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leyan University, $287,000; Boston Uni- gives emphatic place to recommendations versity, $260,000; Hamline University, of increased consolidation : specifically, $250,000; Woman's College of Baltimore, plans of developing fellowship among the $244,000; University of Southern Cali- churches, of unifying the administration of fornia, $240,000; University of Denver, the missionary societies, and of centraliz$205,000. The fund for the benefit of ing, at least in State associations, the systhe superannuated ministers, which, ac- tem for supplying churches with pastors cording to Dr. Mills's report, amounts to and the undertaking to pension aged or $604,000, will be greatly increased when invalided ministers. In matters of wider all the returns have been collated; indeed, import Dr. Bradford's suggestions are of it is quite likely that a special effort will the same import. Looking to the far-off be made to increase this fund to $5,000,000. unification of Christendom, he sees it Although the Methodist Episcopal Church being brought nearer by means of federhas contributed over $20,000,000 during ation. This method of organization he the last four years on the basis of the commends because it insures liberty, exalts Twentieth-Century Thank-Offering Move- the essentials in religion, is simple in ment, it has also increased its contribu- operation, and it centers attention upon tions to its various benevolent enterprises social righteousness. In keeping with this and maintained its financial standing in plan for Christian unity is his urgent exevery respect. It was one of the condi- hortation to the churches to give heed to tions of the Twentieth-Century Movement the task of bringing abou: a healthful that the contributions to this fund should social order. In doing this he bids them be over and above the contributions to all exalt the faith in human brotherhood. the general causes of the denomination. “The greatest contribution which the
Church can make toward the solution of
the social problem is to exhibit a society The National Council of the in which the rich and strong actually do A Congregational Congregational Churches seek to serve the weak and not to please
of the United States is not themselves, and in which the poor love a legislative assembly, but simply a volun- those for whom they labor with the very tary organization composed of representa- love which was in Christ." He sees tives from local churches. It holds a “ prophecies of spiritual renewal ” in the triennial meeting, collects and publishes fact that science is bringing nearer " unstatistics, and performs other services that seen realities,” that men are feeling the require united action. The Moderator of closeness of human relationships more the Council has no authority over the than ever, and that there is “a growing churches. He is nevertheless in some passion for reality" which, though occarespects for the time being the most sionally leading to temporary defections eminent of Congregationalists, because he from the Church, “far more frequently is peculiarly “the servant of all.” As no leads to a hitherto unknown appreciation other man, he can speak as the representa- of its spiritual mission.” This suggests tive of the churches of his order. The the type of the coming revival, which will present Moderator, Dr. Amory H. Brad- be a more vivid realization of the fatherford, pastor of the First Congregational hood of God on which the brotherhood of Church of Montclair, N. J., is especially men depends. To promote the realizafiited for his position by his deep-set belief tion of God, he suggests special meditation in Congregational principles. He is tem- and meetings during the coming Lenten peramentally, as well as officially, a repre
From the man who more than sentative of Congregationalism. He has any one else in America has the right to just sent out his annual letter to the represent those churches which have inchurches. Coming from one who has sisted, and still insist, upon the independdouble reason for sturdily upholding the ence of the local church and upon the independence of the local church, this sufficiency of simple forms of worship, letter is significant for the stress it lays these recommendations towards unity and upon the need of co-operation and unity. an observance of the church year indicate Even in matters which are of interest in a peculiarly striking way the fact that chiefly to Congregationalists, this letter church bodies are becoming less than ever
content with one-sided conceptions of must not. You must not interfere with religious life.
my interference.” And this is exactly
what is meant by the plea that natural The Trust Problem
law must be left to take its course without
legislative interference, when that plea is Natural Laws put forth by the advocates of trusts, mo
nopolies, and combines. There is one objection made to any When natural law ruled in this contianti-trust legislation which, if sound, nent, the North American Indians blazed would call for the repeal of all existing pathways through the forests, and when statutes on that subject and a cessation any one of them wished to travel, he put of all attempts at legislative control, regu- his goods upon his back, or upon his wife's lation, or influence. It is expressed by back, and took what path he pleased, when the sentence, “ Business should be left he pleased, and traveled at what rate he to the operation of natural laws.” We pleased. When civilization took possessuppose the proposition is specious or it sion of the continent, one of the things it would not be used. But it is to us a mat- did was to create by law an artificial ter for surprise that it deceives any one. person called a railroad corporation ; to
No doubt there is always a danger of this artificial person it gave the right to unwise interference with natural laws; take the real estate of A and B and C, of such an attempt to regulate as will be through the whole alphabet many times injurious, not beneficial, to the community; repeated, whether A and B and C wished of a control that may become despotic to sell or not, and to pay them, not what and so both unjust and disastrous. No price they asked, but whatever price a doubt great wisdom and great care should disinterested tribunal put upon the land. be exercised in regulating trade and And so, by a most direct and positive intercommerce; no doubt individual liberty ference with natural law, a public highshould be maintained as far as it can be way was constructed by which individuals made consistent with the public welfare; and goods could be more conveniently no doubt the more we can make the carried than in packs upon the back of private conscience, enforced by public the traveler along a blazed pathway opinion, efficacious, and the less we have through the forest. Society created this to resort to governmental authority, the artificial person, and conferred upon this better. All this may be and is true. person this artificial power, because it But the notion that remedy for indus- rightly believed that thus the public intertrial ills can be found by a do-nothing ests would be promoted and the public policy, in the faith that natural law will welfare advanced. Now that it finds this bring about universal justice and will pro- power unjustly used, not for the equal mote the common welfare, appears to us
service of all, but for enriching one and to ignore the self-evident facts of modern impoverishing another, and it proposes to industrial life.
require this artificial person to use this A man on a higher level builds a dam artificial power for the benefit of the pubacross the stream which irrigates his lic and not for its injury, what sense is neighbor's grounds, and diverts the water there in crying out against the requireto his own uses. His neighbor complains ment on the ground that government of the water famine which destroys the should leave transportation to the operafertility of his land. The dam-builder tion of natural law. It is not left to the replies, “ Law must not interfere. You operation of natural law. It is carried must leave natural law to take its course." on by artificial organizations created by The reply is not far to seek. The dam- law and equipped with artificial power by builder does not leave natural law to take law. And it is eminently right that soits course. By building the dam he has ciety, which has created and empowered himself interfered with the course of the corporations to serve the community, natural law. What he really means, should require them to render the service whether he is conscious of it or not, is for which they were created. Otherwise this: “I must have a right interfere the cor ition becomes the iron despot with natural law, and you, my neighbor, of the Frankenstein who has created it.
There are stored up in the hills of have produced untold suffering and in Pennsylvania great masses of coal. Under one or two cases, as reported, death. the operation of natural law any man From one account of this investigation we might go to these hills, put in his pick, quote the following sentence: and dig out what coal he needed for his
There was considerable feeling manifested fuel, as the North American Indian cut between the dealers who were members of the down in the forest whatever wood he local association and those who were not. needed for his fuel. But civilization can
One who would not join the association de
clared emphatically that the Reading company not go on under the operation of natural
was holding up its supply of coal, and furnishlaw. So, by a complicated artificial system, ing transportation facilities to the independent we have given the ownership of these operators for the purpose of allowing them to lands to individuals; we have given the
charge exorbitant prices for their product, and
then divide the swag with the Reading. ownership of the top of the soil to one set of individuals, and ownership of the We do not affirm that this is true; but underground mines to another set of we do affirm that the people have a right individuals. Their right to the soil de- to ascertain whether it is true or not; pends wholly upon the artificial arrange- and, if it is true, they have a right ments which society has made. Society promptly to put an end to such a despotic determines what they may own, how far use by a corporation of powers which have down they may own, for how long a time been conferred upon it by the people. they may own, under what conditions they Civilization is not the product of may own. In England the owner may natural laws operating without human control the land for an indefinite period intervention. It is the product of natuafter his death. In America he can con- ral laws employed by man for man's trol it for only two lives. In France he benefit. Natural law does not make a must divide it in a certain fixed proportion locomotive or a dynamo. Man, underamong his children. This individual pro- standing natural law, and using it for his prietary right in land is wholly an artificial purposes, makes the locomotive and the right, created by statute, controlled and dynamo, and by means of them causes regulated by statute. And it has been so steam and electricity to do what he wishes created and regulated because society them to do. He possesses power to use thinks this is the best method for the pro- natural forces to accomplish predetermotion of the general interests of society. mined ends. He possesses the same power And now, when the owners of these coal to use intellectual and moral forces to lands combine and charge extortionate predetermined ends. By this capacity prices for the fuel which they did not he has built the locomotive, the dynamo, create, and their right to control which is the stationary, engine. By this capacity wholly an artificial right created by society, he has built up the State, the Church, the to aver that society's power to regulate school, the various industrial organizaand control has been exhausted, and that tions. This capacity distinguishes him it cannot go on and compel the owners from the beasts. To forego this capacity whose right in the coal it has created to and leave natural law to work out its use these rights in subordination to the results unmodified by human volition public right to fuel, is to affirm that soci- would be to go back to barbarism, nay, ety may create rights which it is powerless to the pre-human conditions of the field to regulate after it has created them, that and the forest. To stop in the use of it may interfere with natural laws just this intelligence when it has gone far far enough to give to a dozen operators a enough to serve the few who are well and monopoly in a fuel necessary to human strong, and not far enough to serve the well-being, if not to human life, but may not many, would be simply to perpetuate in a interfere when interference becomes nec- new form that aristocracy against which essary to prevent individual greed from democracy in government, education, and inflicting untold disaster on the general religion is a revolt. In attempting to public. As we are writing this article the make natural law serve, not the favored daily press is reporting the Congressional few, but all the people, democracy will investigation into the cause of the extor- make mistakes; it will attempt unsuccesstionate prices charged for coal, which ful experiments; it will meet with failures; and it will be obstructed by some who try is the educational movement in the think that nothing can be but what has South that Mr. Michael Sadler, an Englishbeen, and by others who, having the larger man who speaks with authority on educashare of the world's wealth and power, tional matters, was justified in saying, a object to any further distribution of either. few months ago, “ It is a work which is But we greatly mistake the temper of the not merely national, but international, in American people if this movement so to character." use natural laws, so to administer natural The General Education Board, which forces—both physical and moral—as to has its central office in this city, is devotserve the welfare of the entire people, can ing itself to the rural schools of the South, be permanently either halted or diverted acting as an agency for the beneficence by the unspecious plea that natural law of private individuals, selecting schools is not to be directed to wise and profitable which need aid, co-operating with local ends by human intelligence and human generosity, and making a thorough survey wills.
of the rural school system throughout all parts of the South. The Southern Board,
on the other hand, is carrying on a vigorous Southern Education
educational propaganda, striving every
where to create throughout the South a The meeting held in Carnegie Hall, in general interest in education, and to perthis city, on Friday evening of last week, suade people to acquiesce in a heavier in behalf of the General and the Southern taxaticn to build up educational systems. Education Boards, was attended by a very The campaign has been thoroughly influential and deeply interested audience; planned, for both Boards are under the for the work of these two Boards is being management of men who are not only rapidly recognized in all parts of the enthusiastic in their devotion to the country as being not only educational in
cause they have at heart, but eminently the technical sense, but as having the practical, and who know at first hand the most fruitful relations to the public life of field in which they are working. Under the United States. Dr. Adler used a very the direction of the General Board three happy phrase when he described the work State conferences have already been held of the two Boards as “ unofficial states- in North Carolina, Louisiana, and Georgia; manship.” Speeches were made by Presi- similar conferences have been arranged dent Dabney, of the University of Ten- for in Florida, Alabama, and Virginia. In nessee, who made a careful and extremely these conferences the most progressive lucid statement of the school situation in men in the different States are brought the South; by President Alderman, of together, the work and purpose of the Tulane University; by Dr. C. D. McIver, Board explained, and the problems conPresident of the North Carolina State nected with educational work, such as Normal and Industrial School; by Mr. taxation, consolidation of school districts, William H. Baldwin, Jr., and by Mr. the beautifying of school-houses, negro Morris K. Jesup. The three Southern education, and all matters relating to rural men among the speakers are among the schools, presented by men who have foremost educational leaders of the South; thorough command of the subject. A and it is not invidious to rank them model school for negroes has been estabamong the foremost statesmen of the South lished near Athens, and summer schools to-day. The phrase "educational states for negro teachers at Hampton and Tusmen," which has been applied to Governor kegee. The Board has co-operated with Aycock, of North Carolina, and to Gov- three summer schools for white teachers, ernor Montague, of Virginia, indicates the and has given aid in different amounts to place which the educational question has normal schools in various parts of the come to have in many parts of the South, South. Nerer, perhaps, in the history of and is suggestive of that broader concep- the country has so large a movement been tion of public life to which events in so thoroughly organized, so well directed, this country are fast educating men of all and accomplished so much in so brief a sections. So important in its fundamental period. A vast amount of information bearings upon the public life of the coun- relating to educational conditions in al'
A Significant Novel
parts of the South has been collected ; and the Board is in a position to do its work with increasing intelligence and Those who keep in touch with the life efficiency.
not of a section, but of the country as a The work is a National one, although whole, and are sensitive to the stirring its field is in the Southern States. The of the spirit over the length and breadth generosity and sacrifice of the South for of the continent, have felt for severa education, taking into account the limited years past that we are approaching another resources of the Southern people during and more comprehensive expression o the last twenty years, are just beginning to American life in books. One of the be understood at the North, and wherever results of the journalistic treatment of understood are evoking a response which literature, now so prevalent, is the attempt is a practical recognition of what is due to take account of stock every week and to a people who have put forth heroic to measure accurately the rise and fall of efforts to rebuild their social structure, the tide of creative power from year to and who are struggling with problems of year. In the nature of things this is appalling magnitude. Those who know impossible; but the fact that it is imposthe history of the South since the war are sible does not deter a great many people filled with admiration for the quiet cour- from pronouncing final judgments on age, the undaunted energy, and the heroic literary conditions and prospects. When patience with which that section has been the tide recedes, these critics are sure working out its industrial and social reor- that the artistic impulse in America has ganization. In no other movement has spent itself, or that the country has ceased the enthusiasm, what may be called the to produce the material of which art is gallantry, of the Southern character been made. They are confident that commermore strikingly indicated than in the cialism, or the practical spirit, or the educational movement. A story of that decay of the love of the beautiful, or movement is already a record of individual absorption in material activities, has self-denial and heroic self-sacrifice ; if it drained the springs of inspiration, and could be told in terms of personal experi- that nothing can be hoped from America ence, it would awaken the admiration of in the future except a civilization which is the whole Nation. Among the men who content to work with its hands and leave are leading the South to-day in this new other civilizations to work with the soul. era of its development, there are none Nothing could be more short-sighted or better deserving the confidence and admira- lacking in the historical spirit than these tion of the Nation than men like President predictions. Again and again in literary Alderman, President Dabney, and Dr. history the rise and the fall of the tide McIver. The million dollars given by of creative power have left their marks ; Mr. Rockefeller for the work of the Gen- again and again, when the vital force eral Education Board makes it possible which blossoms in every art has receded for that Board to spend a hundred thou- and left the earth bare and bleak, it has sand dollars each year for the next decade ; come back with a rush and sweep unbut, as Mr. Baldwin declared at the meet- known before, while the elegists were ing, this “is but a drop in the bucket. chanting its funeral dirges. No one can The trustees of this fund believe that feel deeply the tremendous forces which every dollar expended in education in the are at work in the life of this country South is a good investment, and they are to-day without being confident that, sooner going to ask the people of this whole or later, those forces will find their excountry to make such an investment. pression in literature. Such a tide of We have provided a business organization energy as that which has been steadily composed of men every one of whose mounting since the Civil War cannot find names is a household word--men whom utterance for itself in material activities. you can trust—who are to manage this Sooner or later, it reaches the higher money in the best possible way, and it is levels of the soul, and intensity of action to this board that we are going to ask the is translated by men of genius into intenpublic to intrust funds for this great pur-sity of aspiration.
At the very time when the press |