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The Board deserves great credit for the grapple with hostile situations when they work it has done, especially under the arise. presidency of Rear-Admiral O'Neil, whose After the war with Spain, Captain tact and judgment, in many controversial H. C. Taylor, now Chief of the Bureau of questions, have facilitated the submission Navigation, who had given long and of the intelligent recommendations of the diligent study to the plan, and is to be

, Board to the Department. To it are credited with its adoption, submitted to referred questions of general construction, me a memorandum on a General Siaff for differences of opinion between Bureaus, the navy. This memorandum pointed out and especially the plans and specifications the value and purpose of the General Staff, for new ships.

much as stated above. The navy was Beyond the Secretary of the Navy and not quite ready for such a comprehensive the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation change as would occur in case of the there was, till recently, no well-organized adoption of the full General Staff system, system for the intelligent direction of though it had been a subject of discussion the fleet after its construction and com- for many years.

The Department did mission. The experience of the war with not see its way clear to go further than to Spain showed the need of a General organize what is designated as the General Staff. The office of Naval Intelligence Board, with the Admiral of the Navy as and the Naval War College, both of which its President. This Board meets once a owe their creation to Secretary Chandler, month, and at stated periods consults were the first stage in the formation of the with the Commander-in-Chief of the General Staff; but they were not adapted North Atlantic Squadron, which practices to comprehensive supervision of the train- the war plans which the Board devises. ing and the operation of the navy in war. Its work gives promise of the excellent When the Carnegie Steel Company was results anticipated. Germany employed first established, only a few officers were fifty years in developing her General required for the administration of its Staff, which gave to the world a marvelaffairs; but when its interests became ous lesson in organization and efficiency large, a Board of Directors was necessary during the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. successfully to conduct its business. The Necessary as such an organization is to General Staff of the navy approximates the American navy, the steps taken to the Board of Directors of a manufacturing introduce it will be approved by experi

a concern. Its duties include the collection of information respecting foreign navies, In the navy a system of administration their bases in time of war, and the theater so compact and yet elastic that jealousies of action in which they will move. This and friction will be minimized and the information will permit an appreciation of most effective co-operation obtained is the aims and purposes of those navies, always the desideratum.

What the navy and a comparison of their strength with has accomplished must be attributed in that which we will be able to muster large measure to the strength and charagainst each or several of them. Based acter of its administrative and fighting upon it, comprehensive plans can be pre- officers. They have done splendid work, pared for the most effective operations by and they will do better yet. They are our navy and the utilization of auxiliary zealous, full of ability, honesty, force, and

, forces such as the naval militia and full, of course, of human nature. With reserves, and co-operation with the army. these qualities the naval administrative The formulation of these plans and their organization is tending still more, as fast execution in time of peace under the as it can, towards a system which will harsimulated conditions of war will train moniously labor for only one aim and purofficers and men and prepare them to pose—the honor and safety of the country.




Fa consensus of literary opinion could was a boy of the people, who knew and loved be taken to-day, it would probably be the lonely life of the valley and the beauty

found that Tolstoï, Ibsen, and Björn- of the mountain and fjord from his infancy. son would be given the foremost places At the age of twelve Björnson was sent in contemporary literature. The authors to a Latin School, where he seems to have of “Anna Karenina," “ The Pretenders,” spent his energy in instinctive and perand “ Arne" are not only writers of great sistent revolt against rules, regulations, force, but they are also striking personal- and regular study hours of all kinds, but ities, from every point of view among where he also became a leader, organizthe most interesting men of their time. ing a debating society, founding a newsTolstoï is probably, all things considered, paper, and showing in the vital life of the the foremost man in Europe ; a writer of school all the energy he failed to display genius who has combined original power in his studies. In 1852 he was admitted of a very high and sustained kind with to the Christiania University, where he the delicacy, the sensitive imagination, made the acquaintance of Ibsen, and the the plastic force of the artist, a passionate two men became fast friends. At the lover of his kind, one who looks at life university as in school, Björnson neglected sadly but with individual passion, a great the regular work, but was intensely active artist turned reformer, without official posi- in all the fields that interested him. tion, excommunicated from the National Here the idea of creating a national literaChurch and yet to-day the most influen- ture, free from Danish influence, took tial person in Russia.

deep hold upon him; and with a little Ibsen has been for many years a volun- group of young men of kindred spirit and tary exile from his country, a recluse in attitude he became an ardent advocate of his habits, detached and solitary, although Norwegian independence. In 1857 he not without many friends and not lacking went to Copenhagen; and in that city his many agreeable qualities as a companion. first novel, “Synnove Solbakken," apHe is a man who has endeavored to look peared, and at once made Norway aware life in the face and has found it, in his that a new writer had appeared among judgment

, base and unworthy, and who them, who had brought a new strain into has devoted himself with untiring energy their literature. Simple in plot, direct and almost brutal frankness to the exposi- and sinewy in style, dealing at first hand tion of what he regards as the hypocrisy, with the rustic life of Norway, the new the pretensions, and the benumbing con- novel came like a breath of fresh air. It ventionalities of contemporary life. was the beginning of a new movement.

Björnson is the most wholesome of the In the same class belong “ Arne" and three; a man of powerful frame, of over- " A Happy Boy." Björnson's interest in flowing physical life, of intense energy of the drama dates from an early period. mind, will, and feeling. He is a dynamic He has acted as director of Ole Bull's worker in every department of life, a born theater in Bergen, where he published his lover of life, a writer who has studied his first dramatic works, and of the Chriskind at close range, who is in revolt tiania theater. He has been the editor against many traditions and conventions, of various journals. He has written but who believes in life, in his fellows, in charming lyric poetry; and in prose, the possibilities of human nature; a great, verse, and plays he has always spoken of sunny, exuberant, boyish leader.

real things in a real way. He has not Björnson was born seventy years ago only been a leader in the movement for last December in Oesterdalen, in one of intellectual independence, and for the the bleakest and barest sections of Nor- development of a native literature to which way, surrounded by lofty, snow-covered he has also been one of the chief conhills . Although the son of a pastor, the tributors, but he has carried into public

, future novelist, who was to picture the life the same energy and freedom, and for rustic life of Norway with such idyllic sim- many years has been one of the leaders plicity and with such sympathetic insight, of the progressive movement in Norway.



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HE saving grace of the Republic cities and the railroads and one would

has been its power of assimila- have difficulty in determining whether he

tion. Out of a conglomerate was in New Mexico or our sister republic mass from all nations it has made its to the south. After hours of futile effort citizens. A generation from the father- to find some one who would meet his land and they are thorough Americans. English question with a more intelligible Not so with the Mexicans. For half a answer than “No sabe,” he would probcentury they have been Americans, but ably be inclined to think that he had by to-day they are well-nigh as alien as when chance crossed over the border of the we acquired them. The slowness and United States into Mexico. dullness of the race accounts for this in Through the veins of many of the natives part, yet it is only fair to allow for the of the Southwest flows the best of Spanish difference in the method of acquisition. blood. Had their family records been They came to us not by choice but by kept, many could trace their descent from force ; they were not transplanted, but left the daring Espejo and his party which on the same old soil in the same surround- pushed north as far as the city of Santa ings; they were not thrown with English- Fé in 1582. Yet they have so degenerspeaking people, but remained with users ated and mingled with the Indian tribes of their mother tongue. To some extent that they do little credit to their intrepid the blame is ours, for we have known and ancestors. There is no higher complicared as little for them as they have for us. ment than to call a native of the SouthIt is only with their demand for Statehood west a Spaniard. The rich and educated that eyes have been turned upon our insist upon being so called, the remainder Mexican brothers of the Southwest. being Mexicans or, somewhat contemptu

That they are Spanish in tongue and ously, "greasers. The greaser is the customs is well known, but how tena- interesting, picturesque fellow. ciously they have held to their race pecu- The most fruitful region in interesting liarities is known only by those who have types is the Rio Grande valley. There lived among them. Get awy from the they are more Americanized than back on

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