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opinion to a magistrate. In this, the first blackmail by the police; but any confedinstance of such departure, he had scarcely erate or subordinate of his was welcome declared the room in which he sat a court- game. In view of the current belief that room and himself a judge presiding, when gambling in the city was in the hands of a à man, perfectly well known to the in- small syndicate of Mr. Devery's intimate vading party, detached himself from the friends, it was determined to make gamcrowd, and said, sotto voce : " Mr. Jerome, bling-houses the main objective of the I can't afford to be caught here; you must raids. The keepers of the gamblinghelp me get out.” “You don't seem to houses were not themselves the men understand that this is a court-room. wanted; they were taken into custody and Hold up your hand and be sworn.” The prosecuted mainly in the hope that some man hesitated. People who have talked with of them would turn State's evidence. They Mr. Jerome only in clubs have never met had paid their money for protection; it the judge. His manner in court is ex- was hoped that when they found the police ceptionally tranquil and unassuming ; but coul | not deliver the goods, they would every spectator knows himself to stand in rise against their blackmailers. presence of the power and dignity of the Through the spring and summer months, law. “You can take your choice, and night after night, the raids went on, take it quickly: go to jail for contempt of Mr. Jerome risking his life freely among court, or hold up your hand.” The man the least scrupulous class in the city. held up his hand and was sworn.

5. What

He had not sought the position of chief is your name?” “ John Doe.” “I shall huntsman or its notoriety. He was not be obliged to commit John Doe to the a professional reformer or an aspirant House of Detention in order to find him for political advancement; he was oswhen I want him. I do not know his tensibly a club-man and man about town residence.” Then the unwilling prisoner like another. As a Deputy Assistant in told his name: he was Maurice Holahan, the District Attorney's office, and later as President of the Board of Public Works. a Judge, he had learned the police game; He explained to the newspapers the next he was, at once by knowledge and posiday that he had gone to 20 Dey Street tion, the one man who could and would looking for his “ wayward son.” Neither do the work cut out for the Committee of the newspapers nor the public took the Fifteen. Conducting a raid, examining explanation seriously, and the wayward the prisoners, waiting at the police station son was indignant. Indeed, the town afterward for such of them as could secure shook with irreverent laughter, and the bail, meant commonly staying abroad all wayward son made undutiful revelations night; and his official duties required him about certain of his father's dealings in to open court in the Special Sessions at contracts with the city.

ten the next morning. His fellow clubThis was the first of Mr. Jerome's John men criticised him for making himself Doe raids. The Committee of Five never conspicuous. His brother lawyers and asked him, or any one, for another warrant. judges criticised him for “lowering the The little comedy Mr. Croker had planned dignity of the bench.” The newspapers turned suddenly too grave for his taste, caricatured him as Carrie Nation Jerome and the Committee of Five ceased to exist. with a little hatchet. No doubt he enjoyed The Committee of Fifteen awoke to the certain incidents in many of his nights; fact that they had found a man precisely but the man who enjoys leading or assistsuited to their needs. They were non- ing in a raid must be of an adventurous political and non-partisan; they were in sort. It is the custom in raiding to send search of information about the actual two or three men in advance whose busiconditions of police rule in New York City; ness it is to mix with the players. On the when their informants led them to believe first notice that the rush has begun, they that a place should be raided, they applied are two or three against a hundred; they to Mr. Jerome for the warrants. The must hold the crowd from escaping by hunting of John Doe was undertaken in door or window. On battering down the earnest, with Mr. Jerome as chief hunts- door of one pool-room, Mr. Jerome disinan. John Doe was Mr. Devery, as sup- covered on the inside one of his own men, posedly the official head of the system of Hammond, with a prisoner in his left hand, a prisoner and a revolver in his right, Fifteen. In the raid that followed Captain struggling forward to the arrest of a third. Gannon was surprised taking his ease in a McLellan, another of his assistants (who back room of the place, and it subsewas held for examination before a magis- quently appeared that he was an habitué trate for having shot, on a more recent raid, of the Webster House. It is an incident a man who had fired twice at him), was on that makes a picture. And Devery, in his three occasions overpowered and beaten judgments from week to week in the travto a pulp before the rest of his party out esty of a court he presided over, added the side could break in and come to his assist finishing touches; dashed them in with a ance. More than once Mr. Jerome himself reckless security that made even his own was obliged to bear a hand in a free fight admirers gasp. One patrolman, McManus before he could open one of his phenom- by name, came up before him during the enally informal courts. At times, of course, raids, on the charge of absence from duty the raid ended in pure comedy. One eve

without leave. The known facts in the ning Mr. Jerome and his party took by McManus case were these. A married storm an absolutely empty house. The man, he had some years before abandoned appurtenances of gambling were in evi- his wife and allowed his three children to dence, but the John Doe warrants remained be supported for four years in a charitable in the pockets of the Justice; he found institution maintained by the city. During nobody to serve them on. He sat on a all this time he was an officer on the force. roulette-table and said: “Sporting life is It had been charged that he had seduced checkered, but never dull; some days you a fifteen-year-old girl, taken her from the can't lay up a cent;" when there blew in house of her parents, and was living with from the street a young exquisite, who, her as his mistress. For this he was at sight of his hosts, looked as if he indicted and tried for rape and seduction were taking the count in order to get his by the county authorities, and on the trial bearings. "I-I beg pardon,” he said, the jury disagreed. Men familiar with the vaguely. “Not at all,” said the Judge; trials of members of the police force can "we were just waiting for you. I am read between the lines. He was tried also Judge Jerome, and this is a court in ses- at Police Headquarters for conduct unbesion. Hold up your hand and be sworn. coming an officer and a gentleman, and Tell the truth and no harm will come to after the evidence was put in decision was you. Try on any nonsense and you will “reserved.” It was on record also that he pass the night in the House of Detention. had once been dismissed from the force You can take your choice.” As a by- for intoxication, but, without reason given, stander said, the young exquisite“ sweated had been reinstated. Finally the Gerry tacks," and was sworn. Before he could Society had caused him to be arrested for be asked a question, he turned to one of failure to support his children, and the Mr. Jerome's party and said hurriedly: “I trial took place in the Court of Special say, old man, can you give me a cigarette ? Sessions at a time when Mr. Jerome hapThanks. By Jove, I need one!” Then pened to be presiding justice. Mr. Jerome he told all he knew.

and his associates on the bench sentenced In the course of these raids there were McManus to three months in the penitenfor the police many unlucky accidents. tiary. It was on his release that he There was a raid, for example, on a place appeared before Devery on the charge of called the Webster House on Third being absent from post without leave. He Avenue. Some thirty or forty taxpayers might have pleaded that his absence was in the neighborhood had in a petition unwilling and unavoidable, but he did not. “ humbly prayed” the police captain of He pleaded, when Devery had lost his the precinct, Captain Gannon, to suppress temper and was to all seeming on the point the joint, on the ground that their property of passing heavy sentence on him, that he was being injured by its proximity to the had been sentenced to the penitentiary by Webster House, and that their women Judge Jerome. Devery's mood changed. could not go to and fro of an evening past Two days before, Mr. Jerome, in one of his the house without being insulted. The raids, had captured an especially significant petitioners, failing to obtain redress from check drawn to the order of and cashed the Captain, applied to the Committee of by Frank Farrell, one of Devery's intimates and an alleged fellow-member of police know how difficult it is to force one the gambling syndicate. “ Judge Jerome,” of them to testify against another. I have Devery mused. “This complaint is dis- seen the big fellows blush like girls, and missed! There is a lot of little tin sol- wipe off the cold sweat that started to their diers runnin' around this town with pop- faces, at the lies they were telling to shield guns on their shoulders, shooting them off a comrade-lies perfectly patent under in the streets, raising riots and degrading cross-examination ; but I have never seen the community. I say it's an outrage. one of them break down. And so long as Judge Jerome isn't goin' to run this town the man complained of remains in authorif I can help it. This man here claims ity, there is small limit to his power to be that he was wrongly convicted, and I avenged on the complainant. He can believe him. It is about time a halt was take any woman on the streets into custody called on Judge Jerome.” McManus, when and charge her with “soliciting." He arraigned before Mr. Jerome and his asso- can take any man on the streets into cusciates, had pleaded guilty. After Devery's tody and club him, and charge him with decision he drew his pay for the three having been drunk and disorderly, and with months during which he had served the having resisted an officer in the discharge city in the penitentiary.

of his duty. Except by mistake, such To rich New Yorkers and to rich men arrests and charges do not befall the rich. everywhere the fact is seemingly a novelty, The rich have money with which to pay and even a paradox, that the administra- for a fight; the rich have money with tion in great cities means one thing to the which to bring witnesses to their social rich and quite another to the poor. To the position, and to bring bondsmen to give rich it means, in practice, customs house bail for them; and at the first credible officials, lawyers, judges in the higher intimation that a mistake has been made courts, tax-gatherers, and, in the case of about the wealth and social position of a the very rich, legislatures, Congressmen, prisoner, the police are all apologies, conand Senators. To the poor it means the trition, and courtesy. The poor have no policeman on the beat, the police captain money with which to pay for a fight, or to in the precinct, the district leader and his bring witnesses, or to indemnify bondsheelers, and the nearest police magistrate. men; and their witnesses, who would To the women of the rich the policeman gladly come forward on a guarantee of is almost a domestic servant, to whom impunity, cannot afford, on penalty of they can appeal for aid and protection, sheer hunger, to miss a day's work, and and in whose presence they feel a sense cannot afford, on grounds of personal of safety; they appeal to him and say, safety, to appear against an accusing “ Thank you so much," with a sense of policeman. Even when the policeman's conferring a favor; and “ Chief of Police” immediate superiors are honest, the poor is to them the title of a vaguely conceived had better, ninety-nine times out of a hunpetty official. To the women of the poor dred, in wisdom for themselves, submit a policeman is a sentinel of a garrison— than fight; and they do submit. When at least professedly a friendly garrison, the policeman's superiors, as in New York that has quartered itself upon the city, City, are, as a rule, more corrupt and and holds it in subjection under military brutal than himself, the case of the poor law; and the Chief of Police is a remote is little short of desperate. Gamblers, the and awful military dignitary of undefined keepers of dives and brothels, criminals powers. If the sentinel is good-natured generally, have ready money and pay it, and sober, he can be appealed to in case and are relatively safe. The poor are safe of need with some chance that he will only in so far as they are inconspicuous; throw his power into the scale of justice. and known savings, for example, or a If he is ill-natured, or drunken, or venal, strikingly handsome wife or daughter, sufthere is indeed a bare chance that an fice to render them conspicuous. Wellappeal to his superiors may bring him a worn instances of Roman

or Italian rebuke, but more than a rebuke is scarcely tyranny are re-enacted in New York with to be hoped for; neighbors and friends variations; the old materials of tragic are slow to testify against the police for drama lie ready to the playwright's hand, obvious reasons, and all who know the No one who knows anything of the extent to which the privilege of theft and robbery purpose; William Devery and his allies is a matter of bargain and sale, and any- and lieutenants were still at large and still thing of the extent to which the “cadet bore sway; but it made apparent in some system " has prevailed, will find these measure to the well-to-do the nature and statements exaggerated. The hunting of the abuses, possible and actual, of the John Doe did not achieve its ostensible power of the police.

Sir William Harcourt'



By Justin McCarthy
VERY friend and admirer of Sirtion only because he could not cordially

William Harcourt must have been accept the policy and plans of action

glad when it was made known undertaken by his leader in the House of that the late leader of the Liberal party Lords, Lord Rosebery. I do not propose in the House of Commons had declined to enter at any length into the differences to accept the King's offer of a peerage of opinion which separated these two and was determined to remain in that men, but it was generally understood that representative chamber where he had Lord Rosebery did not see his way to made his political name and won his place carry out Gladstone's policy for the mainof command. Sir William Harcourt would tenance of Greece and the Christian popuhave been thrown away in the House of lations generally against the blood-stained Lords. He could not have done any- domination of the Ottoman power in the thing to arouse that apathetic chamber to southeast of Europe. The result of these anything like living importance in the differences was that Lord Rosebery apaffairs of state, and the House of Com- plied himself to form a Liberal party of mons would have lost its most impressive his own, which should be what is called figure. Sir William Harcourt's political Imperialist in its policy, and that Harfame was made in the House of Com- court became merely a member of the mons, and he is even yet its most distin- Liberal opposition in the House of Comguished member. I say “even yet" be

To have won the place of Liberal cause Harcourt is growing old, and has leader in the representative chamber passed that age of threescore years and might well have satisfied the ambition of ten authoritatively set down as the allotted any man, and to withdraw from that place space of man's life.

But he shows no rather than contribute to any further disappearance as yet of old age, seems full agreement in the party did not in any of energy and vital power, and is as well sense detract from Harcourt's influence able to command the listening House of and fame. Commons by argumentative speech and Sir William Harcourt won his earliest impressive declamation as he was twenty

distinctions in law and literature rather years ago. Harcourt's bearing is one of than in politics. He comes of a family superabundant physical resources, and he which has a history of its own and had has a voice of resonant tone which im- members who won reputation during poses no tax on the listening powers of many generations. He was educated at the stranger in the farthest gallery. He Cambridge University and obtained high is a very tall man, would be one of the honors there. He was called to the bar tallest men in any political assembly, and in 1854, and became Queen's Counsel in his presence is stately and commanding. 1866. In the meantime he had acconAfter Gladstone's death he became the plished some important literary work. He leader of the Liberal party in the House was a writer for the “ Saturday Review," of Commons, and he resigned that posi- then at the zenith of its reputation, and

under the title of “Historicus” he con1 This article is the seventh of a series about living has written of Mr. Balfour, Lord Salisbury, Mr. John public subjects to the “Times” newsBritish statesmen. In preceding articles Mr. McCarthy tributed a series of letters on important Morley, Mr. Henry Labouchere, the Earl of Aberdeen, and Mr. James Bryce. Other subjects will be Sir Henry paper which attracted universal attention, Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, Mr. John Burns, and Mr. John E, Redmond,

were afterwards collected and published


in a volume, and found readers in every English cities and towns and other such part of the world where men take interest personages of municipal position. Harin the public life of England. He was a court, as I have said, came of a distinleading advocate in some legal causes guished English family which had conwhich excited the profound attention of tributed Lord Chancellors and other such the whole country, and was already re- exalted dignitaries to the business of the garded as a man of mark, who might be State. He probably had also in his mind safely assumed to have a successful the fact that rising men in his own procareer before him. It was generally taken fession who happened to be sons of Peers for granted at the time that such a man were specially exempted by constitutional was certain to seek and find a place in usage from the necessity of putting up the House of Commons, which of course with knighthood when accepting one of offers an opening for rising legal advo- the two legal offices under the Crown. cates as well as for rising politicians. I The manner in which this very fact procan remember quite distinctly that to all claimed the comparative insignificance of of us who were watching the careers of the title may have still further influenced promising men it appeared quite certain Harcourt's objections. Anyhow, he did that Harcourt was not likely to content endeavor to impress upon Gladstone his himself with professional distinction, and claim to be exempted from the proffered that when he entered the House of Com- dignity. Gladstone, however, assured mons he would devote himself for the him that it was the recognized constitumost part to the business of political life. tional practice to confer a knighthood He made one unsuccessful attempt to upon a new Solicitor-General, and that obtain a seat in the House of Commons there was no reason why Harcourt as representative of a Scottish constit- should seek dispensation from the honor. uency, and was more fortunate in his “ Then,” demanded Harcourt--so at least second endeavor, when he was elected to the story is told—“why don't you confer Parliament by the city of Oxford as knighthoods on all the members of your Liberal in 1868. Then for a while I Cabinet, and see how some of them would personally lost sight of him, for towards receive the proposition ?" I cannot vouch the close of that year I began a length for this story as historical truth, but I can ened visit to the United States, and only vouch for the fact that it was told everylearned through the newspapers that he where at the time, and received, so far as was already winning marked distinction I know, no contradiction. as a Parliamentary debater. When I Harcourt made his way almost at once returned to England in 1871, I found that to the front rank of Parliamentary debaters. Harcourt was already regarded as certain His style was somewhat rhetorical and to hold high office in a Liberal adminis- declamatory, but it was distinctly argutration. His first step in that direction mentative, and his speeches contained few was to obtain the office of Solicitor- passages of mere declamation. He was General in Gladstone's Government. a hard hitter, one of the hardest in the

A story was told of Harcourt at the House, but he hit straight from the time--this was in 1873—which I believe shoulder and never gave an unfair blow. to be authentic and is worth repeating. He was often very happy in his sarcastic Up to this time he was merely Mr. William touches, and there was a certain robust Vernon Harcourt, but the usage in Par- and self-satisfied good humor even in his liamentary life is that the leading law severest attacks on his Parliamentary officers of the Crown, the Attorney-General opponents. The general impression of and the Solicitor-General, shall receive observers at first was that Harcourt would the honor of knighthood. It was there- go in merely for the reputation of a powerfore a matter of course that Mr. Harcourt ful debater in the House of Commons, should become Sir William Harcourt, and and would not show any ambition for the bear the title by which he is still known steady and severe work of Ministerial everywhere. The story goes, however, office. The public had yet to learn that that Harcourt was not much delighted the highest reputation of the man was to with the offer of a distinction which is be made by his success as the head of commonly conferred upon the mayors of a great Ministerial department. Many

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