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suzerain of the proudest princes in the mediæval in its picturesqueness, and merworld, the Rajahs and Maharajahs of chants will display costly fabrics, jewels, India ; and titular master of glittering and armor, and rea') a golden harvest. armies, of jungles and deserts, villages But Delhi in its usual life, and as I saw and teeming cities, of a land over which it, lies dreaming of days still more glorious. seven great religions hold sway-Brahmin, A profound peace has settled over it, and Hindu, Jain, Buddhist, Zoroastrian, Mo- at night, when the hearth fires are lighted, hammedan, and Christian! India is not the smoke settles down over the low one country; it cannot be described as a dwellings in a blue-white haze, and the unit; it holds many peoples and many droning life of the day subsides and differing institutions; and throughout its leaves the city wrapped in fatuous memlength and breadth, through all its castes ories of the past. and climes, there exists a vast mystery As in Rome, there is the striking connever yet understood by Western minds. trast of the old with the new, but in Delhi There are subtle undercurrents of thought the two ages do not jostle each other so and belief, elusive and mystic principles, closely. In the modern town are the which our science cannot explain. West- long, low hotels for travelers, the mosques, ern force can capture and Western law bazars, and dwellings of the natives. The can control and govern, but Western phi- streets are dusty, shadeless, and shabby, losophy is still baffled at Indian occultism. and swarming with people. The traveler The English are the physical masters of is constantly beset by the merchants as the land, but spiritually the two races seem he walks about; they thrust their wares forever separated.
and business cards under his nose and But the Durbar at Delhi is the procla- follow him even to his hotel. He cannot mation of the controlling power of Eng- step from the door without stumbling land as represented by her present King; over crouching figures who hastily spread and the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon of out their embroideries and brocades beKedleston, is planning it to be the most fore him. Jugglers crouch in the corbrilliant ceremony ever held during the ners of the verandas ready to produce a new régime. So there is not a vacant little mango-tree from the seed - while berth on any passenger ship leaving Eng- you wait,” or charm the snakes they uncoil land for India, and Delhi will contain from the basket, and beggars show their more Europeans during the first part of deformities and implore alms. The hotel January tlian are to be found in most of is bare and chilly, and the traveler must, the land at other times, the army excepted. as always in India, bring his own servant, Lady Curzon being an American, there bedclothing, and napery with him. From will be a number of our country peo- my hotel, built on the city wall, I could ple there, as well as many French and look down on one side over a forest, and Germans, and the hotels and lodging on another over the housetops. Here, houses are charging extortionate rates. so far north in the Punjab, chimneys are The humblest houses and even forlorn and to be seen among the flat roofs and primitive huts will be used to shelter the rounded domes. Fireplaces are in most visitors; and the native princes, who will of the houses, because the nights are very assemble from the various principalities, cold in winter, and all day there is a spice are preparing to show the most lavish of coolness in the air. This naturally hospitality to their English guests, in has its effect in the costumes of the people. return for courtesies extended to them in In the south they wear scanty garments England at the time of the coronation of thin white or dyed cotton ; here one
So new life will come to the picturesque sees quilted coats and trousers on both city; its streets will blossom with the flower men and women, heavy turbans, and, upon of Indian chivalry ; Nawabs, in brocade the richer class, Cashmere shawls of red, and cloth-of-gold, in garments of glittering blue, green, and white, and embroidered kinkob, with plumed turbans and gem- cloaks. studded arms, will throng the streets; To explore the city in comfort it is chariots and elephants bravely capari- better to ride, as the importunate peddlers soned, richly harnessed white bullocks, and beggars are thus somewhat avoided, and superb horses will make the scene and if one wishes to buy of the native
A DELHI WATERING-CART wares he should go to the shop of some Musjid, or Great Mosque. While wanreliable merchant. Here he is led up to dering among these delicate marble palthe second story-all the houses are two aces, one grows personally interested in stories high-given a chair and a cup of such associations as those relating to Lalla coffee, and then dazzling brocades and Rookh, the wife of Shah Jahan, who now camel's-hairs from Kashmir, embroidered lies in the most beautiful sepulcher ever saris from China, Bokhara draperies, built for a woman (the peerless Taj Mahal ivories, arms, jewels, rugs, and the treas. at Agra), the Koh-i-nur, and the Peacock ures of many Eastern looms, are spread Throne. There is no European analogy before him by subtly persuasive salesmen. to the Indian palace. It is not one great
In spite of the shabby appearance of inclosed structure, for, with its arcades New Delhi, one notices many a beautiful and open audience halls where the Moguls façade, graceful alcove window and personally sat in judgment, accessible to carved marble arch, and a multitude of the common people who presented their small pointed domes create Orientally pic- pleas without the intermediation of minturesque sky-lines.
ister or secretary, it was a collection of The two chief places of interest in New scattered buildings. The Diwan-i-Amm, Delhi are the great parallelogram of mar- the Hall of Audience, is nearly two hunble palaces of the Moguls, and the Jama dred feet long and is open, with arcades
on three sides. Here was the throne of the Emperor, with its canopy and protecting rear wall all built of marble, and it is perhaps the most exquisite and delicately beautiful example of carved and inlaid marble in the world. Here, inlaid in semiprecious stones and studded with jewels, birds of brilliant plumage are pictured, some on the wing, others poised upon sprays of foliage. Every feathered creature of the land is faithfully reproduced in mosaic in unfading colors, and the graceful arches rise in perfect symmetry, forming the canopy protecting the throne. Near by is the Hall of Private Audience, where the ruler received his ministers, and this likewise is built of marble and inlaid with gold and precious stones. Here was the famous Peacock Throne, whence the laws of India went forth. Behind it were the two peacocks with spread tails so inlaid with diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and pearls that they gleamed with the colors of life. Between them was a parrot, life size, and carved out of a single emerald! The throne itself stood upon six pedestals of solid gold inlaid with gems, and beside it were two umbrellasOriental emblems of royaltyof embroidered crimson velvet fringed with pearls, and with handles eight feet high, of solid gold set with diamonds.
The eyes of one of the peacocks were made of the two enormous diamonds, the Koh-i-nur and the Koh-i-tur—the “ Mountain of Light" and the “Mountain of Sinai." History tells us that when Nadir Shah sacked Delhi and destroyed the Peacock Throne, the Koh-i-nur was not to be found. But a woman revealed the fact that it was hidden in the turban of the Emperor. As a treaty had been mnade, further pillage by the conqueror would have violated
THE KITUB MIXAR
the proprieties, so the wily Nadir, at Early one morning, just as the sun was a banquet, suddenly proposed that he rising, and when the air was almost frosty and the Emperor exchange their gemmed and not yet hazy with the powdery red turbans in token of friendship. There dust raised by innumerable feet of men was no way of refusing this offer, and beasts of burden, when the walls of and the Emperor relinquished his head- New Delhi shone rosy against an azure dress. Later, when the Nadir retired to sky, I drove along the eleven miles of this his tent and eagerly explored the turban, Indian Via Appia, bordered with the behold, in its folds lay the “Mountain of ruins of seven cities which had successLight," the Koh-i-nur! Thus this won- ively risen and fallen with the change of derful jewel was carried off to Lahore, and the centuries. Leaving the city by the remained there till the advent of the East Ajmir Gate, we drove through fertile India Company, and later it was presented fields with here and there a glint of water, to Queen Victoria, and now, largely re- the ruined gardens of noblemen whose duced in size by cutting, it is safely guarded names were long ago forgotten, and broken among the treasures of the English crown. ruins or mounds telling of vanished glories.
But the glory of New Delhi is its great Passing the deserted observatory of Jai Mosque, and when one mounts the most Singh II., India's greatest astronomer, majestic flight of steps in the world and who in the eighteenth century prepared enters the vast platform inclosed by its the table of the stars, we came presently colonnades and gateways, and sees the to a large tomb whose rounded dome rose fierce sun beating down upon its white fifty feet into the air. Directly beneath pavement and the fountain pool in the it was the usual marble tank, perhaps center, and looks across to the two great fifty feet square, and filled with stagnant minars and the white domes rising into water. As we looked, suddenly the dark, the blue sky, a vision of past glories and slim figure of a man was seen poised lost power comes to him. Here once upon the summit of the dome, distinct walked the rulers and nobles of Ind, against the sky. He had divested himself and had the Mutiny succeeded, here once of clothing and was signaling to us. Then again the Emperors would have paced he crouched for an instant and gave a under the marble arcades and their terrific spring, tense and quick as a panprincesses, like sweet Lalla Rookh, would ther, and shot forward into the air. have been given in marriage to Eastern Straightening out, he shot downward, arms kings. But to-day only a few impassive straight above his head, and, clearing natives lie asleep in shady corners, a safely the roof of the mosque, struck the silent figure or two crosses the vast square, water with a sharp “chunk!” Widening standing out brilliantly against the gleam- circles of green ripples swept away to the ing marble, and the dim interior of the sides of the tank, and then his head mosque is empty and silent. “ This reappeared. Vigorously he struck out for mosque," writes Temple, “built by the the marble coping, climbed out, shook Emperor Shah Jahan, is probably the most himself, and then pattered, dripping and beautiful, on a large scale, that has ever obsequious, up to the carriage and craved been seen by the world. Its vast dimen- the boon of four annas-about eight sions, swelling cupolas, and lofty arches; cents--for the feat! its spacious courtyard, arcades, gateways, Near by was the tomb of Shah Jahan's cloisters, and fight of steps, produce an im- daughter, exquisite with perforated marble posing effect." But its vast size is hardly screens and delicate tracery. A group of realized because of the perfection of pro- natives and a priest, crouching in the sun portion and the harmony of its coloring. by its walls, recalled some of VerestchaThe brilliant red sandstone contrasts with gin's paintings of Indian scenes. In two the dazzling marble, and the entire effect hours Old Delhi was reached, a wilderness of this platform, with its surrounding ar- of dismantled palaces and tombs stretchcades, its mosque and minars on one side ing away on all sides. Far behind us and its lofty gateways midway in each of rose the walls, spires, and domes of the the other three, is one which first astonishes new city, rising like bubbles, filmy and and then grows extraordinarily impressive iridescent, above the green plain. The as the details are comprehended.
sacred river Jumna sweeps through the