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matter very carefully, interviewing every of an adult. He drinks too much, but merchant and every class of merchants, drinks economically, preferring a barrel the postmasters, and even the saloon- of beer for the crowd to the more expenkeepers, and they all agree that these sive glass, and he carries a bottle in his people are fairly good customers. In hip pocket as invariably as the cowboy visiting their homes I found that they are is supposed to carry a pistol. Instead of not lavish as to house-furnishings; the whisky he takes alcohol and water, which front room, which in the American house- may, after all, be the same rose by another hold would answer for the parlor, is filled name. In buying clothing I am told that by the trunks of the boarders, and in a he buys the best which is fitted for his few cases has that beginning of American work and for his station, and to see him civilization, the rocking-chair. A stand after working hours, cleanly washed and with a white cloth cover holding a few dressed in American fashion from the knickknacks is a rarity, but exists in boots up to the choking collar, one would about five per cent of the houses I have not suspect him of miserliness. He does visited; carpets I have seen only twice, save money, for out of an average earning but the lace-curtain fashion has not a of forty dollars a month he will send at few imitators. Upon his bed the Slovak least fifteen dollars to Hungary, and on lavishes a great deal of money, making it pay-day the money-order window in the his costliest piece of furniture, while his little post-office is crowded by these indusimported feather beds keep out entirely trious toilers who have not forgotten wife, the more sanitary mattress and blankets. children, old parents, and old debts. He does not stint himself in his food, as Many of them claim that they would is commonly supposed, for he eats a good buy houses in this country if they were deal, although his steak, being cut from assured of work, and in many places they the shoulder, is cheap, and is always called plead that they cannot buy property " Polak steak.” He eats quantities of because the company owns all the real beans, cabbage, and potatoes, and about estate and prefers to rent all the houses eight dollars a month covers the board bill falsely called homes. The one thing which divides the Slovaks and Poles, and Lutherans. Many of the Roman Cathowhich agitates them very much, is their lics belong to the Greek rite, and cre that religion, and they cling tenaciously to that portion of the Church in Austria which form of Christianity in which they were united with Rome after the division of born, regarding all other people as here- Poland, and which was permitted to use tics and infidels. The Poles are all Roman its own Slavic ritual and retain its married Catholics ; the majority of Slovaks belong clergy. Only a portion of the Greek to the same Church; a smaller number are Church entered this union, so that nearly in the Greek Church, while the fewest are every community has a number of Rus

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sian Greeks, who look upon the Roman cases, women of consecrated common Greeks with a great deal of scorn. sense, have accomplished much, and are Marblehead, on Lake Erie, where these daily enlarging the kingdom of God on Slovaks are engaged in the limestone earth. quarries, this division was discovered Of literature little or nothing enters the after all the Greeks had built one church, mining villages; a Slovak weekly comes that of the Roman Greeks. A few of the to one or two homes and that is all. The wiser ones who arrived in this country Slovak lives an isolated life, sublimely later were dreadfully shocked when they ignorant of “wars and rumors of wars;" saw this, and in Peter Shigalinsky's saloon his breakfast is not spoiled by the glaring plans were made to gain possession of the headlines of the daily paper, nor does church for the only true Greeks, the Rus- the magazine or novel press upon him the sian; many pitched battles were fought, problems of human society. He knows a long and fruitless litigation followed, his camp, his mine, his shop, and though and finally Peter Shigalinsky built next he lives in America and in the most busy to his saloon a new church, whose ortho- States in the Union, his world now is not doxy is emphasized by one of the hori- much bigger than it was when its horizon zontal pieces of the cross slanting at a touched his village pastures. As yet he more acute angle than that of the Roman is not a factor politically, though the Greek church, in which of course there political “boss” finds him the best kind can be no salvation. Where they have of material, for he bought and soid no church of their own they worship with without knowing it, and votes for he the English or Germans if they are knows not whom. At Braddock, Pa., it Romanists, but in many cases the priests was told me that he is sold first to the told me that they are not wanted and Democrats and then to the Republicans, must keep to one corner of the building. and afterwards is naïve enough to come There are not priests enough to shepherd back to the Democrats and tell of his them, and those they have are in many bargain, willing to be bought back into his cases unfitted for the task. It is asserted political family. Like almost all foreignthat the Lutheran pastors are no better, ers, he is a Democrat by instinct or by and count for little or nothing in making association, one scarcely knows which, these people Christians and citizens. although he is usually anything that a Various denominations, notably the Con- drink of liquor makes him. I asked one gregationalists and Presbyterians, are en- his political faith, “Are you a Democrat?" gaged in the difficult work of evangelizing No, me Catholic-Greek, not Russian," these people, and it is a gigantic task was the reply. “What are your politics?" undertaken with little money, but wher- I asked a number. “ Slovak,” was the ever it is successful it means the winning invariable answer. Not twenty per cent. of of men for America and for the kingdom those I interviewed knew the name of our of God. They are naturally suspicious President, not two per cent. the name of of strangers, but grateful for every kind- the Governor of the State in which they ness, and once a door is opened to their were residing. The Slovak does not know hearts it is never closed again. Unfortu- the meaning of the word citizen, and the nately, their speech shuts them out from limited franchise in Hungary is exercised the touch with American people of the for him by chose wiser than himself; he same community, but there are avenues is just force and muscle, with all the roots of approach in which only one language of his heart in the little village across the is spoken-the language of love and kind- sea, and with his brain wherever the ness; one noble American woman whom stronger brain leads him. As a rule, he I know ministers to them by nursing does not plan to remain in this country, them and suggesting simple remedies and I doubt whether the number of those when they are ill, and has thus become who expect to do so exceeds six per cent. no small factor in their social and relig- He is quiet and peaceable except on ious redemption. Thousands of such feast days or when Yanko and Katchka doors are opened which are closed to the have their wedding day, and then you professional missionary, although many may hear the voice of the bridegroom men of common sense, or, as in many lifted in a song about the “sweetheart he is so glad to have and wouldn't sell to any and up, while the bridegroom sings and one,” while the hoarse violin, the squeaky the fiddler plays about the “sweetheart he clarionet, and the grunting bass-viol come is so glad to have and wouldn't sell to in lingeringly, “ No, not to any one, to any any one, no, not to any one." one.” If you enter the house of the bride, They dance thus three days at least, you will find it full of sweltering humanity, the wedding having taken place after the while within a small circle a dozen couples first day's dancing ; the ceremony is perdance a maz ka, up and down and down formed in the little Greek church, with

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