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stove only by sitting immediately in front arrangement was in fact made, I believe, of the open door to the sort of oven in by the captain of our steamer through the which the wood was burning; how grad- intermediary of the first officer. We ually the furuishing for the night was had nothing to pay on the steamer, except brought in-parts of an iron bedstead at for luncheon if we chose to take it. So intervals, then, in succession, with waits far as I know, not till all the arrangebetween, a mattress, bedclothes in install- ments were consummated and most of ments, water for washing, bottled water the passengers had gotten word and were for drinking, and, last of all, some towels; on board, or preparing to go on board, how all we could bring her home for her did the agents of the Cook Company frugal supper was some bread and butter, appear again. Whether they kept out of a little fruit, and some Russian choco- sight because they did not know what to lates; how we slept on hard beds, and do, or because they wanted to avoid for whenever we wakened heard the noise of Cook all responsibility for the predicathe waves dashing up against the sea-wall ment in which we were placed, I do not outside; and how when my bill came in I know. found I had to pay for light, attendance, Generalizations from a single experience bedding, and making up the bed, so that or a brief series of experiences are not my rooins were four roubles each instead very safe; but the results of our experiof two, I need not recall here more in ences on this trip confirmed Mr. —'s detail. This was not an imposition, as I advice to me; before I left New York he was at first inclined to suppose. We had said: “Buy your circular tickets of Cook; landed in a house characteristic of Rus- occasionally you can use him to advantage sia and of Oriental countries, in which in especial carriage trips—but avoid the the landlord furnishes the room and the “personally conducted tour.'” In fact, we bedstead, and leaves the traveler to fur- paid a good price at Sevastopol in order nish his own bedclothes, which he ordi- to have all care taken off, and when the narily brings with him.

crisis came it all tumbled back on The next morning the problem how we again ; we paid for a third day's excurwere to get on board our steamer presion—to the garden of the Czar-which sented itself. The wind, rattling the shut- we never had, and had not only to pay ters and blowing open the French windows our bills at Yalta, to which I do not espeof our room, gave us no hope of a quiet cially object, but had to shift for ourselves sea, and I was not surprised to see the under circumstances of no little perplexity, yacht moving up and down-in more while our personal conductors disappeared ways than one-a half-mile or more from from the scene, not to appear again until the shore. I succeeded by signs in all the trouble and perplexity were passed. getting from the landlord of the lodging- To our surprise, the Russian steamer, house a glass of tea and some bread and though primarily for freight, had very butter for the ladies, and then started out comfortable provision for passengers, and to reconnoiter. At seven o'clock I was we, with unexpected steadiness, steamed at the chief hotel, but no one knew what back over the water which we had looked was to be done, and every new passenger down upon the day before, our “yacht” I met had a new rumor to repeat or a accompanying us all the way. Although new plan to propose. We must ride back we lost our promised view of the palaces to Sevastopol ; the horses were exhausted and the splendors they contain, we gained and the drivers would not take us ; we a new view of the marvelous cliffs along must wait here until the sea goes down; which we had driven. We are now at we are going to be taken to the steamer home again on the Prinzessin. Our time in launches, etc., etc. At length it began on the yacht is growing short, and we to be reported, though still no official begin to wonder whether after the exchange notice was given, that there was a Rus- to land traveling we shall be as comfortsian local steamer inside the breakwater, able. But there is a pleasant thought in that we were all to go on board of her, the idea of longer time in our stoppingthat she was to take us back to Sevasto- places and larger space for manipulating pol, and that we were to embark on the our luggage to compensate for the luxuries Prinzessin in the harbor there. This we shall leave.

L. A.

us

HOLDING UP A STATE

THE TRUE STORY OF
ADDICKS AND DELAWARE:

T

BY GEORGE KENNAN

II.
HE best and most trustworthy of more practical importance than prin-

evidence that I have been able ciple.

to get, from various sources and After the Civil War, when the negroes from representatives of all parties in Dela- were enfranchised, the Democrats found ware, seems to show, beyond all reason. themselves confronted by a new and able doubt, that political corruption in threatening situation, due to the acquirethat State did not originate with Mr. ment of political rights by a class that had Addicks. As long ago as 1850 it was before been ignored. The colored poputhe custom of both parties to give voters- lation in the two lower counties already or at least a certain class of voters- had considerable numerical strength, and something in the nature of payment for there was no doubt that it would vote their votes. Such payments were not defi- solidly for the party that had given it the nitely agreed upon in advance, nor, as a ballot. Fearing this accession to the rule, were they made in money. They Republican ranks, and believing that the consisted, generally, of some commodity, negroes were unfit, in point of character, or article of merchandise, such as a barrel education, and training, to exercise the of four or a pair of boots, which, after right of franchise, the Democrats tried in the election, was given to the voter as a various ways to eliminate them from the sort of present or reward for having sup- political situation ; and, as a means to ported the party at the polls. This, of that end, they finally enacted what was course, was a demoralizing practice, and known as the “ Delinquent Tax Law.” it gradually familiarized a certain class of This law provided, in substance, that the people with the idea that loyalty to party every man who failed to pay his taxes was a thing that entitled the loyal partisan within a certain specified time should lose to a reward; and that votes, consequently, the right to vote, and should not again had a certain market value dependent be qualified as a voter until his arrears upon the exigency of the political situa- of taxes had been fully paid. Although tion. From rewarding the faithful parti- this law, ostensibly, was not aimed particusan after the election to buying up the larly at the negro, and made no color-line uncertain voter before the election was distinction, its practical effect was to disonly a step, and that step was soon taken. franchise a considerable part of the Even before the Civil War both political colored population. The negroes constiparties were buying votes, when it seemed tuted the poorest and most improvident expedient to do so in closely contested class; they were sometimes unable to pay elections, and each party attempted to their taxes; and many of them were so excuse itself by alleging that the other shiftless, careless, or indifferent that they began the practice, and that the resort to neglected to pay them within the specified fire, as a means of fighting fire, was a time, even when able to do so. It is justifiable exercise of the right of self- charged, furthermore, by the Republicans, protection. The buying of votes at that that the Democrats, who had control of time, however, was on a comparatively the levy courts and all the taxing machinsmall scale, and the voters purchased ery, carried their own delinquents on the were generally poor men, of weak or roll of voters while excluding all others; dubious character, to whom money was and that by spiriting away the tax-collectI See editorial comment elsewhere in this issue.

ors they often made it impossible for Republicans to pay their taxes, even when well-to-do flour merchant of Philadelphia, the latter were ready and anxious to do became financially embarrassed, and found so. It was not an unusual thing, just it necessary to reduce his expenditures before an election, to see large numbers and live, for a time, as economically as of Republican voters hunting vainly for a possible. He determined, therefore, to Democratic tax-collector who had mysteri- go out of the city and seek a residence ously disappeared; and it is said that, in in some small suburban village, where his one case, a party of determined Republi- housekeeping expenses would not be so cans, who wished to pay their taxes so great. He happened to have, in Philathat they might have the privilege of delphia, a friend named Joseph Barnard voting, chased a fugitive tax-collector all Wilson, who lived in the Delaware village the way to Philadelphia, and there dragged of Claymont, just across the Pennsylvania him out of bed, where he had sought line, in the county of Newcastle. The refuge with all his clothes on, and insisted wives of the two men were close friends, that he should take their money and give and it was probably through the influence them receipts.

of the Wilsons that Mr. Addicks bought, Coincident with this abuse of the delin- in Claymont, a country place of about quent tax law, there was moreor less buying eight acres known as “Riverview ” (afterof votes by the Democrats—and probably ward called “ Miraflores ''), and, in 1877, by their opponents-in all parts of the went there with his wife and his daughter State; and the poorer adherents of both to live.

In this manner he acquired parties were getting more and more into a residence in the State of Delaware. the habit of “ charging something” for He continued to do business in Philatheir votes.

delphia; but his home was in Claymont, The "corruption fund," at that time, and he went back and forth, night was not large in either party ; but it and morning, by train. In the Claymont seems to have been included regularly in house the Addicks family lived for a perithe campaign budget, and party nominees od of about eight years, maintaining close of all grades were expected to contribute friendly relations all the time with their to it.

Twenty years ago," said prom- neighbors thre Wilsons. inent Democratic leader to me, “I went

In 1885 Mr. Addicks, who in the to Thomas F. Bayard and asked him for meantime had acquired wealth as a speca contribution to this fund. It was wrong, ulator, promoter, and organizer of gas of course; but we did that sort of thing companies, closed his “Riverview” house in those days. He said to me,' Mr. X- at Claymont and moved with his family I'll give you money for any legitimate to Boston, where his business interests campaign expense—for hall rent, for the centered. He had at that time speakers, for printing, for flags, or for manifested no Senatorial aspirations, and bands of music; but I won't give you a it is quite possible that he might have sold. cent for the purchase of votes. This the Claymont house and given up his practice of buying votes is corrupting and residence in Delaware if he had not felt demoralizing the people, and preparing a strong friendly interest in the Wilsons, the way for some rich man to step in and and if Mr. Wilson had not died early in buy up the State.'”

the following year.

When that event The words of Senator Bayard were occurred, Mrs. Wilson was left in rather prophetic, and the shadow of the “rich straitened circumstances, and Mr. Adman ” who would attempt to“ buy up the dicks helped her out of her financial diffiState” was already falling across the culties by paying her two hundred dollars northern boundary line of Newcastle a month for board, and going there to County.

stay, for a day or two, whenever business In 1877 John Edward Addicks, who called him to Philadelphia. was then a young married man and a At the time of Mrs. Addicks's marriage,

in 1869, her father, Washington Butcher, "This expression I found still in use in Kent and Sussex Counties. A man who sells his vote is said to

of Philadelphia, gave to her, as a wedding charge tor" it while a man who goes to the polls present, the furnished house No. 2115 unbought, or without promise of reward, "votes his sen. timents."' Speaking of a certain exceptional citizen in Spruce St et, where she lived with her Dagsboro, a Sussex County man said to me, “ He doesn't charge anything for his vote; he votes his sentiments.” husband for a period of two or three

66

years. In 1872 Mr. Addicks persuaded dressed men whom nobody knew, and the her to sell this house for $36,000 and let party, as a whole, created in the quiet him have the money to put into his busilittle capital something like a sensation. ness, promising that in the near future he At first no one took Mr. Addicks or his would give her other real estate of equal pretensions seriously, and no one, apparvalue. When they moved to Claymont, ently, discerned in him the skill, ability, in 1877, he deeded to her the “River- and tenacity of purpose that he afterward view” house, in partial fulfillment of this manifested. He was regarded, by the promise. On the 14th of April, 1888, people generally, with amusement and however, about two years after the death curiosity, as a new, exotic, and unfamiliar of Mr. Wilson, Mr. Addicks induced his type of politician; but it was not thought wife to deed the “Riverview” house in for a moment that he could be dangerClaymont to Mrs. Wilson, in exchange ous or even formidable; and if it had for certain bonds left to the latter by her been suggested, as a possibility, that he husband at his death. This deed will be might eventually dominate the Republifound recorded in the office of the can party and hold up the State, the legisRecorder of Deeds for Newcastle County, lator who were voting for United States Deed Record I., Vol. 14, p. 509. It thus Senator that year would doubtless have appears that in January, 1889, when Mr. laughed at the idea. Addicks came into Delaware politics as a Mr. Addicks, however, had full conficandidate for the Senatorship, he did not dence in his own methods and resources; own the “Riverview" place, which was and, without paying any attention to the supposed to be his residence; did not live attitude taken toward him by the people, in the State, except when he came to Clay- he went promptly to work. The first mont and boarded for a day or two at Mrs. thing he did was to secure what has since Wilson's; and was actually a citizen and been called an "inventory" of the Legislaresident of Boston. When he was asked ture. Picking out a bright young law one day in Claymont, by a lady from student, who had taken rather an active Pennsylvania who happened to be visit- part in State politics, he said to him: “I ing Mrs. Wilson, how he could run for the have a matter that I want to put through Senatorship in Delaware when he actually the Legislature at this session, and I resided in Massachusetts, he replied, “Oh, should like to get some information with I live here ; I've got a bureauful of clothes regard to the character, circumstances, and upstairs."

antecedents of the legislators who will In the fall of 1888, about six months pass upon it. I am willing to pay liberafter the transfer of the Claymont house ally for this information, and I have sent to Mrs. Wilson, Mr. Addicks went to for you in order to ask whether you can Europe, leaving his wife and daughter in get it for me." Boston. Upon his return. in January, The young law student had never heard 1889, he called up Mrs. Addicks by long of Mr. Addicks, and knew nothing whatever distance telephone from the pier in New of his character or purposes, but he was York, exchanged greetings with her, and quite willing to do any honest work for said that he could not come to Boston atthat liberal pay, and he therefore replied that time, for the reason that important busi- he thought he could. Mr. Addicks then ness required his presence in Philadelphia. gave him a series of questions which he He thereupon went directly to Claymont, desired to have answered with reference boarded for a few days at Mrs. Wilson's, to every Senator and Representative in then proceeded to Dover, where the State the House of Assembly of that year. Legislature was in session, and there, upon These questions were, in substance, as the basis of "a bureauful of clothes " in follows: Who is he? Where is he from? the house of Mrs. Wilson at Claymont, he What is his age ? Is he married or single? announced himself as a candidate from If married, how many children has he? Delaware for the United States Senate. Does he own any real estate ? If so, are

When he made his appearance in the there any mortgages on it? What is he Hotel Richardson at Dover, he wore a thought to be worth? (in money) and What silk hat and a fur-lined overcoat; he was are his habits and general reputation? accompanied by two or three showily The young law student spent two weeks or more in getting the desired informa- this State. I wish to say to you, at the tion, and when the answers to the ques- outset, that the fees you'll get from me tions were ready, he called upon his em- will amount to more than all the rest of ployer and submitted them. Mr. Addicks your business put together.” looked them over, said they were perfectly Mr. D—, who had never before heard satisfactory, and asked the young man of Mr. Addicks, but who was unfavorably the amount of his bill for the service. impressed by this method of “approach,” The student replied that the work was of drew himself up with dignity and said : an unusual nature, and that he hardly“ You may stop right there, Mr. Addicks. knew what charge should be made for it. I don't want any proposition or talk from He had spent, however, about two weeks you about compensation until after you in getting and compiling the data, and if have explained what services you expect Mr. Addicks thought that seventy-five me to render. If, when I shall have dollars was not an excessive charge, he learned the nature of your business, I himself would be quite satisfied with that think best to act as your counsel, it will amount. Mr. Addicks promptly drew be time enough to discuss the subject of and gave to the young man a check for compensation.” Mr

Mr. Addicks thereupon two hundred and fifty dollars.

explained that his particular business at The nature of the above questions that time was to get through the Legislaindicates with sufficient clearness the use ture a charter for the Bay State Gas that Mr. Addicks intended to make of Company of Boston. The lawyer asked the information. He wanted, in the first to see the draft of the charter, and Mr. place, to get from that Legislature a char. Addicks produced it. Mr. D— looked ter for the Bay State Gas Company of through it hastily and then said: “The Boston; and, in the second place, he had thing doesn't impress me favorably at first decided to begin at once his campaign sight, Mr. Addicks, and I should like to for the United States Senatorship. In have time to examine it and think about order to attain the objects he had in view, it." by the methods with which he was most “How much time do you want ?" familiar, he needed information that would “ Three or four days ; I'm going to guide him to the legislators who could be Wilmington next Wednesday, and I'll try most easily and safely “ approached.” to give you an answer before that time.” A poor legislator, with a large family and A careful perusal of the proposed chara mortgage on his farm, would be more ter convinced Mr. D— that it was thoraccessible, and would yield more readily - oughly bad in form and in purpose, and to influences of a certain kind, than would when Mr. Addicks called upon him again, a wea4hy Senator or Representative a few days later, he said to the latter : “I whose property was not encumbered and don't want to have anything to do with whose checks at the bank were always this charter, Mr. Addicks, for the reason good. That Mr. Addicks, as a matter of that it seems to me improper, inconsistent fact, did use this information in this way, with the public welfare, and opposed to and for the purposes indicated, I shall what I regard as sound public policy. I try hereafter to show. It is said that he must therefore decline to advise you with has had an “inventory” of this sort regard to it, and must also decline to act compiled for every Legislature since as your counsel in this or in any other 1889.

matter.” Mr. Addicks shortly afterward His next step was to get legal counsel endeavored to secure the professional to advise and help him in the matter of services of another eminent lawyer in the Bay State Gas charter. Selecting one Dover, who is well known both in and out of the most eminent lawyers in the State, of the State. This attempt also failed, he called at the latter's office, introduced and, so far as I have been able to ascerbimself as J. Edward Addicks, and said: tain, it was not until 1893 or 1894 that " Mr. D, I am interested in a number he succeeded in retaining as counsel a of matters in Delaware with regard to man in the first rank of the legal profeswhich I may need legal advice, and I sion. Mr. Herbert H. Ward, the present have called upon you for the purpose of Attorney-General of Delaware, acted for retaining you as my leading counsel in him in the divorce suit instituted by Mrs.

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