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ordnance equipment. In the old days of Academy should be reduced from six to sail, the naval officer was first of all four years. It created a corps of warrant master of the motive power: why not in machinists, and improved the condition of the days of steam? The acceptance of the enlisted force by conferring upon its the proposal by the engineers was followed members the same privileges and rights by the drafting of the provisions of a bill respecting retirement and pension that to be laid before the Secretary for trans- obtained in the army and marine corps. mission to Congress. Examination of The enthusiasm aroused by sea victories this showed that, besides providing for during the war with Spain caused the the combination of the line and engineer enactment of the bill with some amendcorps, it enabled the voluntary retirement ments and additions, the latter relating of officers in the grades of captain, mainly to the marine corps. commander, and lieutenant-commanders, It was loudly urged against this reorshould natural causes fail to produce a ganization bill that it would operate to the certain number of casualties in those disadvantage of the service; that the age grades, and in that of lieutenant; and was one of specialization, and that it was that should the casualties and voluntary impossible to make a fighting man a "jackretirements be not sufficient to cause the of-all-trades.” Those who made these average vacancies fixed, then a Board of statements forgot that in amalgamating Rear-Admirals should select a limited the line and engineer corps we were number of officers for retirement. simply repeating history ; that England's Whether voluntarily or compulsorily re- ships were once sailed by men especially tired, the officers affected were to receive employed for that duty and fought by the rank and three-fourths of the sea-pay soldiers who had nothing to do with the of the grade next higher to that which operation of the vessels. But the combithey had attained at the time of retire nation of these two types produced the ment. Here were two provisions that the sailor who could not only sail his ship, Board contemplated enacting into law, but who could fight it as well. When which permitted valuable officers to go on steamships entered our navy, the sailor, the retired list, though it was plain that clinging to the traditions of his calling, ships under construction would require jealously refused to surrender his priviwhen commissioned the services of all that leges and prerogatives to the engineer. As could be gathered, and which also gave the the work of the soldier and the sailor benefits of retirement with increased rank gradually approached each other and and pay to officers who were unfitted for finally intermingled, so has that of the duty, and less deserving of such consider- navigator and the engineer. The Personation than others retired because of dis- nel Law was framed to meet special condiability incurred in the line of duty. I tions, and so long as those conditions exist transmitted the bill to Congress with a it will produce the results intended; but recommendation for the enactment of its when they change, it will require revision. provisions, with the exception of those · It would not be surprising should the specified. It was believed that such a law inachinists warranted under the Personnel would bring harmony into the service, and Law become a future engineer corps, just the results of its operation since enactment as the late engineer corps developed from in 1899 have justified this belief. It still civilians appointed into the navy during seems advisable that the voluntary and the early years of steam. compulsory retirement provisions should The officers command a ship, but the be modified so that officers affected by brawn and its intelligent application are them shall retire with the rank and three supplied by the enlisted men. In the old fourths of the sea-pay of the grade held navy the ships were manned by sailors who at the time of retirement, and not be could patch a sail, knot a parted shroud, given a premium for getting out of the repair a boat, sponge, load, and fire a gun, service. The bill further provided that in fact, do any work appertaining to their the navy should receive army pay, that rating. Boys were enlisted as powderthe title “ midshipman” should replace monkeys and for other light work. That that of “cadet " for students at the Naval they were distinguished by the same ardor Academy, and that the course

at the as possessed their older comrades is shown by Captain Hull's report on the battle of the condition of our enlisted force when the Constitution and the Guerriere, in which reconstruction of the navy began : he said that “from the smallest boy in the “A few years ago one of our ships ship to the oldest seaman, not a look of with a cosmopolitan crew was anchored fear was seen. They all went into action in the harbor of Villefranche. The crew giving three cheers and requesting to be represented nineteen different nationalilaid alongside of the enemy.” Enough ties, and so inefficient was the organizaAmerican citizens not engaging in the na- tion that some wag painted on a board tional and merchant marines, causing the and hung in the gangway, “ Ici on parle employment of many foreigners in this Anglais,” like the signs in Paris shops. branch of the governmental and industrial When the Trenton went into commission, services, the suggestion was made in 1835 as fine a body of Germans, Huns, Norsethat boys be enlisted and trained in the men, Gauls, Chinese, and other outside ways of the sea. Congress incorporated barbarians as one could wish to see were the suggestion into law in 1837, and under on board. Of the whole number, not the authority granted him Secretary more than eighty could speak English. Paulding enlisted several hundred young- These men shipped for money. They sters and distributed them among the had no sentiment for our flag or nationline-of-battle ships Columbus and North ality, and possibly if it came to an action Carolina and the frigates Java and Hud- with a ship of their own or neighboring son. The plan was inaugurated under nation they would haul down the Ameriauspicious circumstances, but, the Depart- can colors and hoist their own." ment announcing that the apprentices National pride demanded an American would not receive commissions, interest navy. So the apprentice was encouraged. disappeared and failure followed. A In 1881 the city of Newport ceded Coastsecond effort to establish the apprentice er's Harbor Island in Narragansett Bay system was made by Secretary Welles. to the Government as a site for a Naval The experiment at first produced gratify- Apprentice station. During my admining results, justifying a belief in impor- istration the island of Yerba Buena, in tant future benefit to the service. Think- San Francisco Bay, was acquired, and ing an opportunity to attain commissions upon it a modern training station for would encourage the boys, Secretary apprentices was built. When Secretary Welles, in his annual report for 1864, sug- Robeson made the third attempt to organgested that “ from among the apprentices ize an apprentice training system, it was on the schoolship, a selection of one-half predicted that it would fail. To-day of the midshipmen appointed might be it is one of the important branches of made with gre advantage to the service supply for our enlisted force. It seemed and to the country. . . . It would popular- a violation of the principles of the Repubize the service and open to those who may lic to maintain a service which limited have enlisted the highest positions and the achievements of an employee; and, honors in the service." Mr. Welles suc- regarding Secretary Welles's plan as ceeded in having a number of apprentices eminently just and proper, I recommended sent to the Academy, where they were that Congress enact a bill permitting the examined for admission; and some of the commissioning of enlisted men promoted able officers to-day are those who under- from apprentices, after examination of went their first naval experience as en- their mental, moral, and physical qualifilisted boys.

cations. The law, as passed, fixes the Discouraging though the attempts of number of these appointments at six his predecessors were, Secretary Robeson, annually. In the twenty-seven years durin 1875, issued a circular authorizing the ing which the apprentice system has been enlistinent of a certain number of appren- in operation more than fifteen thousand tices. There was imperative need of boys have attended the course, and those such action. The percentage of foreigners who have not remained in the service in the navy at this time had reached such have, in the majority of cases, made usea high figure that confusion and ineffi- ful citizens. The apprentice system has ciency prevailed. Admiral David D. also been important in bringing about the Porter thus described the humiliating Americanization of the navy. Various

measures were adopted from the begin- to which gun captains were detailed ning of the new navy to displace the showed considerable and immediate imforeign element in the service. At the provement in target practice. The clerks time of my entrance into the Department of the navy are known as yeomen. That in 1897, almost twenty-five per cent. of men enlisted for this rating might properly the enlisted men were foreigners. As a understand their duties, a yeoman's trainmeans of reducing this proportion, enlist- ing-school was established at New York. ment stations were established in the in- One of the later acts of my time was the terior of the country and along the lakes. direction to establish at the Norfolk NavyThe material thus obtained was of such Yard an artificers' school. Here experience an excellent character that when Congress in ship-work will be given to carpenters, made substantial increases in the enlisted ship-fitters, blacksmiths, coppersmiths, force, these and additional stations were ship’s plumbers, and men of other ship's maintained. Recruits are placed on trades. That every ounce of coal may board receiving-ships, where they learn produce the largest volume of steam and the rudiments of their future calling, and that engines and boilers may not be are subsequently distributed among train- rapidly worn out, a training-school was ing-ships. When their preliminary edu- provided for firemen. The Cincinnati, cation is concluded, they are transferred whose bowels are one mass of machinery, to regular cruising vessels. Arrange- was selected for use as this school. ments had been perfected before my re- No description of the personnel of the tirement from the Department for the American navy would be complete without training of four thousand landsmen annu- a reference to the Marine Corps. An ally. Congress should authorize barracks early Continental Congress authorized the for the accommodation of raw recruits. On organization of a body of marines. The shore, under the observation of officers, Congress of the United States, which it will be an easy matter to reject those directed the construction of the first men who fail to show aptitude for the ships of the old navy, simultaneously proservice, retaining only the best material vided for the commissioning of marine to be wrought into the finished seaman. officers and the enlistment of men for the The effect of the enlistment of landsmen guards. In all our wars the marines have on the Americanization of the navy is distinguished themselves. On nineteen shown by the fact that almost ninety separate occasions Congress has, by joint per cent. of the enlisted force is to-day resolution, expressed its sense of appreAmerican by birth or naturalization. ciation of their valor and good conduct.

Improvements in the matériel of the After the Civil War a movement was navy have brought about the necessity inaugurated to abolish the Corps, but a for an enlisted personnel of high intelli- thorough investigation by Congress estabgence and skill, and with these qualities lished the inadvisability of such action. has come the need of better provision Many line officers have expressed the for enlisted men. The sailors of the old opinion that the Marine Corps is no longer navy were subjected to hard conditions; needed on board ships, and several years they are treated to-day as men. Fifty before the Spanish War the attempt to years ago they received whatever training bring about its abolition was renewed. was given them on shipboard. Even in Colonel Charles Haywood, now Majorthe new navy, until 1897, only the torpedo General, Commandant of the Corps, apschool and the gun foundry were open to peared before the Personnel Board in 1897 them. The use of electricity on board and earnestly opposed amalgamation with war-ships grew to such proportions during the navy. The Corps was reorganized and my time that it was deemed advisable to enlarged by the Personnel Law-action establish an electrical school at the New which met with general approval in view York Navy-Yard. The gunnery course of the new laurels added to its record by was completed by practical training on the battalion which served at Guantanamo, the monitors Amphitrite and Puritan, in where the Corps rendered especially brillNorth Atlantic waters. To stimulate the iant service, as well as on the ships at men, the rating of gun captain was Manila and Santiago, and ashore in China created. It is a gratifying fact that ships and the Philippines.


JOSEPH G. CANNON Mr. Cannon will probably be Speaker of the House of Representatives of the new Congress. He has been a Member of Congre

from Minois for thirty years, with the exception of one two years' term. From a photograph by Clinedinst, Washington.




CITH what feelings, I wonder, decalogue, but who had a due sense of

ought one to approach in a the importance both of the occasion and

famous University an already of the question, made the following reply: venerable foundation, devoted by the last Master, with feelings of devotion, minwill and indented deed of a pious bene- gled with awe !' Quite right, young factor to the collection and housing of man, a very proper answer,' exclaimed books and the promotion of learning ? the Master.” The Bodleian at this moment harbors “Devotion mingled with awe” might within its walls well-nigh half a million of be a very proper answer for me to make printed volumes, some scores of precious to my own question, but I, possessing manuscripts in all the tongues, and has that acquaintance with the history of the become a name famous throughout the most picturesque of all libraries which whole civilized world. What sort of a anybody can have who loves books enough poor scholar would he be whose heart to devote a dozen quiet hours of ruminadid not beat within him when, for the tion to the pages of Mr. Macray's “ Anfirst time, he found himself, to quote the nals of the Bodleian Library,” second words of " Elia," " in the heart of learn- edition, Oxford, “at the Clarendon Press,

ing, under the shadow of the mighty 1890,” cannot honestly profess to enterBodley" ?

tain in my breast, with regard to it, the Grave questions, these, but put, I am precise emotions which C. S. C. declared afraid, with a certain pomposity of style, took possession of him when he regarded for how else can I account for the undig- the decalogue. A great library easily nified trick my memory is now playing begets affection, which may deepen into me, by summoning to its bar that irrever love; but devotion and awe are plants ent tale told of Calverley, then Blayds of hard to rear in our harsh climate; besides, Balliol? “The following episode occurred can it be well denied that there is someduring one of Calverley's appearances at thing in a huge collection of the ancient

Collections, the Master (Dr. Jenkyns) learning, of mediæval folios, of controofficiating. Question. And with what versial pamphlets, and in the thick black feelings, Mr. Blayds, ought we to regard dust these things so woefully collect, the decalogue? Calverley, who had no provocative of listlessness and enervation very clear idea of what was meant by the

1" Literary Remains of C. S. Calverley," 31.

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