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arrayed against us we find arrayed against all my heart, unswervingly and absolutely, us interests which the hearts of men that the plain people Abraham Lincoln love to defeat.”
trusted to the end of his magnificent " By happy force of circumstance,” career are to be relied on now as then to Mr. Jerome said on November 2 at see the fact and do the right. I have Cooper Union, “this campaign has grown been taught, boy and man, that rectitude in visible importance since the day it was means something; that on it, in their hour opened in this hall until to-night. Its issues of trial, human beings may rely. I may have been defined more and more impos- be young and an enthusiast, as they tell ingly, until they have been seen to merge me; but I have had time to know all themselves in one great issue, not whether sorts and conditions of men in this great this or that man is the better, not whether country, and I have had time to read this or that man is less vile than in his nearly every word the fathers of this public actions he seems to show himself country ever spoke or ever wrote; and to be, but whether the American people is the wise men may be right who tell me fit to rule itself under democratic institu- that I am doomed to disappointment; but tions. We have had as yet only a hun- I do not think I am. The plain people dred years of so-called self-government, are slow to judge, and rightly; they are and we are just attaining our full growth slow to act, and rightly; but here in this as a Nation ; and the hour of our trial is city they have had before their eyes for at hand.
long years the actions and the lives of the • Within the memory of man there has gang of criminals that rules it, and I think been no campaign fought on the line of the fullness of the hour is come. this campaign, and if at the election it is “ There is no controversy possible not plain beyond a doubt that we have about the acts of the administration that had the people with us, I believe that we have been living under; there is a there is no man here to-night who will question only whether acts like those live long enough to see a great campaign shall be continued and condoned. And I fought on these lines again. There has believe that God Almighty placed in all been implicit faith put in the plain peo- men's hearts a clean-cut line between right ple; there has been not one single word and wrong; and that when an appeal is uttered that is not absolutely true; we grounded, not on this man's merits or on have fought a clean fight, every one of that man's merits, but on those eternal us, from start to finish ; and it is for the laws that will remain immutable when you plain people of this city to decide what and I and all of us are gone, the hearts shall be the outcome of our fight.
of English-speaking men throughout the “ Not that in my heart I have one habitable globe are certain to respond.” instant's fear of a defeat. I believe with
[TO BE CONTINUED]
They Keep His
By Robert Truslow
In days of old, as legends tell,
Good Bishop Valentine.
Three maidens fair within his see
Each girl remained alone.
The maids were caged in towers high,
So youths and maids could only sigh,
For writing was unknown.
Relief for love in such a plight
Till help he could divine.
At length he hit upon a plan
With none to say him nay.
In short, the saint invented ink-
A goose supplied the quill.
So, on the saint's own festal day,
No doubt he always will.
Thus lovers keep his memory green.
So runs the world away.
The Unconquerable Habit
By Theodore T. Munger
est poem, “The Problem,” is: ing is lost in its homely simplicity and
“ Himself from God he could not the very depth of its humility. Emerson's free." In itself it has no poetic merit, central thought is overwhelmed by the but it is the key-word that solves the splendor of the entire poem. Together problem which ever vexes the mind of they cover the two sides of prayer-one, man until it is referred to God. Emer- the unconquerable sense of God; the sun, in these oft-quoted lines, sets forth other, the unappeasable desire to commune the greatest achievements of man and of with God. nature as well, and explains their wonder Nothing is more deeply wrought into us by putting each one in some relation to than the instinct of prayer. No matter the world of the spirit. The scope, the what first prompts it : let the theories go, splendor, the insight of the poem are and trust the fact; pray man always has, immense. It vindicates what we have and pray he always will. Some astoncalled the unconquerable habit of prayer. ished reader who has not breathed or Whatever great thing is done, is done thought a prayer since childhood may through God.
quote himself as the refutation of this In order to put the same truth in like rela- assertion. Nevertheless, there will come tion to personal life, we place beside it a a time when he will pray, even if in some once familiar hymn by Mrs. Phæbe Brown: extreme moment it be but “the upward I love to steal awhile away
glancing of an eye." Still, it must be From every cumbering care.
confessed that man is so wonderfully It is infinitely below Emerson's great lines wrought that he can turn upon himself in poetic value, but far above them in meet- and extirpate his highest faculty or put it to a sleep that seems death ; nature has over to mere piety, or dropping it out of room for monstrosity. The habit of prayer our lives. is a part of the contents of human nature. It is strange that the beauty of prayer We may toss it out of the window of is so overlooked by present-day thought. science or of metaphysics, but it will The poet never misses it. In the long come back. We may let it lie, a forgotten run the poets win the great human verthing, in some corner of our house ; or set dicts. What they bind remains fast. it down as a superstition and quote as they know that the beautiful is the true. proof its prevalence among the benighted In all ages and the world over, the bowed the world over—as if universality were not head, the bended figure, the folded hands, the infallible sign of a truth; all this may the upturned eyes, have not only combe, still from God ourselves we cannot manded reverence but stirred a sense of free, even if we never steal away from our mingled charm and awe as if soine mystery cumbering cares to commune with him. were unfolding. The artist studies the Prayer has fuller expression among the picture long, for he is never deceived by untaught because there is a simpler play a fiction, nor does he stop to admire of nature; instinct more freely asserts unreality. When one chances—as may itself — like the motions of the babe at its happen in other lands—to pass a wayside mother's breast; but these instincts are shrine where a poor woman has bowed to the roots of our strongest passion. The pray for her sick child, or an old man immense variety of its forms is the pledge stops to rest both body and soul, one's of its reality. What is universal is abso. heart joins in the prayers, whatever the lute. It may sink to such a depth as head may think of it—from God ourselves prayer-wheels and numbering rosaries, or we cannot free. The prayers make the rise to the ecstasy of St. Agnes as she ground holy where we stand, and the trees sends her breath to heaven on her frosty glow with indwelling Deity. eve; it may run into all sorts of vagaries; There is a verse in the New Testament but one simple fact is clear all the way that one cannot read—if he will pause a through-man will pray, and will not moment upon it—without a sense first of suffer himself to be kept from it. If it is wonder and then of awe: “ He went out sometimes gross; if it misses the idea of into a mountain to pray, and continued importunity, and lapses into thinking that all night in prayer to God.” it will be heard for much speaking, or that accustomed to-day to think of Christ as a if simultaneous it has special power; or if divine humanist. Whatever else we may it clothes itself in ritual robes that seem believe, we are agreed upon this: he was to smother its breath, still its central humanity itself at work with every faccharacter is not lost: it is still humanity ulty-no mystic, no debater in the schools, bowing before its Creator and turning to but a servant of humanity down to the its eternal and infinite Friend.
last detail of service, the busiest and the It is a poor question to ask, Is prayer most practical of men, always among the for gain, or does it gain anything? people, and apparently with no thought Does it spring out of weakness or fear? but for them. Not wholly so, however
. Poor questions because they overlook Service was his passion ; but he had the poverty and weakness of humanity another passion—a passion for God. The as it turns to its only possible helper. calm ecstasy of a vision of God was upon Prayer is as natural and simple as him, and he could not break it until day the cry of young ravens to God for dawned, whenfull of God-he went their food. The correlation of prayer down to his work again. We are here to humanity, rising out of simple and not in the region of miracle, nor even of unmeaning forms and growing rational as religion as we name it, but of pure and man advances toward his ideal, until at perfect humanity--doing the thing most last he cries, " Whom have I in heaven natural and most necessary to itself. To but thee, and there is none upon earth pray is natural. To fail in it is to fall that I desire beside thee,” is a fact with short of humanity-not utterly, perhaps, which we must settle before turning it but to miss its glory and its strength.
HE Gradgrind philosophy which torian of the struggle and an ardent direct
sets a value only on facts and or of the tactics. No one can read this
tangible realities, which would book without being impressed by the rare cultivate only the motives of reason and personality of the author. He writes with self-interest, Dickens, long ago, in “Hard the zeal that indicates a dedication to a Times,” reduced to the absurd. And yet noble calling, and in that broad spirit of the dominance of the scientific influence tolerance that loves science not less, but in our modern education, in some regards, English more. He has that most desirhas resulted in a subtle and drastic able of virtues, a militant "sweet reasonapplication of this Gradgrind philosophy. ableness,” and he pleads his case with the Science presents only one of the dual fine discernment of one chosen for a misvisions of life, and it can educate but a sion. The teaching of English he conpart of the human mind. When restricted ceives to be valuable “ for its large culture to its own legitimate field, it is a benefi- values, and above all for its character cent factor in the highest education, but values—for the spiritual enlargement, when uncompensated by the things that clarification, and discipline of young appeal to the heart and the imagination, hearts and minds and wills which are to it is likely to produce disciples of the be touched to the finer issues of its potent Gradgrind school. Man cannot live by ministry.” He looks to English, for the bread alone.
future, as the most effective force in the In former times the humanities were higher education. taught largely by the study of Latin and The school children, in his view, should Greek, and in these literatures were found be treated as “primitive little people.” those ideals of culture that minister to And as the ancient races fed their conthe spirit. Of late, Latin and Greek, alas ! sciousness on nature and folk-lore, before have come under the incantations of the the coming of science and philosophy, as scientific spell, and they have lost, in they lived in their imagination rather large measure, their humanitarian prestige than their reason, so, in the instruction of and pɔwer. So much so, in fact, that in the child, the first stress should be on the that grim stronghold of conservatism, literary and the poetic, and not on the Oxford University, the policy of dropping mere utilitarian facts of knowledge. The Greek from the requirements is at pres- epic interest of the heroic, the love of ent under very serious consideration. things out-of-doors, the saving hygienic
It is at this point of readjustment, when relish for humor—these the author would science seems unduly in evidence, when select for the cultivation of the immature the classical sources of influence are mind. The discipline of the reason and passing with the gods into the twilight of application of the laboratory methods, obsolescence, that the apostles of the now so much in vogue, he would defer humanities have turned to English as a until the child, like the fresh, unspoiled champion of their cause; and from the children of the forest, has acquired, through presentoutlook, English, so long neglected, the healthy development of the imaginabecause, it was argued, it should be ab- tion, that roseate hue of vision which makes sorbed rather than taught, will soon take him the “best philosopher, the eye among the place of primacy among the humani the blind.” tarian branches of learning. The battle Mr. Chubb desires some changes in the is on; it is being fought in the class-room kindergartens. In their striving for simof school and college, and the growing plicity, like Wordsworth's unsteady muse, enthusiasm among teachers and scholars they have often indulged in simpleness. is the best sign of promise.
Too often the kindergarten has introduced Mr. Percival Chubb, in his volume, doggerel for poetry and tum-tumminess “The Teaching of English," 1 is the his- for music.” In its endeavor to exclude
the questionable, it has cut out the pith The Teaching of English. By Percival Chubb. New York. and marrow, and has crippled the good
old stories by unwise editing. " The things American has not been confined shadows of tragedy and pathos have been to writers of fiction. Histories of our dispelled, and a world of vulgar high literature have lately appeared in goodly lights substituted : Red Riding Hood has numbers, sufficiently so to indicate that been surgically rescued from the wolf's we are now truly in the midst of a revival stomach, the Children in the Wood have of American learning. One of the latest been saved and respectably married, and, of these books is by Professor Sears, of in short, ethical and artistic violence done Brown University.'
Brown University. A feature of his to much legend and myth that has volume is a happy combination of a series embodied the higher instinctive wisdom of illuminating criticisms and illustrative of the race. To such an inane, ginger extracts. The style is brilliant, although bread world has the child who knows cut sometimes a little self-conscious and fingers and stubbed toes been introduced. strained, and the method of treatment Because he quails before darkness, we throws emphasis on periods of our literaturn on the lights, and always keep them ture which have hitherto been passed burning.” He opposes the kindergarten with a glance. The first part of the book, surgery that lops off and maims. He
He the review of the Colonial production, is would choose the good old things, and let decidedly the most striking, for in it the them stand.
author has aroused a curiosity for what is In America the teacher of English, the usually neglected as a field rank with use. writer notes, faces an indigenous problem. less weeds. It is a difficult matter to Teachers of mathematics, of geography, arouse an interest in the forgotten dead. and other branches can sow their seed on But Professor Sears has written of our virgin soil without fear of counteracting Colonial historians and diarists so coninfluences. But in the case of the native tagiously that the reader is inoculated tongue the teacher must offset the con- with the antiquarian's enthusiasm for the stant effects of a more or less inimical shelved and dusty volumes of our ancessocial environment. The Americans lack tors. The characteristics of the Puritan linguistic conscience; they have little literature, he remarks, are a mixture of pride of language form. The pupil who force, piety, enterprise, and bad grammar. is taught correct speech a few hours a day At first it was pietistic, then polemic, and in school returns to a world, and often to finally pugilistic.
finally pugilistic. The writers lived life a home, that adopts cheap colloquialisms so intensely that “all the details stand in and vulgar slang with easy virtue, and the foreground like a Japanese landthat inevitably soils the linguistic ideals of scape." the class-room. The pupil thus reverts The latter part of the book, which deals insensibly to illiteracy, after the model of with the writers of accepted standing, is his elders, and leads a life of Jekyll and less noteworthy. Professor Sears is more Hyde dualism in the matter of language. safe and traditional than Mr. Barrett For this reason Mr. Chubb urges the Wendell; yet
, it must be observed, he is necessity upon parents of co-operating always interesting. The union of these with the teacher. His book, although qualities makes his book an admirable addressed to the profession, should be one for academic use. In fact, for read by all those guardians who wish to advanced classes it is the most adequate do their whole duty by their wards; for history of American literature that the even a passing study will put them in reviewer has ever read. It has all the touch with that work in our primary and necessary virtues in moderation. high schools which is most directly influential upon character.
1 American Literature in its Colonial and National
Periods. By Lorenzo Sears, L.H.D. Little, Brown & The recent epidemic of interest in all Co., Boston. $1.50, net.