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fields, eternally young and life-giving and elephants, he disfigured the idols of amid the rise and fall of civilizations. native gods, and constructed his mosques On every side are seen moss-grown tombs with the debris and columns of demolished and monuments, overgrown gardens, and temples; and in this courtyard, it is said, forsaken homes. Fields of grain rise he built his colonnades with the sculptured where once was a populous city; and columns from nearly twenty Hindu sanctuhere, amid the tangle of verdure, springs aries! that astonishing shaft, the Kutub Minar. In a court by itself, among the weeds, Graceful and slender as a reed, mysterious rises a single column fashioned out of as the Sphinx, it rises two hundred and solid wrought iron. It is forty feet high, forty feet high, banded with five balus and its diameter is sixteen inches. It is traded balconies, and almost covered with believed to belong to the third Christian intricate carved inscriptions and designs. century, and Hindu tradition ascribes to To say that it is forty-seven feet in diam- it the origin of Delhi. The tradition says eter at its fluted base and nine feet at its that when one of the early princes ordered broken top, that it glows with the soft it to be removed, its base was found to hues of red sandstone, can give no idea be still wet with the blood of some former of its beauty. No one knows why it was ruler who had been slain beside it. built, no one knows for what it was used. Aghast, he tried to replace it, but the iron Here it stands, a spire of surpassing pillar, once uprooted, remained forever grace, preserved to us from unknown times. loose—“dhila.” And so sprang the name
Near it is the Mosque of Kutub al Islam, Delhi, of the spot. To-day, when native within whose sacred and cloistered court- women pray for a happy marriage, or for yard many of its twelve hundred pillars the blessing of offspring, they make pilstill stand, Hindu in architecture and grimage to this Sanscrit-in scriptured iron of infinitely varied design. Upon them pillar of prehistoric times, and press their all the patterns known to the workers in lips against its cool sides. So tradition, silk and enamel were chiseled in marble, history, and superstition are forever interand they are relics of days when Delhi twined about the place, and the briers, was only Hindu, and before the architec- blooming with fragrant blossoms, twine ture and the scimitar of the Mohammedans about and shield the crumbling ruins of had swept over the land and brought the ancient city. Across the plain the strange ideas, buildings, and religious rites river still gleams and murmurs, and the into this peaceful plain of the Jumna. men and women to-day pass to and from The Mohammedan Mogul wrought great their work among these mounds and monuhavoc here among Hindu monuments. ments of old Delhi, and the past is only With sledge and ax he destroyed the vaguely recalled amid the interests and wonderful designs of peacocks and birds occupations of to-day.
By Charles W. Stevenson
Its landscape changes ever and is gone ;
Yet must the myriad thousands journey on ;
But while they palter, lo, the happy dawn
Is noonday, and a hopeful life is pawn
We cannot say them nay, nor from the deep
A preappointed way we take and keep,
The Editor of “The Spectator”
Few English journals are more widely known and more thoughtfully read in this country than the London “ Spectator ;” and Mr. John St. Loe Strachey, the editor and proprietor, during his visit in this country has doubtless been made aware of the cordial feeling of a large body of the most intelligent Americans towards the journal with which Mr. R. H. Hutton was so long connected. Mr. Strachey, who is the second son of Sir Edward Strachey, was educated at Balliol College, Oxford, is a barrister by profession, and has been a journalist by occupation for nearly twenty years. He was for a time the editor of the “ Cornhill Magazine," but of late years has given his time and thought 10 the “Spectator,” which under his direction has greatly enlarged its constituency, and, without sacrificing its high intellectual and critical quality, has become much more widely influential. The “ Spectator " has combined in rare degree some of the characteristics of the highest journalism; wide interest in all that relates to the higher life of society, broad intelligence, generous sympathies, special knowledge in many departments, and the habit of appealing to the intelligence of its readers by its reasonableness and by the interest of its style. There are a good many American readers who have come to regard it, not only as the best of the English journals, but as one of the foremost journals in the English-speaking world; its restraint, its candor, its admirable taste, its sense of form, and its interest in all departments of the intellectual life have appealed especially to men of academic training, and probably no journal of the day is more widely read in American colleges and universities ; nor have Amer. icans forgotten its friendship for this country in a time when influential friends in England were few.
BY WILLIAM E. DAVENPORT
Of the Brooklyn Italian Settlement
ILLUSTRATED WITH PHOTOGRAPHS BY ARTHUR HEWITT
tion is also raised as to the proportion of Italian immigrants remaining permanently within our country, and the wide dispersion of those not remaining. It is said, too, that the greater part of those who come here seek only to secure a greater or lesser sum for themselves, and then hastily return with their gains to spend their later years in idleness under the romantic skies of their native land. There is, at all events, occasion for more exact knowledge on these matters, the importance of which every one admits.
In respect to the causes for this immigration, three general reasons may be distinguished : first, the already crowded condition of the Italian peninsula, containing a population of 113 to the square mile, as against 73 to the same area in Francealthough vast tracts in Italy remain practically uninhabitable, consisting of inaccessible mountain ranges or pestiferous swamps ; second, the extraordinary fecundity of the Italian race of recent years, so
that in a single year the births outnumber IN MULBERRY STREET
the deaths by 400,000, the increase being
nearly one-third larger in the already MONG the great movements of crowded sections than in the north ; population which mark our time third, the excessive taxation, which, all
there are two quite unrivaled in agree, falls most heavily upon the agritheir present proportions and prospective cultural classes, who are least able to results. Of these the first is the settle sustain its weight, especially since the ment of northern Asia by Russian emi- widespread destruction of groves and grants at the rate of 200,000 a year, and vineyards by insect pests has reduced unthe second is the expansion of Italy in numbered families to the last extremity. our Western world by an annual exodus A certain proportion of Italian emigrahither of a quarter of a million souls. tion, more especially that from the north, Certainly the rapid growth of our Italian- is directed to Montevideo, Brazil, and the speaking population through this ever- Argentine Republic, the latter country increasing emigration from southern Italy, especially proving most attractive to the amounting to 178,000 in the past year, agriculturists of Lombardy, Piedmont, and has awakened wide discussion.
Liguria. Everywhere they have proved Some look with strong disfavor upon themselves thrifty and enterprising, leavthe whole movement, feeling that our coun- ing the Spaniards, after sharp competition, try is bound to suffer in its moral and intel- quite in the rear. Almost a million of lectual interests by so great an incursion them have come to Buenos Ayres since of the illiterate and untrained peasantry 1876—an annual average of three times of Sicily and the extreme south. A ques- the immigration from Spain. In Santa Fé