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So youths and maids could only sigh,

For writing was unknown.

Relief for love in such a plight
The holy man sought day and night,
In sorrow at the piteous sight,

Till help he could divine.

At length he hit upon a plan
By which an absent lover can
Avow his passion like a man,

With none to say him nay.

In short, the saint invented ink-
A sheepskin smooth the scroll, I think-
He passed them over with a wink;

A goose supplied the quill.

So, on the saint's own festal day,
The postman staggers on his way
’Neath reams of tender roundelay;

No doubt he always will:

Thus lovers keep his memory green.
Such constancy is strange, I ween,
But youth is fond and love is keen ;

So runs the world away.


The Unconquerable Habit

By Theodore T. Munger THE finest line in Emerson's great- ing conscious human necessity. Its mean

est poem, “ The Problem,” is: ing is lost in its homely simplicity and

“ Himself from God he could not the very depth of its humility. Emerson's free.” In itself it has no poetic merit, central thought is overwhelmed by the but it is the key-word that solves the splendor of the entire poem. Together problem which ever vexes the mind of they cover the two sides of prayer-one, man until it is referred to God. Emer- the unconquerable sense of God; the sun, in these oft-quoted lines, sets forth other, the unappeasable desire to commune the greatest achievements of man and of with God. nature as well, and explains their wonder Nothing is more deeply wrought into us by putting each one in some relation to than the instinct of prayer. No matter the world of the spirit. The scope, the what first prompts it : let the theories go, splendor, the insight of the poem are and trust the fact; pray man always has, immense. It vindicates what we have and pray he always will. Some astoncalled the unconquerable habit of prayer. ished reader who has not breathed or Whatever great thing is done, is done thought a prayer since childhood may through God.

quote himself as the refutation of this In order to put the same truth in like rela- assertion. Nevertheless, there will come tion to personal life, we place beside it a a time when he will pray, even if in some once familiar hymn by Mrs. Phæbe Brown: extreme moment it be but “the upward I love to steal awhile away

glancing of an eye." Still, it must be From every cumbering care. confessed that man is so wonderfully It is infinitely below Emerson's great lines wrought that he can turn upon himself in poetic value, but far above them in meet- and extirpate his highest faculty or put it to a sleep that seems death ; nature has over to mere piety, or dropping it out of room for monstrosity. The habit of prayer our lives. is a part of the contents of human nature. It is strange that the beauty of prayer We may toss it out of the window of is so overlooked by present-day thought. science or of metaphysics, but it will The poet never misses it. In the long come back. We may let it lie, a forgotten run the poets win the great human verthing, in some corner of our house; or set dicts. What they bind remains fast. it down as a superstition and quote as They know that the beautiful is the true. proof its prevalence among the benighted In all ages and the world over, the bowed the world over-as if universality were not head, the bended figure, the folded hands, the infallible sign of a truth ; all this may the upturned eyes, have not only combe, still from God ourselves we cannot manded reverence but stirred a sense of free, even if we never steal away from our mingled charm and awe as if soine mystery cumbering cares to commune with him. were unfolding. The artist studies the Prayer has fuller expression among the picture long, for he is never deceived by untaught because there is a simpler play a fiction, nor does he stop to admire of nature; instinct more freely asserts unreality. When one chances—as may itself-like the motions of the babe at its happen in other lands—to pass a wayside mother's breast; but these instincts are shrine where a poor woman has bowed to the roots of our strongest passion. The pray for her sick child, or an old man immense variety of its forms is the pledge stops to rest both body and soul, one's of its reality. What is universal is abso. heart joins in the prayers, whatever the lute. It may sink to such a depth as head may think of it-from God ourselves prayer-wheels and numbering rosaries, or we cannot free.

The prayers make the rise to the ecstasy of St. Agnes as she ground holy where we stand, and the trees sends her breath to heaven on her frosty glow with indwelling Deity. eve; it may run into all sorts of vagaries; There is a verse in the New Testament but one simple fact is clear all the way that one cannot read-if he will pause a through-man will pray, and will not moment upon it—without a sense first of suffer himself to be kept from it. If it is wonder and then of awe: “ He went out sometimes gross; if it misses the idea of into a mountain to pray, and continued importunity, and lapses into thinking that all night in prayer to God." We are it will be heard for much speaking, or that accustomed to-day to think of Christ as a if simultaneous it has special power; or if divine humanist. Whatever else we may it clothes itself in ritual robes that seem believe, we are agreed upon this: he was to smother its breath, still its central humanity itself at work with every faccharacter is not lost: it is still humanity ulty-no mystic, no debater in the schools, bowing before its Creator and turning to but a servant of humanity down to the its eternal and infinite Friend.

last detail of service, the busiest and the It is a poor question to ask, Is prayer most practical of men, always among the for gain, or does it gain anything? people, and apparently with no thought Does it spring out of weakness or fear? but for them. Not wholly so, however. Poor questions because they overlook Service was his passion; but he had the poverty and weakness of humanity another passion—a passion for God. The as it turns to its only possible helper. calm ecstasy of a vision of God was upon Prayer is as natural and simple as him, and he could not break it until day the cry of young ravens to God for dawned, when-full of God-he went their food. The correlation of prayer down to his work again. We are here to humanity, rising out of simple and not in the region of miracle, nor even of unmeaning forms and growing rational as religion as we name it, but of

and man advances toward his ideal, until at perfect humanity--doing the thing most last he cries, “ Whom have I in heaven natural and most necessary to itself. To but thee, and there is none upon earth pray is natural. To fail in it is to fall that I desire beside thee.” is a fact with short of humanity-not utterly, perhaps, which we must settle before turning it but to miss its glory and its strength.



HE Gradgrind philosophy which torian of the struggle and an ardent direct

sets a value only on facts and or of the tactics. No one can read this

tangible realities, which would book without being impressed by the rare cultivate only the motives of reason and personality of the author. He writes with self-interest, Dickens, long ago, in “ Hard the zeal that indicates a dedication to a Times," reduced to the absurd. And yet noble calling, and in that broad spirit of the dominance of the scientific influence tolerance that loves science not less, but in our modern education, in some regards, English more. He has that most desirhas resulted in a subtle and drastic able of virtues, a militant "sweet reasonapplication of this Gradgrind philosophy. ableness," and he pleads his case with the Science presents only one of the dual fine discernment of one chosen for a misvisions of life, and it can educate but a sion. The teaching of English he con. part of the human mind. When restricted ceives to be valuable “for its large culture to its own legitimate field, it is a benefi- values, and above all for its character cent factor in the highest education, but values-for the spiritual enlargement, when uncompensated by the things that clarification, and discipline of young appeal to the heart and the imagination, hearts and ninds and wills which are to it is likely to produce disciples of the be touched to the finer issues of its potent Gradgrind school. Man cannot live by ministry." He looks to English, for the bread alone.

future, as the most effective force in the In former times the humanities were higher education. taught largely by the study of Latin and The school children, in his view, should Greek, and in these literatures were found be treated as “primitive little people.” those ideals of culture that minister to And as the ancient races fed their conthe spirit. Of late, Latin and Greek, alas ! sciousness on nature and folk-lore, before have come under the incantations of the the coming of science and philosophy, as scientific spell, and they have lost, in they lived in their imagination rather large measure, their humanitarian prestige than their reason, so, in the instruction of and power. So much so, in fact, that in the child, the first stress should be on the that grim stronghold of conservatism, literary and the poetic, and not on the Oxford University, the policy of dropping mere utilitarian facts of knowledge. The Greek from the requirements is at pres- epic interest of the heroic, the love of ent under very serious consideration. things out-of-doors, the saving hygienic

It is at this point of readjustment, when relish for humor--these the author would science seems unduly in evidence, when select for the cultivation of the immature the classical sources of infuence mind. The discipline of the reason and passing with the gods into the twilight of application of the laboratory methods, obsolescence, that the apostles of the now so much in vogue, he would defer humanities have turned to English as a until the child, like the fresh, unspoiled champion of their cause; and from the children of the forest, has acquired, through presentoutlook, English, so long neglected, the healthy development of the imaginabecause, it was argued, it should be ab- tion, that roseate hue of vision which makes sorbed rather than taught, will soon take him the “best philosopher, the eye among the place of primacy among the humani the blind.” tarian branches of learning. The battle Mr. Chubb desires some changes in the is on; it is being fought in the class-room kindergartens. In their striving for simof school and college, and the growing plicity, like Wordsworth's unsteady muse, enthusiasm among teachers and scholars they have often indulged in simpleness. is the best sign of promise.

Too often the kindergarten has introduced Mr. Percival Chubb, in his volume, doggerel for poetry and tum-tumminess " The Teaching of English,"1 is the his- for music.” In its endeavor to exclude

the questionable, it has cut out the pith The Teaching of English. By Percival Chubb. The Macmillan Co., New York.

and marrow, and has crippled the good



old stories by unwise editing. “ The things American has not been confined shadows of tragedy and pathos have been to writers of fiction. Histories of our dispelled, and a world of vulgar high literature have lately appeared in goodly lights substituted: Red Riding Hood has numbers, sufficiently so to indicate that been surgically rescued from the wolf's we are now truly in the midst of a revival stomach, the Children in the Wood have of American learning. One of the latest been saved and respectably married, and, of these books is by Professor Sears, of in short, ethical and artistic violence done Brown University.' A feature of his to much legend and myth that has volume is a happy combination of a series embodied the higher instinctive wisdom of illuminating criticisms and illustrative of the race. To such an inane, ginger extracts. The style is brilliant, although bread world has the child who knows cut sometimes a little self-conscious and fingers and stubbed toes been introduced. strained, and the method of treatment Because he quails before darkness, we throws emphasis on periods of our literaturn on the lights, and always keep them ture which have hitherto been passed burning." He opposes the kindergarten with a glance. The first part of the book, surgery that lops off and maims. He the review of the Colonial production, is would choose the good old things, and let decidedly the most striking, for in it the them stand.

author has aroused a curiosity for what is In America the teacher of English, the usually neglected as a field rank with use. writer notes, faces an indigenous problem. less' weeds. It is a difficult matter to Teachers of mathematics, of geography, arouse an interest in the forgotten dead. and other branches can sow their seed on But Professor Sears has written of our virgin soil without fear of counteracting Colonial historians and diarists so coninfluences. But in the case of the native tagiously that the reader is inoculated tongue the teacher must offset the con- with the antiquarian's enthusiasm for the stant effects of a more or less inimical shelved and dusty volumes of our ancessocial environment. The Americans lack tors. The characteristics of the Puritan linguistic conscience; they have little literature, he remarks, are a mixture of

a pride of language form. The pupil who force, piety, enterprise, and bad grammar. is taught correct speech a few hours a day At first it was pietistic, then polemic, and in school returns to a world, and often to finally pugilistic. The writers lived life a home, that adopts cheap colloquialisms so intensely that “all the details stand in and vulgar slang with easy virtue, and the foreground like a Japanese landthat inevitably soils the linguistic ideals of scape." the class-room. The pupil thus reverts The latter part of the book, which deals insensibly to illiteracy, after the model of with the writers of accepted standing, is his elders, and leads a life of Jekyll and less noteworthy. Professor Sears is more Hyde dualism in the matter of language. safe and traditional than Mr. Barrett

For this reason Mr. Chubb urges the Wendell; yet, it must be observed, he is necessity upon parents of co-operating always interesting. The union of these with the teacher. His book, although qualities makes his book an admirable addressed to the profession, should be one for academic

In fact, for read by all those guardians who wish to advanced classes it is the most adequate do their whole duty by their wards ; for history of American literature that the even a passing study will put them in reviewer has ever read. It has all the touch with that work in our primary and necessary virtues in moderation. high schools which is most directly influential upon character.

American Literature in its Colonial and National

Periods. By Lorenzo Sears, L.H.D. Little, Brown & The recent epidemic of interest in all Co., Boston. $1.50, net.



The Stand

48 pages.

pages. 50c.

This report of current literature is supplemented by fuller reviews of such books as in the judgment of the editors are of special importance to our readers. Any of these books will be sent by the publishers of The Outlook, postpaid, to any address on receipt of the published price, with postage added when the price is marked " net.Agnosticism. By Robert Flint. Charles Scrib- vention by the United States Government, the

ner's Sons, New York. 54/4X8 in. 664 pages. $2, Berlin and Brussels Conferences. Dr. Flint's eminence among representative Continuous Power the Natural Result of Conwriters upon Theism commands attention to verting Heat into Work, in an Insulated Expan

sion Engine, at Temperatures Below the Normal his treatment of Agnosticism. No writer that

of the Atmosphere. By J. F. Place, Illustrated. We are aware of has treated it so amply and (Revised Edition-Tenth Thousand.) thoroughly as here. Its history, erroneous

ard Power Co., New York. 7x934 in. views of it, its distinguished representatives, Derby Anniversary Calendar (The): Being the its various forms, its relation to various sub- Records of Six Thousand Noteworthy Events, jects, are successively discussed both crit- Anniversaries, Birthdays, etc., in American His. ically and constructively, so as to illuminate

tory. Compiled and Edited by George Derby,

James T. White & Co., New York. 4x 514 in. 36 the validity of theistic belief.

In this process much wood, hay, and stubble in the work of Christian theologians is swept away. It

Despatches of Field-Marshal The Duke of

Wellington: During his Campaigns in India, is a severe judgment that is passed upon Denmark, Portugal, Spain, the Low Countries, the current Ritschlian theology, pronouncing and France, and Relating to America. Selected its foundation “anti-scientific and anti-rational

and Arranged by Walter Wood. E. P. Dutton &

Co., New York. 6x!?4 in. 475 pages. $3.50, net. to the core.” The argument for theism has

The editor of these despatches has done his gained cogency from the labor spent upon it

work with credit to himself and with satisfacduring the past generation. Deism, as Dr.

·tion to the reader. He has chosen the most Flint says, has been displaced, and theism has been enriched with what is true in pantheism.

interesting passages from the despatches of

“our greatest soldier," as he calls the Duke Nevertheless, agnosticism in one form or an

of Wellington. The despatches cover the other will long keep in the field, so numerous are the points that supply it with opportunity,

Duke's campaigns from 1799 to 1815, and

cover such widely differing regions as India, all speculative thought being concerned with ideas that are involved in the idea of God.

Denmark, the Spanish Peninsula, the Low

Countries, and France. While the account Albrecht Dürer. By Lina Eckenstein. Ilus- of Waterloo may attract widest popular inter

trated. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. 4x6 in. est, the despatches concerning the necessarily 201 pages. 75c., net.

rigorous and well-nigh savage discipline of Reserved for later notice.

the Peninsular army possess peculiar impress. Children's First Story Book (The). By May

iveness, and incidentally confirm some acH. Wood. Illustrated. The American Book Co., counts in Napier's history. New York. 5x712 in. 80 pages. 25c.

Education of Christ (The): Hillside Reveries. Colonel Washington. By Archer Butler Hul

By W. M. Ramsay. D.C.L. G. P. Putnam's Sons, bert, Illustrated. Published from the Income of the

New York. 472x7 in. 138 pages. $1.
Francis G. Butler Publication Fund of Western
Reserve University, 1902. 5x7!2 in. 58 pages.

In paper, print, and binding, this seems an

ideal little book. The text matches the mateCivilization in Congoland: A Story of Inter

rial incorporation, a text to appeal not only to dational Wrong-Doing. By H. R. Fox Bourne. P. S. King & Son, Westminster, S. W. London. every religiously and devoutly minded man, 524*81. in. 311 pages.

but also to every ästhetically and sanely disIn his introductory note to this volume Sir posed man, The “Impressions of Turkey” Charles Dilke says that the Congo State, as showed us that few if any writers could claim at present constituted, is in a worse condition a more intimate acquaintance with Asia Minor than Portugal itself would have maintained. than can Dr. Ramsay. The present volume This condition has been brought about by well reflects his intimacy with that region and Belgian inhumanity towards the natives ; and with Palestine. More clearly and insistently the aim of Mr. Fox Bourne's book is to direct than in any other land, the philosophy of hispublic attention to the scandals and offenses tory, “the will of God as wrought in the in the Congo State against which the Abori- world,” is written in the landscape of Palesgines Protective Association (of which Mr. tine, and the rightly educated mind cannot but Fox Bourne is Secretary) has been protesting. read it there. The country was a decisive The book includes not only an appallingly factor in making the people who lived in it; long list of outrages which are no longer and, thinks Dr. Ramsay, had a notable infludenied, but also an account of the Congolese ence on the mind of Christ. The Child of from the earliest time to the advent of the Nazareth must have drawn inspiration and Portuguese, a discussion of the slave trade, lessons from the scenes in view of which he and a description of Sir Henry Stanley's ex- grew up to manhood. Speaking of the eduplorations and the development of the plans cational ideals of Christ's day, Dr. Ramsay of King Leopold of Belgium, culminating in has an opinion worth quoting. If the Græcothe Anglo-Portuguese treaty of 1884, the inter- Roman world was decaying and dying from

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