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the money-borrowers in most Turkish claims. This might be a satisfactory communities), partly to a desire for plun- solution of the Eastern question to Euro der by the unprincipled, partly to the pean Powers, it would not be seriously inability of a feeble Government to put entertained, I imagine, by Ainericans, a any check on fanatical violence when least at present; but that it is even seri once it had commenced its remorseless ously discussed at European dinner-table: work, partly to deliberate incitements by may serve to illustrate the complexity o the Government, which was only too will- the Turkish problem. As to its solution ing to have its subjects butchered if so I have to confess to myself that my briel the reforming party in Turkey, and es. visit has given me no light; it has only pecially the Young or Reforming Turks, enabled me to see more clearly than i could be curbed into silence and sub- have ever done before the intolerable mission. The impression which some of condition of the present situation, and us in America had entertained, that the the apparent hopelessness of any of the English Government could have stopped proposed remedies. I suspect the remedy the massacres if it had acted promptly will come in a totally unexpected manner and courageously, was confirmed by a and by some form of revolution. And report, certainly believed in high quarters yet it is difficult to see how revolution and apparently well founded. It is to the could have any prospect of success. The effect that the English Minister in Con- various elements which make up the stantinople, after the Trebizond massacre, Turkish community-Turks, Greeks, Arhad given orders to the British feet to menians, Bulgarians, etc.—are jealous of pass the Dardanelles and come up to one another, and as yet their common Constantinople, that the forts were not in detestation of a detestable government condition to resist, and there were Turks has not sufficed to unite them in making ready in Constantinople to co-operate and a common cause for reform of any sort. put the Sultan on board the British fleet The Turkish army is an effective fighting and put another and better man in his machine, and though it is not very intelplace. But Lord Salisbury, with charac- ligent, it is, to a considerable extent, teristic caution, was afraid to act, and officered by Germans, who are perhaps ordered delay; the forts were put in the most intelligent in the art of war of readiness; and later, when the continuing any Europeans. There are practically massacres had aroused the English pub- no arms in the private possession of any lic, it was too late to force the Darda- of the people in Turkey, and the Govnelles. England has paid for this pusil- ernment does not mean that there shall lanimity. The Turk understands a threat, be. How much on its guard it is against but understands nothing else. English the importation of arms is illustrated by influence, which was formerly dominant a single incident. A benevolent friend at Constantinople, is so no longer. It is sent a tennis set from America to the now the Germans who control both politi- American College for Girls. It was cally and commercially in the Turkish stopped at the custom-house, and only Empire. I was told also, and on what with considerable difficulty were the cusseemed to me good authority, that while tom-house authorities persuaded that every European Power was jealous of every tennis-balls sent to a college of girls were other European Power, and no one of them not intended as ammunition for a revoluwås willing that Constantinople should tionary uprising. There is, however, a come under the dominating influence of public school system, recently organized any of the others, least of all that it and somewhat efficient in the towns. The should become a Russian port, they would existence of mission schools has created all be glad if the United States would a demand for education which could take it under her wing and make it a free not be wholly resisted. Perhaps through city under an American protectorate, and these schools the Young or Reforming that even some hopes were expressed that Turkish party may in time be increased this would by the result of our claims so as to become a political power. I wish for damages against Turkey. Possibly so; I can almost say I hope so. In no rumors of this desire reached the ears of other direction do I see present ground the Sublime Porte and led it to pay those for hope for unhappy Turkey.

L. A,

THE STORY OF A
CAMPAIGN OF AMATEURS

BY ALFRED HODDER

Private Secretary to District Attorney Jerome

T

Introductory
HE story of Mr. Jerome's cam- among them, as little cant, as little pose.

paign in New York City in 1901. There was not even much heat of indig

as it is here set down is a story by nation; in Mr. Jerome, indeed, there an eye-witness, but by an eye-witness who burned beneath a cavalier exterior the had in the beginning no intention whatso- wrath of a Hebrew prophet; but his allies ever of playing the chronicler. It was in were not hot, they were determined simply; great part a campaign of amateurs, and an they took cognizance of grievances and improvised campaign. Mr. Jerome was outrages only as matters of which they himself in some sort an amateur in politics; purposed trying to make an end. And he had, indeed, been an active member of precisely as in the West it has been found the City Club from the date of its forma- that wherever a few men of our race are tion; he had been Chairman of the Com- gathered together there exists, potentially mittee of Seventy and member of the at least, for all the purposes of justice, of Executive Committee in the campaign law and necessary order, the Anglo-Saxon that resulted in the election of Mayor State, so it was found that in this random Strong ; he had been associate counsel in group there was the making of an effectthe investigation made by the Lexow Com- ive political machine. There from time mittee; but, apart from these sporadic immemorial has lain the safeguard of the incursions into politics, he had confined race against all species of oppression; himself to executing with singular audacity and there to-day lies its safeguard against and energy the duties of judge in the Court the tyranny of any machine. of Special Sessions. With one exception, Mr. Jerome's appearance in the field of those of his adherents who first rallied politics was to me of even more immeditogether had never taken part in the organ- ate interest than to the general public, for ization of a canvass. None of them had reasons of my own. I knew him, like the long been friends of his, and few of them general public, only through the medium had long been friends of one another. As of the daily press; but I had for years a group they came into existence unex- been wondering, not un hopefully, what pectedly, fortuitously, to meet the needs would be the effect in an American elecof the occasion. The bond uniting them tion of a candidate who from the platform was new and incidental as the bond uniting told the truth, the whole truth, and nothing a group of Western ranchmen. They were but the truth, as steadily as from the witnot Westerners, they were city-bred, they ness-stand; and in the preceding months were college-bred, they were even super- I had been engaged, in company with civilized, yet to a man bred in the West Josiah Flynt, in an investigation of the they conjured up an image of the plains. Powers that Prey and the alliance between Their talk was picturesque and varied as them and the Powers that Rule. Here was the talk of cowboys, which is saying much a man in office knowing more than I could for it; they were as ready with a jest, as know of the alliance between the Powers slothful seemingly, as swift in the despatch that Rule and the Powers that Prey, and of business; there was as little formalism determined to dissolve it; here, as a few

nights' speeches showed, was a candidate Washington, the daily news of every city who told the truth. It happened also that in the United States. The municipal conI had written in my academic days a book ditions that have long prevailed there are directed against both skepticism and so- in essentials the conditions that prevail in called idealism in philosophy, in the in- almost every large city of the United terest of the realism of the man of science States—in almost every city numbering and of the plain man; a book which was more than fifty thousand inhabitants. The essentially a plea for loyalty, even in sources of danger and of safety are the metaphysics and even for reasons strictly same; the outlook is, on the whole, the metaphysical, to truth and fact. The same. principles of that book I was intending It is true, as Mr. Jerome said in his to illustrate further with reference to liter- closing speeches, that democracy is on ary criticism and with reference to politics its trial; so much is patent even to those in the United States. The volume on who have no great fear for the result. politics had been planned already; it was The name and even the watchwords of to have begun with a defense, although a democracy are in America, indeed, assured qualified defense, of Tammany; it was to of their supremacy. But in the course of have continued with an attack upon so- application to the complex world of fact, called reformers, and to have concluded all simple formulas are destined to undergo with the exposition of a system of reform strange transmutations. As the simple quite different from theirs- -a system of formulas of Christianity have served as loyalty to truth and fact. A living man is manifesto for a bewildering variety of sysof more interest than any system, and an tems of ethics and church government, in experiment than any theory. I found some at least of which it may be plausibly myself recording a campaign instead of asserted that the essence of Christianity elaborating the book I had projected, or has disappeared, so the simple formulas even plying my more immediate trade of of democracy may serve as manifesto for novelist. Mr. Jerome's course of action a bewildering variety of forms of civil proved so excellent an illustration of much government. What the form will be that that I had to say concerning politics that bears in the United States the title of the illustration has for the time being democracy may well be matter of doubt taken precedence of the text.

and even of anxiety; the United States is Imperfect as the record is, the interest not the smallest or the simplest fact in the of the campaign recorded seems to me to vast, complex world. And nowhere, perbe neither merely local nor ephemeral. haps, so well as in the city of New York For the present, at least, New York is can be seen the interaction of the forces obviously the chief city of America; its that are molding the government of the daily news is in some sort, like that of Republic from within.

1.—The Hunting of John Doe

When, at the close of the municipal cam- the center of attention as a principal in a paign of 1901, Mr. Shepard formulated the prolonged duel with Devery. two main causes that had led to the victory Devery had at once given offense and of the Fusion ticket, he found them in the conquered notoriety by playing with a ceroffense given to the public by the words tain unexpected zest the part assigned him. and acts of William Devery, first Chief He was a dictator, and he bore himself and then Deputy Commissioner of Police like a dictator. The power of the police under the late administration, and in the over the masses of the population is much part played in the last weeks of the can- like that exercised during the Renaissance vass by the Fusion candidate for District in Italy by princelets of a reigning family; Attorney of the County of New York, Devery's position was for all the world William Travers Jerome. Mr. Jerome had that of the ducal tyrant of some Italian been for five years a Justice of the Court State in an Elizabethan play. Being a of Special Sessions, and in the spring and man not without a sense for fact, he knew summer preceding the canvass had been it; and being a man not without a sense for the effective embodiment of fact, he theory of a Devery Double.

He was suited mien and words and gestures to his money in the bank, or rather money at the rôle. The classes of society whose taste desk, on the next Saturday, for a witty, controls our printed criticism conceived devil-may-care horde of newspaper men, differently the bearing even of a dictator; who found him easy to caricature and easy tastes differ on such points from class to to convert into a “story” “ for a filler.” class and even from age to age. What in He took his celebrity good-humoredly; the early Elizabethan period thrilled the indeed, he was rather proud of it. Ridicule auditor as the “large utterance” of men and attack were welcome or indifferent to raised above the common lot of mortals, him. Both were advertisement and both came to be derided in the mouth of ancient were homage. An anecdote will make his Pistol as King Cambyses' vein; the ap- mode of dealing with them plain. On I plauded actor of one generation was the forget what occasion, the newspapers that robustious periwig-pated fellow of the next. print woodcuts were all solicitous to get Such a robustious periwig-pated fellow his photograph, and he refused to sit for Devery seemed to the politer circles whose them. Why, no one knows; the refusal attention had been attracted by his empha- was a whim; he would sit, or he would not, sis; to them his dictatorial dignity appeared as the humor struck him. The “Commermere strut and bluster, the more comic for cial Advertiser” at that time had made his unwavering gravity and for the disre- a specialty of setting forth his unfitness gard of the Republic's English shown in for the office he held, and his fitness each authoritative phrase. Besides, they for the penitentiary, no less. Lincoln never dreamed that he was a potentate at Steffens, then city editor of the “Commerall.

cial Advertiser,” called him up on the teleMr. Devery had been for years, so far phone. “That you, Chief? This is Stefas the great public knew him, a figure for fens. Top of the morning to you. As opera bouffe. He was, in the opinion of soon as I heard you would not let yourself Tammany, “the best chief of police that be photographed, I knew you were saving New York has ever had;" and his language the chance for me.” “Well, of all the coldwas a continuous performance in inspired storage nerve; say—you're a ripe peach 1” mixed metaphor and Irish bull. His “Sure. We give more space to you than phrases achieved currency, in particular any other paper in the city. When shall the phrase "touchin' on an' appertainin' I send the photographer? Right away ?” to.” “ Touchin' on an'appertainin' to that, * You're on. Say, don't you want a job there's nothin' doin',” from the frequency in the police? I need a man with a front with which he uttered it, had the success like that !”. A few days afterward the of a popular line in a comic song. From photograph was reproduced in the “Comtime to time he was not to be found at mercial Advertiser.” As Deputy Police police headquarters, and was reported ill Commissioner Devery held court every with an attack of grippe, or out of town. Thursday, when he sat in judgment on At such periods a burly figure, that Mr. delinquent members of the force, and made Devery's most intimate friends might have maxims for their instruction.

" When mistaken for him, was likely to be dis- ye're caught with the goods on, don't say covered, very unsteady on his legs, throw- nothin',” is a dictum that achieved instant ing handfuls of silver among a crowd currency. He presided like an Oriental and watching them "scramble" for the caliph, ungoverned by law or evidence, pieces, or very unsteady on his seat, driv- inspired by the witticism or the irritation ing faster than the law allows and either of the moment. A patrolman was brought stared at or ostentatiously ignored by before him charged with reckless shooting patrolmen. Naturally, he was the delight in the streets; the Chief glared at him. of the daily prints. In the absence of a “ Did you hit your man? No? Fined fresh rumor of disaster or victory for the thirty days' pay for not hittin' him. Next troops in the Philippines, or of a strike time you hit 'im.” Every Thursday afteramong laborers or the formation of a noon the proceedings in his court were trust among employers of labor at home, reported in the newspapers in the columns he was always news. They reported his dedicated to comedy; every Thursday phrases, and invented, hilariously, the evening gentlemen in the clubs dedicated to civic spirit discussed the disgrace to Committee of Fifteen was organized to the city of having a man like Mr. Devery inquire into the conditions of Mr. Devery's at the head of its police, and laughed rule. Mr. Croker, prompt to recognize bitterly at his judgments while they dis- the blunder of his henchmen, appointed a cussed him. In their indignation and dis- Tammany Committee of Five for the same gust, no doubt, they often did him scant purpose, putting Lewis Nixon, a notably justice.

honest inan, at the head of it, and ordering Devery had some seven thousand men it to take action before the Committee of to keep in hand, by military reckoning Fifteen could complete its organization. a brigade, and nobody has ever suggested Mr. Nixon chose to begin his investigathat his hold on them was not masterly. tions by a raid on an alleged pool-room He knew his men from helmet to shoe- at No. 20 Dey Street, and applied to leather; he had been one of them; and when Justice Jerome for a warrant; and there he gave a command, they walked in the eye the defeat of Tammany in the coming of the lord. Indeed, even since he has election and the duel with Devery began. been discharged, it is gravely believed and Mr. Jerome kne x “ down to the ground feared that the rank and file still take his the nature of "fake" or tipped-off raids. orders. Men who have ever had a regi- The magistrate issues a warrant and hands ment to discipline and to control will not it to a police officer to serve it; the police think him an absolute buffoon. As to his officer organizes a raiding party, and sends brutality of speech and harshness in judg- word beforehand to the gambling-hell of ment, there are few colonels—few good the time set for the raid; and the raiding colonels, that is—in either the American party finds a set of empty rooms, in charge, or the British army, to gɔ no further, who perhaps, of a facetious caretaker. Mr. have not found both necessary. A regi- Jerome was quite ready to issue warrants; meni cannot be kept smart by politeness, but he declined to be a figure in a comedy. and the men do not respect a commander He made out the warrants against John who knows no better ihan to try politeness Doe, put them in his pocket, and, in com as an instrument of control, by way of pany with Mr. Nixon and Mr. Philbin, led experiment. The leading truth about Mr. a raiding party, ignorant of its destination, Devery is, not that he was ridiculous, but to 20 Dey Street, and rushed the place. that he was, in his own world, formidable. “Rushing” means hustling watchmen, His superiors backed him up, and his breaking barred doors, and a free fight, subordinates were devoted to him; and ending, possibly, in a shooting scrape, with even the malcontents obeyed him.

such of the occupants of the rooms within It was not until late in the winter and early as try to make good an escape. In an in the spring of 1901 that the inhabitants outer room dedicated to lounging and of the brownstone districts, the prosperous drinking, Mr. Jerome, Mr. Nixon, Mr. minority in a word, received a revelation Philbin, and their party stumbled upon of the nature of Devery's rule and of the eight members of the police force detailed degree of its arrogance, and that Mr. Jerome to get evidence against the place. These came prominently into notice. The Rev. testified subsequently that they each drew Mr. Paddock, who had been working on fourteen hundred dollars a year from the the East Side, laid a complaint before one taxpayers of the city of New York; that of Devery's subordinates, Captain Herlihy, they had frequented that room for thirtyabout police rule in Allen Street, the five days consecutively, barring Sundays, “red-light district," and was publicly and that they were perfectly unaware of cursed and insulted for his pains. Bishop any gambling conducted in the house. In Potter sent an admirably temperate letter another room, where something like a to Mayor Van Wyck, Devery's official hundred men had been rounded up and superior, seeking redress; but no redress reduced to submission, Mr. Jerome gave was forthcoming. In their refusal to listen an officer the warrants to serve and opened to Bishop Potter the administration made court. a mistake ; they roused a body in the com- Conducting raids in person and openmonwealth to all practical intents and pur- ing court informally in gambling-hells poses both unaware of their existence and were unprecedented departures from the at a pinch more powerful than they. The decency and decorum prescribed by public

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