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ask the Legislature to violate that principle this law of justice carried down into the of Home Rule which is or ought to be sources of life. fundamental to all municipal legislation. Christ's standard of love and life is very
Meanwhile, in the absence of legislation, different. It is : “ As I have loved you." we do not see what the municipal govern- Did Christ love his neighbor no other ment can do better than so to enforce the or better than he loved himself?“ Let Sunday law as to prevent disturbance and this mind be in you, which was also in disorder, and secure for all citizens quiet Christ Jesus: who, being in the form of and repose, and not attempt to carry the God, thought equality with God not a enforcement of the law beyond that point. prize to be seized, but made himself of
If any one asks whether the city of New no reputation, and took upon him the York wishes the abolition of Sunday legis- form of a servant, and was made in the lation, we answer: Opinions of the well likeness of men ; and being formed in informed differ on that point; from the fashion as a man, he humbled himself, best light we can get, we judge that a and became obedient to death, even the majority of the people of the city are death of the cross.” Is this loving his opposed to any opening of the saloons on neighbor only as he loved himself ? He, Sunday as saloons, provided some way the first recorded act of whose boyhood can be found by which the people can life was his cheerful relinquishment of secure their wine and beer with their meals, education, after one memorable day in the in their homes, their restaurants, and their Jewish University, and his return to the hotels. But the attempt of the Raines narrow life of a peasant, that he might help Law to accomplish this has proved an his father in the shop, and one of whose utter failure, and no better plan has as yet latest acts, as he hung upon the cross, was been proposed.
to commend, in fragmentary sentences, with his failing breath, his heartbroken
mother to the care of the beloved disciLenten Meditations
ple-did he love others only as he loved
himself? When did he think of himself? The New Commandment
When did his care, his comfort, his enjoyMoses gave ten commandments; Christ ment, his refreshment, play a part in his gave but one:
life? To him love meant service and sacriThis is my commandment, That ye love fice.“ The Son of man,” he said, “ came one another, as I have loved you.
not to be ministered unto, but to minister, Christ's life gives a new interpretation and to give his life a ransom for many." to love. It is often said that Christ has Is this an impossible ideal ? Must we summed up all religion in the two com- leave it for hymns and homilies, for stories mandments, “ Thou shalt love the Lord and dramas ? Ask the Sisters of Mercy thy God with all thy heart, and with all in many a hospital; ask the Red Cross thy soul, and with all thy mind ;" and nurses in the battlefield; ask Valley Forge “ Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.” and Gettysburg; ask the missionary But this is not Christ's summary of relig- chapel and the college settlement; ask ion; this is Christ's summary of the Paul, and Luther, and William of Orange, Jewish religion. These are the great and George Washington, and Robert E. commandments in the Law. Christ's Lee, and Abraham Lincoln, and General summary of religion for his followers is Armstrong; ask the mothers innumerable “ That ye love one another, as I have who have given their lives to the nurture loved you." His rule of conduct is not of their children, that they may live in the Golden Rule; that, again, is Jewish; their children's future lives. Christ's it is “the law and the prophets." Christ's commandment is written in the heart of rule of conduct is, “ Follow me.” The man, and in our hours of vision we see its Golden Rule is not a law of love, it is a luminous letters and long to make it the rule of justice. Who am I that I have law of our lives. any right to ask of another that he treat “What doth the Lord require of thee," me beiter that I would treat him if our asks Micah, “but to do justly, to love positions were reversed ? The law, " Thou mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God?” shalt love thy neighbor as thyself,” is but To love mercy is more than to do justly: it is to desire to do unto others more than tion of students who come from districts we would ask them to do unto us ; it is in which high-school facilities are not pity for the suffering, compassion for the offered. The Superintendent is reported ignorant, love for the undeserving. It is as opposed to this bill on the ground that to eat with publicans and sinners; it is to this appropriation, if made, ought to be pass by the pious priest and go to the expended under the direction of his dehouse of Zaccheus; it is still to love the partment. friend who in the hour of trial deserts us, Even a casual examination of these as Christ loved Peter; it is to hold with three measures brings out the evil inherent tenacity of patience to the false friend in the present situation—the evil which who betrays us, as Christ held to Judas always inheres in the attempt to deal with Iscariot. The cross, not the balance sheet, one group of institutions, or with a single is the symbol of Christianity. “Whoso department of the public life of a State, ever will be great among you, let him be by two or more organizations. From this your minister; and whosoever will be evil New York has suffered for many chief among you, let him be your servant:" years. The University of the State of this is Christ's measure of greatness. New York was incorporated in 1784. It “ Though he was rich, yet for your sakes became a constitutional body in 1895. The he became poor, that ye through his Department of Public Instruction was poverty might become rich :” this is established in 1854. The two organizaPaul's summary of Christ's life. “He tions were supposed to occupy different laid down his life for us; and we ought fields, the public elementary schools being to lay down our lives for the brethren :" under the Department of Public Instructhis is John's interpretation of that life. tion, the academies and other institutions
Christ gave to his disciples but one of secondary and higher learning under commandment: That ye love one another, the management of the University. Even as I have loved you. His example is our if the operations of the two bodies could only rule of conduct; his spirit of love our be kept in different fields, the evils which only law of life.
grow out of an attempt thus arbitrarily to draw a line across the field of education,
which is essentially and necessarily one, A School Reform would inevitably develop in the course of
time. As a matter of fact, the separation No matter of greater importance to the has never been practically made; and higher interests of New York State is now there has been constant friction between before the public than the question of the the two bodies. unification of the control of its educational There are in the State one hundred and institutions. Several bills are now before twelve school commissioner districts for the State Legislature bearing on this sub- the purposes of common-school or primary ject. One provides for an addition of education, exclusive of cities. These disnine to the membership of the Board of tricts are subdivided into smaller districts Regents, and practically constitutes that in accordance with the requirements of body a Board of Education to carry on localities. By a la v passed in 1853, school the work at present in the charge of the districts were authorized to form “union Department of Public Instruction. This free school districts" in order to secure a bill does not meet with the approval of higher class of graded schools; the governthe Regents, who propose to introduce a ing boards in these union free school dismeasure which will end the present system tricts being elected by the voters of the of double control and secure the unifica- district and responsible to the school tion of the educational system of the commissioner, but under the supervision State by bringing all institutions, from of the State Superintendent of Public the lowest to the highest grade, under the Instruction, who, according to statute, direct management of the Board as now apportions and distributes the appropriaconstituted. A third bill provides for the tions made by the Legislature for the supappropriation of $135,000 to be distributed port of such schools. Academic departby the Regents among the high schools of ments in such union free school districts the State in order to provide for the instruc- come under the visitation of the Regents and receive funds from them. Boards of the fixing of the standards of these education in these union free school dis- schools; and the enlargement of the edutricts must apply to preacademic grades cational facilities which these schools grants from the Superintendent and to offer seems to bring them more and more academic grades grants from the Regents. by force of logic within the field which is To the State Superintendent is also given under the control of the Regents. It is general supervision over all matters relat- in the exercise of the power of visitation ing to the training and licensing of teachers. and investigation that friction has develHe also acts as a court of ultimate appeal oped between the Regents and the Dein all questions which may arise over partment of Public Instruction; and the school matters. "His decision,” reads the position taken by the Regents, that the statute, “shall be final and conclusive, spending of the proposed appropriation of and not subject to question or investigation $135,000 among the various high schools in any place or court whatever." The of the State should be in their hands, Superintendent is chosen by joint ballot would seem to be entirely reasonable. It of the Legislature for a term of three is distinctly for purposes of secondary years.
education, appropriations for which have The University of the State of New been administered invariably through the York includes “all institutions of academic Regents. or higher education which are now or The Board of Regents have issued an may hereafter be incorporated in this appeal to the Governor, the Legislature, State, together with the State Library and and the people of the State, calling attenState Museum,” and is governed by a tion to recent evidences of the evils arising Board of Regents composed of nineteen from the dual system of State supervision persons, who are elected for life by the of public education, and urging that the Legislature; the Governor, Lieutenant- exclusive power of the supervision of Governor, Secretary of State, and Super- public education be committed to their own intendent of Public Instruction being Board on two grounds: first, because the members ex officio. The Regents serve dual system inevitably creates friction and without pay. They have the power to prevents the freest development of educaprescribe standards of examination, to tional organization in the State; and, confer charters on colleges, academies, second, because the lodging of the superand other educational institutions, and to vision of public education in their hands impose upon such institutions such restric- would forever take the schools of the tions as they think wise. They also de- State out of politics. termine the preliminary education required These are two very cogent reasons, of professional students and they examine which will appeal to all intelligent voters and license physicians, dentists, veterina of the State, without respect to party. ries, and public accountants. They also. The prime necessity of single, harmonious have the power to suspend the charter of highly efficient organization of the schools, any institution, or to change it at will. and keeping them absolutely free from
This brief explanation brings out the political influence and out of the field of different functions of the two bodies which political action, is self-evident; it needs have charge of educational matters in no demonstration. The Regents constithis State. The friction between the two tute the oldest educational organization organizations has been increased by the in the State; they are, as Governor Odell rapid growth in numbers and importance has said, “ absolutely without partisanship of the academic department in the union and actuated by the highest motives and free school district. The high school is the purest sentiment." There may be an evolution out of the common school reasons for modifying the constitution of which is under the control of the district the Board of Regents. Possibly it should board and the school commissioner, the be a smaller body; possibly its members latter being responsible to the State should not have a life tenure; possibly Superintendent and in large measure con- the size of the body and the life tenure trolled by him. The Regents, on the tend to prevent educational progress. other hand, have the right of visitation These allegations are made, and they may and examination of the high schools, and be true; but if true, the remedy is the reorganization of the Board, and not a be made the educational legislative body; continuance of the present dual system, the Superintendent of Public Instruction still less a plan which directly or indirectly should be appointed by the Board and be would devolve educational legislation in amenable to the Board. The whole edudetail upon
an already overburdened cational system of the State should be Legislature. The Board of Regents should unified under the one control.
The Impressions of a Careless Traveler
went with us and was our guide and our N Rome at last-the city of contrasts: interpreter.
of Nero and of Marcus Aurelius, of We drove first through the heart of
Cicero and of Seneca, of Gregory the city, across the Tiber and up the VII. and of Alexander VI., of the Coli- slope of the Janiculum Hill, which is laid seum and of St. Peter's, of palaces and out as a drive and parkway. From one of poverty, of piety and of superstition, of of its eminences we could see the city self-sacrifice and of self-indulgence, where of Rome beneath us, the Tiber dividing Bruno was burnt and where Luther was it into two unequal sections; the Seven reborn, theater of the most beastly orgies Hills of Rome discernible even without and of the most splendid religious pag- our glasses, and so far distinguishable eants, the Babylon and the Jerusalem of that our driver could point them out to us, European history. I believe in air castles: although in one case the valley between the if I had not dreamed for years of visiting neighboring hills has been filled up, either Rome, I never should have reached it. by the process of time, the destructions We were welcomed at the station by our of war, or the art of man, so that the two old friends Signor and Madame To hills are no longer separable to the eye, be in their house is like being at home, at least at a distance. Upon those hills a luxury after two months of steamer and were clearly discernible, on the Quirinal, hotel life. Our supper we found laid in the palace of the King; on the Capitoline, our room, and a little fire burning in the the Museum ; on the Palatine, the ruins of open stove—for it is strangely cold for the Palace of the Cæsars; on the Aventine, April. The day has been full of excite- the Dominican Monastery; on the distant ment. The ride from Naples here has Viminal, the residences of the best families been one of strange beauty. I am weary of modern Rome, and almost equidistant, but not sleepy. But I want to waste no though in another direction, the dome of days in Rome, and if I am not to waste St. Peter's. Then we drove by a winding to
morrow in resting, I must rest to-night. road up to the over-elaborate statue of I will stop thinking and go to sleep. Garibaldi, so constructed, it is said,
whether by accident or design I do not
May 6. know, that all the guns of the group of When you get to Rome, said a friend soldiers are pointing at the Vatican, which, in America, take a carriage and spend a with its pleasure grounds and summer day in driving about the city. Then take residence for the Pope, is in full view; then the evening train for Florence; or-un- down the hill to St. Peter's, stopping long pack your trunks and stay a year. We have enough only to get the view of its appearfollowed the first part of the advice, and ance from the front with the semicircular driven this afternoon about the city. We cloisters leading up to it, and the fountains cannot unpack our trunks and stay a year, playing in the square before it; then but I have already in my own mind resolved across the Tiber by the famous Castle of to prolong our stay from two weeks to St. Angelo, which has witnessed so many three, even if we have to sacrifice some- dark deeds of treachery and cruelty, to thing of Florence and Venice to do so. the Pincian Hill and the adjoining BorWe had a driver so intelligent that we ghese Gardens—the two together constidubbed him Cicero, and Madame tuting the chief pleasure-ground and popular promenade of Rome; and thence arches, walls, broken busts, or of a great back to our home on the Viminal. We gallery with its forest of statues and torsos; have thus, in an afternoon, driven through in such a picture no feature would be disthe heart of the city and made a circuit tinguishable, because the plate had ainbiperhaps three-quarters of the way about tiously endeavored to reproduce them all. it, and, thanks to our interpreter and to
May 7. Cicero, have returned with a very good I supplemented yesterday's drive about general idea of its topography and the the city by a walk to-day through the location of its most notable sights. heart of it with Signor - One gets a
This is preliminary to visiting it in detail familiarity, a closeness of acquaintance, by —and studying it? Yes I the temptation is a walk, which one cannot get in a carriage. not to be resisted. I lay aside my resolution Partly from this drive, partly from the to do no serious work while I am abroad. walk, partly from the conversations with I have had nearly two months of rest; my friends who are familiar with Rome for three weeks I will give myself the in all its phases, I find already my apprepleasure of a little study. I wish I could hension of Rome systematizing itself even spend three months instead of three weeks before I have any real knowledge to be here. I should like to get out of my systematized. It is very well, I think, library Mommsen's “ History of Rome” to construct the pigeonholes for one's to revive my knowledge of its general facts before the facts are known, that one history, Froude's “ Cæsar” to give me a may be able to classify them as they picture of the city in the first century, come into his possession. B- says Gibbon's “ Decline and Fall” to carry rightly that Rome has no atmosphere. It the picture down to the time of Marcus is essentially a cosmopolitan city—in that Aurelius, Bryce's " Holy Roman Empire” respect wholly unlike Naples. Except to recall the part it played in the first few for the variously uniformed ecclesiastics centuries of the Christian era, Creighton's whoin we meet at every turn, there are no “ History of the Popes” to re-read his curious costumes; except for the ruins description of its social and religious which one may happen on everywhere in condition under the Borgias, Lanciani's his walks, Rome might be any Continental “ New Tales of Old Rome” to connect city. And yet a little reflection impresses all this history with its present topography one with the conviction that this lack of and remains, and Countess Cesaresco's distinction is itself a distinction. “ Liberation of Italy" to bring before me There are three Romes, indistinguish. in brief its most recent political history. able except by after-reflection, one built Probably this would only whet my appetite upon the other, yet all remaining to befor a much more thorough study than wilder and perplex the observer—arcient would be possible with only these books or classical Rome, medieval or ecclesiand only three mɔnths to study in. astical Rome, and modern Rome. The
But when one cannot do what he would, center and symbol of classical Rome are he must be content to do what he can. the Palatine and the Forum, though With the aid of Baedeker and B- —'s remains of the ancient capital are scatknowledge of ancient history, which is tered in massive ruins about the city and much fresher than mine, I can at least in busts and statues in various states of connect what I see with what little I preservation in the galleries, public and remember, and jot down here impressions private. The center and symbol of medito give life to future studies or definiteness æval or ecclesiastical Rome are St. Peter's to future reflections. Yes! this is what I and the Vatican-perhaps I should say St. will do. I will not attempt to record Peter's in the Vatican, though one meets daily experiences; that I clearly see would with monuments of ecclesiastical Rome in be useless. I will record only conclusions. mediæval churches on every corner, many In Rome these pages shall be the posted of them containing some picture, statue, entries of a ledger, not the daily entries relic, or mosaic which gives them a value of a journal. For the attempt to preserve in the eye of the devout, the antiquarian, here the details of daily observations and perhaps the art-lover. Most of the would be like an attempt to give a photo pictures, too, in the art galleries are by graph of the Forum with all its columns, the “old masters,” and represent a medi