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professor of mathematics and navigation. induced to give its assent through a board When employed, Professor Chauvenet was of officers, to which Mr. Bancroft diploonly twenty years of age; but he instituted matically referred the subject, and after the reforms, introduced order and system, and school was established and in operation extended the scope of studies. Despite on the military reservation of Fort Severn, the failure of efforts which had been made at Annapolis, jurisdiction over which had since the navy was created to obtain been ceded to the navy, the Secretary authority of law for the establishment of asked Congress for an appropriation " for a school for the education of midship- repairs, improvements, and instruction." men, Professor Chauvenet threw himself The appropriation was promptly made by into the project with all the enthusiasm of the House, but rumors were current that youth, and drew up a plan requiring no the Senate would decline to concur. legislation and no additional cost, for an Having great personal influence, Mr. institution the curriculum of which in- Bancroft exercised it, with the result cluded every subject a naval officer of the that the appropriation was granted and day required to fit him for his duties. the Naval Acadenıy legally established. Mr. David Henshaw, Secretary of the From that day until the present there Navy in 1844, adopted the scheme, which has been gradual improvement in the contemplated a two years' course of in- curriculum of the institution. It was one struction, but it did not not go into of the most important acts of my time operation because Secretary Mason, Mr. when Congress, in compliance with urgent Henshaw's successor, revoked the order. recommendations, authorized in 1898 the This action was taken upon advice given reconstruction of the Academy, at a cost by older officers of the service, who insisted not to exceed eight million dollars. The that the midshipmen were needed on board reconstruction is now in progress, in ships, and that as their future duties were accordance with a plan prepared by a connected with the sea, the sea was the Board of Officers appointed by Secretary only school in which they should be taught. Herbert, although that official, on account

Many causes were operating to bring of the condition of the National finances. into life the seed which Professor Chau- considered it too comprehensive for immevenet had sown. The introduction of diate adoption. When the Academy is steam, the scandalous conduct of many rebuilt, it will be an institution superior officers, the lax discipline, brutality, and to anything of the kind in the world, and oppression which existed afloat, and will meet every requirement of instruction finally the tragedy of the brig Somers, and convenience. Prince Henry of Pruswhen Midshipman Spencer, son of the sia, on the occasion of his visit to the Secretary of War, and two enlisted men United States in 1902, inspected the were hanged on the charge of plotting Naval Academy, and expressed to me mutiny, established the necessity of a surprise that we should be spending such method by which reputable boys could a large sum of money on an educational be pointed, and receive a moral and institution rather than for men-of-war. mental education which would enable them It was with a feeling of patriotic pride to conduct themselves with honor and that the response could be made that the dunity, and reflect credit upon their coun- resources of our country are so great that

and service, Loudly as the press and it can undertake, without anticipating Jizens called for action, Congress did embarrassment, the construction of an notepond, and it was left to the patri- academy worthy of the personnel of which un and far seeing George Bancroft, of it is the source of supply, and yet have Misachusetts to establish the Naval ample funds with which to continue the Icademy,

building of ships. Shortly after Mr. Bancroft entered the Since the establishment of the Naval Navy Department Professor Chauvenet Academy, more than two thousand five www to his attention the need of sys- hundred midshipmen and cadets have been tomatic education for midshipmen. The graduated, and the cost to the country has Neciowy iw that to effect the adoption been about eight million dollars-a sum at the plan he must first conciliate the older equal to that which will be paid for its ution of the Day. The service was reconstruction. That the organization of

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THE ADMIRALS IN COMMAND OF THE NAVY DEPARTMENTS

DURING THE WAR WITH SPAIN

the school has amply repaid the country methods of conducting naval warfare is shown, first, by victories gained by our imposed by the introduction of armored navy in the Civil and Spanish wars, and ships, swift cruisers, rams, seagoing tortheir far-reaching results, and, second, by pedo-boats, and high-power guns, together the progress made in naval science, with with the more rigid methods of treating its tremendous effect upon industrial devel- the various subjects relating to naval opment, for which many officers are to be science, render imperative the establishcredited.

ment of a school where our officers may be The very nature of an officer's duties enabled to keep abreast of the improvenecessitates constant study of the subjects ments going on in every navy in the which they embrace. The course at the world." In its report recommending Naval Academy covers four years, and the organization of the institution the the cadets are then sent to sea for a two Board expressed the opinion that “a years' cruise, upon the expiration of which cogent reason for such a school is that they return to undergo final examination. there may be a place where our officers There is no good reason for more than will not only be encouraged but reone year's cruise at sea. At the end of quired to study their profession properthat time, even if not at once upon gradu- war--in a far more thorough manner ation, the cadets should receive commis- than has ever heretofore been attempted, sions as ensigns if found qualified upon and to bring to the investigation of examination. During his career at the the various problems of modern naval Academy the cadet performs the duties of warfare the scientific methods adopted seamen and officers of every grade. He in other professions." The course at is carefully instructed in gunnery, naviga- the College is divided under two headstion, and seamanship. He learns Eng- the science and art of war, and law lish and French, and now Spanish, as well and history. The College has been in as something about international law and successful operation for fifteen years, and history, becomes a proficient mathemati- has been of much benefit in fitting offician, and acquires a knowledge of physics, cers not only to command single ships chemistry, and hygiene. Because the naval and squadrons, but to perform properly officer of to-day must be an engineer, he is numerous other important duties with thoroughly grounded in marine engineer- which they are charged. I am confident ing, electrical and steam, and naval con- that the training many officers received struction. When commissioned, he is on at the College has been of great service to occasions given tours of duty at the torpedo theni in times of peace and war. Toward station at Newport, where he receives in the close of my administration instructions struction in the construction and operation were given for the establishment of a of the torpedo, and at the Washington Gun post-graduate course in steam engineering Foundry, where he takes part in assem- at the Naval Academy. This was done bling forgings into great guns. He under- upon the recommendation of Rear-Admiral goes a post-graduate course at the Naval G. W. Melville, the engineer-in-chief of War College-an institution established the navy, and the course will enable offiat New London, Conn., almost simultane- cers of the new line to perfect themselves ously with the reconstruction of the navy. in the science of their profession. The The Naval War College, like the Naval medical officer was not overlooked, and Academy, was not brought into existence a medical school was established in Washby authority of Congress. Secretary ington. Arrangements were made with William E. Chandler, under date of May the War Department for harmonious Co3, 1884, organized a Board of naval offi- operation with the medical school of the cers, consisting of Commodore S. B. Luce, army. Medical officers of the navy have Commander W. T. Sampson, and Lieuten- had no sufficient opportunity to study ant-Commander C. E. Goodrich, to report their profession, and co-operation with the upon the subject of a post-graduate course army will not only fill this want but create for officers of the navy. Explaining to a healthy mutuality which will stimulate the Senate the reason for the establish- both services. ment of the institution, Mr. Chandler in the navy to-day there is missing stated that “ the constant changes in the from the list of titles of officers one which

for half a century occupied an honorable the Civil War, but the events of that and increasingly important position upon struggle emphasized its superiority over it—that of engineer. The introduction of sails, and established the fact that men steam into the navy caused the appoint- especially trained in the manipulation of ment in 1836 of Mr. Charles H. Haswell, engines must be employed. When the of New York. He was the first engineer Naval Academy was founded, Lieutenant of the service. In spite of the element in James H. Ward, a member of the faculty, the navy and the country which clung to foresaw the important part steam would sails, it speedily became apparent that play in the future service, and arranged steam propulsion must be adopted for that it should be one of the principal submen-of-war, and about 1842 Congress had jects of the course. With his detachment authorized the construction of four steam from the Academy less attention was paid vessels--the Fulton, Mississippi, Missouri, to steam, and it was soon made a suband Michigan-and one steamship, known ordinate branch of the department of as the Engineer, had been purchased. Natural Philosophy. During the Civil For the design of the machinery of the War Secretary Welles called the attention vessels the construction of which was of Congress to the desirability of educating authorized, and for its care and operation steam engineers, and a law was enacted after installation, twenty engineers were in 1864 authorizing the instruction at appointed. The engineers were dissatis- the Academy “as naval constructors or fied with their status and pay, and the steam engineers of such midshipman and appointment of a man who was not famil- others as may show a peculiar aptitude iar with the principles of their profession; therefor." Secretary Welles was not and an appeal was made to Congress for satisfied with the law, and he asked, adequate recognition. Agitation was effect- before the plan was put into operation, ive. Congress, by the Act approved whether steam engineering should not be August 31, 1842, created the staff engi- made to constitute a necessary part of the neer corps of the navy. This act pro- education of all midshipmen, “ so that in vided for the appointment by the Secre- our future navy every line officer will be tary of the Navy of one chief engineer, a steam engineer, and qualified to have two first assistant, two second assistant, complete command and direction of the and three third assistant engineers for ship.” Here was the first official suggeseach steam ship of war, to be paid salaries tion for the present consolidated line of ranging from $1,500 to $500 per annum. the navy. The young men appointed under Three years later a law was enacted the Act of 1864 and enactments in the authorizing the President to appoint years immediately following were styled engineer officers, and in 1860 Congress cadet engineers, and in 1882 they were granted substantial increases in pay to transformed into naval cadets of the line. officers of this corps. In the meantime This last law was intended to settle the the question of the relation of the staff to line and staff controversy, which had the line had become a subject of contro- been raging on board every war vessel of versy, and Secretary Toucey, in January, the navy, and which had already attracted 1859, issued an order announcing the the attention of thinking men of the counrelative rank of officers of the staff corps. try. So long as the engineers of the navy This order explicitly stated that it con- were appointed from civil life, it was plain ferred no authority to exercise military that there could be no agreement between command “except in the discharge of them and officers of the line bred in all their officers of the staff corps, duties, the traditions of the service. The antagand no additional right to quarters." onism extended to the students at the Congress enacted Mr. Toucey's order Naval Academy, the cadet engineers into law, striking out the words “except among whom had been by law organized in the discharge of their duties,” and into a separate class, and the amalgamathus, the engineers claimed, increased tion of the cadet engineers and the midtheir embarassment and difficulty in shipmen failed to produce the desired controlling and disciplining the men of effect. Those graduates assigned to the their divisions. The value of steam pro- Engineer Corps speedily became out of pulsion had been demonstrated before harmony with the line, and there was little disposition on the part of the line service at large, the line and the staff to promote harmony by co-operation with were certain of fair rulings upon questhe Engineer Corps. The difference in tions which might arise between them. views between the two branches of the Mr. Roosevelt was intended to serve, and service appears very clearly in the testi- did serve, as moderator. The line was mony given before the House Naval Com- represented by two chiefs of Bureaus, mittee when it was investigating the ques- Commodore Crowninshield and Commo tion of reorganization of the personnel. dore W. T. Sampson, and four other

At the beginning of my term in the officers of standing and influence in the Department the discussion between the service-Captain A. H. McCormick, Capline and the staff was a matter of imme- tain Robley D. Evans, Commander J. N. diate importance. Naval officers natu- Hemphill, and Lieutenant-Commander rally felt keen interest each in his Richard Wainwright. The Engineer Corps, own corps. The engineering profession which comprised fewer officers than the throughout the country had become a line, was represented by four officersparty to the issue, and was demanding Commodore George W. Melville, Engithat its representatives in the navy should neer-in-Chief and Chief of the Bureau of receive that measure of official recogni- Steam Engineering—a man of common tion which the high character of the sense, judgment, and possessing the imcalling requires. Secretary Herbert had plicit confidence of his subordinatesprepared a bill for the reorganization of Chief Engineer Charles W. Rae, Chief the line, which contemplated the removal Engineer George H. Kearny, and Passed of a large number of officers by transfer Assistant Engineer Walter M. MacFareither to a reserve or to the retired list, land. The Recorder of the Board was a and by increase of officers, principally in line officer-Lieutenant Albert L. Key. No the higher grades. A bill was also intro- other corps were given representation on duced granting actual rank, military title, the Board, because the main question was and adequate numbers to the Engineer between the Line and the Engineer Corps. Corps. Neither the Herbert Bill nor the The Board was in session for about a Engineer Bill had been adopted, and the month. The representatives of both the condition I found was that of stagnation line and engineers manifested an earnest in promotion, with its train of evils, and desire to come to an understanding. Comthe existence of friction between the line modore Melville subinitted a proposition and the staff, which not only produced for an independent engineer corps, which inefficiency, but which, through its effect should comprise 303 officers, who should upon Congress, almost endangered the have positive rank and military titles, and upbuilding of the navy.

the same right of absolute command over Representative Francis H. Wilson, of their own divisions which watch and New York, the recognized champion of division officers of the line have, the chief the engineers in the House, had frequent of the Bureau of Steam Engineering to conferences with the Department in re- have the rank and pay of a Commodore. gard to the action which should be taken This proposal was rejected, and then for the restoration of harmony in the Captain Evans submitted a plan which service. Mr. Theodore Roosevelt-now had all along been in the mind of the President—was then Assistant Secretary, Department and of the Board, for the and was especially active in this direction, amalgamation of the line and the engiobtaining the views of rival factions. As neers. This solution, though at first sight a result of full consideration of this mat revolutionary, was really the final step in ter, I appointed a Board to which was the process of evolution through which confided the preparation of a plan for the the navy was passing. The fundamental reorganization of the personnel. Mr. studies of officers of the deck and engine Roosevelt was made president of this room at the Naval Academy were identical; Board. Had a line or an engineer officer the younger line officers served in enginebeen named, the Board at the outset rooms on torpedo-boats, and line as well would have been embarrassed. By desig- as staff officers underwent training in nating the Assistant Secretary, who was machine work, if not in the engine-room, recognized as an earnest friend of the in departments devoted to electrical and

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