, just measure the depth of our debt living in Atlanta, an ex-slave; but, to his to the weaker race. The difference pledges regret and ours, his time and resources for us, not to condemnation, but to service. months ahead were already pledged in
But there are chaste negroes and hon- contracts with white people living in est ones. I know many personally, and that city, and he could not undertake it. I cannot think my own experience very It is chiefly industrial education, with exceptional. A woman who was in my its already notable good results, that is house thirteen years-a girl grown up changing the attitude of many of the since the war—is a fair specimen of this thinking men of the South to one of unclass. I believe in her virtue entirely, mistakable hopefulness. Dr. J. J. Tigert, and would trust her with anything I pos- the editor of the “ Southern Methodist sess, while her long and faithful service Review," and one of the acknowledged compels my genuine affection ; and I am leaders of his denomination, says in a but one of thousands who could bear a recent editorial : like testimony.
We confess, for our own part, that we no It is in these exceptional negroes, and longer share the pessimism with respect to the in their constantly, if slowly, increasing
insolubility of the problein which has seemed
to dominate much of Southern thought and numbers, that we find a visible warrant
sentiment. There are too many indications for our faith in the future of their race, of the steady improvement of the negro in his as well as for our faith in the providence Southern habitat. Commercially, educationwhich has bound up their future with that
ally, religiously, the colored man is on the up
grade. Many of his race are earning the of our whole country.
cordial respect of the white people of the Southern white women are sometimes South by good conduct alike on the farm and said to be indifferent to the needs of the
in the shop, in the school and in the church.
Social and moral distinctions, which are colored people. The charge is not with
recognized by the negroes themselves, are out foundation ; yet very many of the rapidly developing among them. He who negro's best friends and most sympa- looks upon the race as a common mass of thetic helpers are to be found ainong the
uniform quality is vastly mistaken. The
worthless elements are no doubt still present women who have inherited this attitude
in large proportions; but the worthy elements toward them from their mothers and are visible and growing to him who has eyes grandmothers. In their painful progress to see. Time and patience will be needed for from barbarism the negroes owe much to
a permanent solution of all the difficulties of the Christian Southern women of the
the situation ; but the practical demands of
business life, and various influences, both past, and more than is known to those of emancipating and conservative, which grow the present.
out of daily association and common interests, The new industrial school at Paine will make their scarcely perceptible contribuInstitute is a sign, small but significant,
tions until, in ways whose operation is not
measurable, but whose results are determina1 growing desire among Southern tive, the vast and complex problem of the two women to help their darker neighbors races living side by side in concord and amity through organized effort. It is also an will be solved. indication of the growing belief that a To some at the North these words may final solution of the whole difficult prob- seem over-sanguine in view of the recent lem will be reached for the mass of the wholesale disfranchisement of the negroes race along the lines laid down at Ha'no- in several of the Southern States. The ton and Tuskegee. This school has been charge which is brought against these States enterprised by the Woman's Board of is not that negroes unfit to vote are excluded Home Missions of the Methodist Episco- from the ballot, but that white men equally pal Church, South, which is composed of ignorant are not excluded also. But women from every Southern State. A whenever the great majority of intelligent young colored woman, a graduate of Hamp- citizens in any State do a thing which to ton, was placed at Paine this fall as instruct those at a distance appears unjust, it is ress, and Dr. Walker writes that she is safe to conclude that the action cannot be doing fine work notwithstanding the tem- explained by the assumption that the porary lack of suitable accommodations intelligent majority has either laid aside We have just let the contract for two its intelligence or has acted from unworthy industrial cottages, to be erected at once. motives. Explanations like that do not
explain, North or South. Mistakes may desire to oppress the helpless or to shirk be made, the correcting of which will be the duty laid upon the South of solving costly enough; but in every State in the the negro problem in justice and honor. Union there is enough of the spirit of To those of us who believe most thorpatriotism and of fair play to prevent the oughly in a restricted suffrage the country securing of any great majority for an act over, there is a danger in the future which of selfish tyranny. As a matter of fact, is as yet unknown among us. The rapid the ignorant white vote at the South has growth of our manufactures is drawing the never been, as at the North, a menace scattered country population into our 10 good government. Such voters have cities and laying the foundations of the not been gathered into towns, but scattered Southern slum. The conditions which through the country, and coming into fre- have hitherto safeguarded the ignorant quent and friendly touch with the educated white vote are rapidly changing, and the classes both in the country and in the seeds of a new peril to clean municipal towns where they go to do their trading. government are being sown. Unless the They have stood entirely apart from ques- school term can be lengthened and comtions of municipal government, and have pulsory education laws passed throughout been overwhelmingly on the side of law the South, our children will find that the and order in the country communities, color line and the danger line no longer The dangers of our political life have coincide. The ignorant white voter of come from the manipulation of the igno- to-day will give no trouble; but what of rant colored vote by a few unscrupulous to-day's mill children, controlled a few whites. It is impossible for the North to years hence by the political boss? The realize or the South to forget the horror spectacle so long familiar at the North of the days when that vote ruled the South. may yet be seen at the South-the intelliIn the interest of both races, for the sake gent white vote arrayed against the ignoof justice and decency, it must never rule rant white vote, and fighting it in the again. The States which have barred interest of good government. the ignorant black vote but not the igno. But it is with the present situation that rant white vote have drawn, not a color we are now concerned. We cannot. if line, but what they believe to be a danger we would, deny the crimes against the line. All this is said, not in defense of negroes which have been committed an abstract principle, but in explanation among us; but we believe that the great of a concrete fact.
majority of whites will yet find a way to There are many men in the South who put an end to that which they condemn, do not favor the retention of the ignorant and that the negroes themselves will white vote. The majority of them, as eventually be raised above the moral might be expected, are found in those level on which the terrible provocation is States where the ignorant black vote is given. less overwhelming or the ignorant white I t is a tremendous task which is laid vote more significant than elsewhere--that upon the Southern whites, both in behalf is, where the conditions tend to approxi- of the negroes and to hold fast by patience mate those of the North.
and hopefulness within their own hearts. It should be remembered that those It is for the North, free from the daily States which have disfranchised these burdens and conflicts which that task ignorant voters are taxing every resource involves, to give us more of generous and equally with the other States to educate brotherly understanding. With all her the negroes and to fit them for citizen- heroic effort, the white children of the ship. There is neither the intention nor South in many places are still inadequately the wish to keep them disqualified, nor to provided for ; to meet even in a small bar them out when qualified. They are measure the needs of the colored populaadmitted as voters, and will be for years tion often seems to involve the sacrifice to come, on a lower level than would ad- of needed provision for the whites. There mit them to suffrage in one of the wisest is nothing comparable to it in all the Northern States. A mistake may have North or West. But, whatever the South been made, but it was in the sincere belief may lack, she has never yet turned her what it was best for all classes, and with no back upon difficulties nor failed in the power of sacrifice for her ideal of duty. Christianity have long since owned the As inuch as in us is, we are debtors to debt, and by the grace of God they will the whites and to the negroes also. yet pay it in full. Southern statesmanship and Southern Nashville, Tenn.
Two Gentlemen of Kentucky'
By James Lane Allen
We reprint this story by Mr. James Lane Allen, not so much for its charm as a piece of fiction, in which the best qualities of realism and of imaginative writing are skillfully combined, as because it is one of the most illuminative contributions to the literature of the Race Question that has been made in recent years. We believe it will give the Northern reader some insight into the gracious and friendly personality and spirit which are characteristic of a fine type of the Southern white man. We think it will also remind the Southern reader that the black man possesses traits of character-unselfishness, loyalty, personal affection, and refined feeling-which endeared him to the white master and mistress of a generation ago. These traits The Outlook confidently believes may be so encouraged and developed that the white and black races in this country shall find a common basis of agreement-a basis whereon they can live in peace and friendship, each respecting the public rights of the other without intruding upon the other's private rights. The story is reprinted by the special permission of the author and of the Macmillan Company, who issue it in the volume entitled “ Flute and Violin." _THE EDITORS. “The woods are hushed, their music is no more; sycamores. Still nearer, it caught the top
The leaf is dead, the yearning passed away: of the brown foliage of a little bent oakNew leaf, new life--the days of frost are o'er : New life, new love, to suit the newer day." tree and burned it into a silvery flame.
It lit on the back and the wings of a crow THE WOODS ARE HUSHED
flying heavily in the path of its rays, and (T was near the middle of the afternoon made his blackness as white as the breast
of an autumnal day, on the wide, of a swan. In the immediate foreground
grassy plateau of Central Kentucky. it sparkled in minute gleams along the The Eternal Power seemed to have stalks of the coarse, dead weeds that fell quitted the universe and left all nature away from the legs and the flanks of a white folded in the calm of the Eternal Peace horse, and slanted across the face of the Around the pale blue dome of the heavens rider and through the ends of his gray a few pearl-colored clouds hung motion- hair, which straggled from beneath his less, as though the wind had been with soft black hat. drawn to other skies. Not a crimson leaf The horse, old and patient and gentle, floated downward through the soft, silvery stood with low-stretched neck and closed light that filled the atmosphere and created eyes half asleep in the faint glow of the the sense of lonely, unimaginable spaces. waning heat; and the rider, the sole human This light overhung the far-rolling land presence in all the field, sat looking across scape of field and meadow and wood, the silent autumnal landscape, sunk in crowning with faint radiance the remoter reverie. Both horse and rider seemed but low-swelling hill-tops, and deepening into harmonious elements in the panorama of dreamy half-shadows on their eastern still life, and completed the picture of a slopes. Nearer, it fell in a white flake on closing scene. an unstirred sheet of water which lay along To the man it was a closing scene. the edge of a mass of somber-hued wood- From the rank, fallow field through which land, and nearer still it touched to spring- he had been riding he was now surveying, like brilliancy a level, green meadow on the for the last time, the many features of a hither edge of the water, where a group of landscape that had been familiar to him Durham cattle stood with reversed flanks from the beginning of memory. In the near the gleaming trunks of some leafless afternoon and the autumn of his age he
was about to rend the last ties that bound Copyrighted, 1891, 1899, by Harper & Brothers, New York.
him to his former life, and, like one who
had survived his own destiny, turn his past. The silent fields around him seemed face towards a future that was void of again alive with the negroes, singing as everything he held significant or dear. they followed the plows down the corn
The Civil War had only the year be- rows or swung the cradles through the fore reached its ever-memorable close. bearded wheat. Again, in a frenzy of From where he sat there was not a home merriment, the strains of the old fiddles in sight, as there was not one beyond the issued from crevices of cabin doors to the reach of his vision, but had felt its influ- rhythmic beat of hands and feet that shook ence. Some of his neighbors had come the rafters and the roof. Now he was home from its camps and prisons, aged or sitting on his porch, and one little negro altered as though by half a lifetime of was blacking his shoes, another leading years. The bones of some lay whitening his saddle-horse to the stiles, a third on its battlefields. Families, reassembled bringing his hat, and a fourth handing him around their hearthstones, spoke in low a glass of ice-cold sangaree; or now he tones unceasingly of defeat and victory, lay under the locust-trees in his yard, fallheroism and death. Suspicion and dis- ing asleep in the drowsy heat of the sumtrust and estrangement prevailed. Former mer afternoon, while one waved over him friends met each other on the turnpikes a bough of pungent walnut leaves, until without speaking; brothers avoided each he lost consciousness and by and by awoke other in the streets of the neighboring to find that they both had fallen asleep town. The rich had grown poor ; the side by side on the grass and that the poor had become rich. Many of the latter abandoned fly-brush lay full across his were preparing to move West. The negroes face. were drifting blindly hither and thither, From where he sat also were seen slopes deserting the country and flocking to the on which picnics were danced under the towns. Even the once united church of broad shade of maples and elms in June his neighborhood was jarred by the un- by those whom death and war had scatstrung and discordant spirit of the times. tered like the transitory leaves that once At affecting passages in the sermons men had sheltered them. In this direction lay grew pale and set their teeth fiercely; the district school-house where on Friday women suddenly lowered their black veils evenings there were wont to be speeches and rocked to and fro in their pews; for and debates; in that, lay the blacksmith's it is always at the bar of Conscience and shop where of old he and his neighbors before the very altar of God that the human had met on horseback of Saturday afterheart is most wrung by a sense of its losses noons to hear the news, get the mails, and the memory of its wrongs. The war discuss elections, and pitch quoits. In had divided the people of Kentucky as the valley beyond stood the church at the false mother would have severed the which all had assembled on calm Sunday child.
mornings like the members of one united It had not left the old man unscathed. family. Along with these scenes went His younger brother had fallen early in many a chastened reminiscence of bridal the conflict, borne to the end of his brief and funeral and simpler events that had warfare by his impetuous valor; his aged made up the annals of his country life. mother had sunk under the tidings of the The reader will have a clearer insight death of her latest-born ; his sister was into the character and past career of estranged from him by his political differ- Colonel Romulus Fields by remembering ences with her husband; his old family that he represented a fair type of that servants, men and women, had left him, social order which had existed in rank perand grass and weeds had already grown fection over the blue-grass plains of Kenover the door-steps of the shut, noiseless tucky during the final decades of the old cabins. Nay, the whole vast social system régime. Perhaps of all agriculturists in of the old régime had fallen, and he was the United States the inhabitants of that henceforth but a useless fragment of the region had spent the most nearly idyllic ruins.
life, on account of the beauty of the cliAll at once his mind turned from the mate, the richness of the land, the spacious cracked and smoky mirror of the times comfort of their homes, the efficiency of nd dwelt fondly upon the scenes of the their negroes, and the characteristic contentedness of their dispositions. Thus hickory-nut trees, loaded on the topmost nature and history combined to make them branches, gave him a sudden pang. a peculiar class, a cross between the aris- Beyond the woods he came upon the tocratic and the bucolic, being as simple as garden, which he had kept as his mother shepherds and as proud as kings, and not had left it-an old-fashioned garden with seldom exhibiting among both men and an arbor in the center, covered with Isawomen types of character which were as bella grape-vines on one side and Catawba remarkable for pure, tender, noble states on the other; with walks branching thence of feeling as they were commonplace in in four directions, and along them beds of powers and cultivation of mind.
jump-up-johnnies, sweet-williams, daffoIt was upon this luxurious social growth dils, sweet-peas, larkspur, and thyme, flags that the war naturally fell as a killing frost, and the sensitive plant, celestial and and upon no single specimen with more maiden's-blush roses. He stopped and blighting power than upon Colonel Fields. looked over the fence at the very spot For destiny had quarried and chiseled where he had found his mother on the day him to serve as an ornament in the bar- when the news of the battle came. baric temple of human bondage. There She had been kneeling, trowel in hand, were ornaments in that temple, and he was driving away vigorously at the loamy one. A slaveholder with Southern sym- earth, and, as she saw him coming, had pathies, a man educated not beyond the risen and turned towards him her face with ideas of his generation, convinced that the ancient pink bloom on her clear cheeks slavery was an evil, yet seeing no present and the light of a pure, strong soul in her way of removing it, he had of all things gentle eyes. Overcome by his emotions, been a model master. As such he had he had blindly faltered out the words, gone on record in Kentucky, and no doubt “Mother, John was among the killed !". in a Higher Court; and as such his efforts For a moment she had looked at him as had been put forth to secure the passage though stunned by a blow. Then a violent of many of those milder laws for which flush had overspread her features, and his State was distinguished. Often, in then an ashen pallor ; after which, with a those dark days, his face, anxious and sad, sudden proud dilating of her formas was to be seen amid the throng that sur- though with joy, she had sunk down like rounded the blocks on which slaves were the tenderest of her lily-stalks, cut from its sold at auction; and more than one poor root. wretch he had bought to save him from Beyond the garden he came to the separation from his family or from being empty cabin and the great wood-pile. At sold into the Southern plantations--after- this hour it used to be a scene of hilarious wards riding far and near to find activity—the little negroes sitting perched him a home on one of the neighboring in chattering groups on the topmost logs or
playing leap-frog in the dust, while some But all those days were over. He had picked up baskets of chips or dragged a but to place the whole picture of the pres- back-log into the cabins. ent beside the whole picture of the past to At last he drew near the wooden stiles realize what the contrast meant for him. and saw the large house of which he was
At length he gathered the bridle reins the solitary occupant. What darkened from the neck of his old horse and turned rooms and noiseless halls! What beds, his head homeward. As he rode slowly all ready, that nobody now came to sleep on, every spot gave up its memories. He in, and cushioned old chairs that nobody dismounted when he came to the cattle rocked! The house and the contents of and walked among them, stroking their its attic, presses, and drawers could have soft flanks and feeling in the palm of his told much of the history of Kentucky from hand the rasp of their salt-loving tongues; almost its beginning ; for its foundations on his sideboard at home was many a silver had been laid by his father near the begincup which told of premiums on cattle at ning of the century, and through its doors the great fairs. It was in this very pond had passed a long train of forms, from the that as a boy he had learned to swim on a veterans of the Revolution to the soldiers cherry rail. When he entered the woods, of the Civil War. Old coats hung up the sight of the walnut-trees and the in closets ; old dresses folded away in