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the citizens. In Pittsburg the defeat last was then an attaché of our Legation at fall of the reformers and honest Demo- Madrid, and thus describes Sagasta : crats has led to the revival of the old
He has a dark, wrinkled face, small, bright Municipal League, which will make a
eyes, the smile and scowl of Mephistopheles. strong effort to redeem the city from the He is a most vigorous and energetic speaker, hands of both groups of spoilsmen. In
but so aggressive and pungent in his style Harrisburg, where so great an advance languid House when he speaks at any length,
that he rarely fails to raise a tempest in the was scored a year ago, the Municipal He has a hearty contempt for the people and League proposes to make an active fight a firm reliance in himself--two important. for the election of decent men, as it finds
elements of success for a Latin statesman. that many of the regular party men who On the accession of Amadeus of Aosta, sailed into office in the reform tide have in 1871, Sagasta entered the new Cabinet, lost their keen interest in the Municipal an indication that by this time his radiLeague end of it and are more concerned calism had become cooled. He certainly in playing politics. In the meantime, became the antagonist of Ruiz Zorilla, against rather heavy odds, Mayor Vance that radical of radicals; the latter's McCormick is making commendable prog- election to the presidency of the Cortes ress, rooting out old abuses and estab- was a bitter pill to Sagasta, forcing his lishing the city's affairs on what may be resignation from the recently assumed called a business basis.
Premiership. Amadeus refused to accept the resignation, however, and the Cortes
was dissolved. In the subsequent elecPraxedes Mateo Sagasta
Last week Spain suf- tions the Ministry obtained a large major
fered the loss of one ity, it is true, but Zorilla succeeded so who, since the death of Cánovas del Cas- well in showing that the elections were tillo, has, not without justice, been called secured by corrupt practices that, after a the one great Spanish statesman. Prax- few months, the Premier was again driven edes Mateo Sagasta was a Castilian ; he from power.
from power. When, in 1873, Spain found was born seventy-five years ago, and was herself again a republic, Sagasta was once educated as an engineer, but he early more Minister of Foreign A airs and turned to politics as a life-work. In 1854 Prime Minister, and remained so until he was elected to the Cortes, or Parlia- the accession of Alfonso XII., a year ment, but, on account of his part in the later. The Premier who had served insurrection two years later, was obliged Marshal Serrano would r.ot give his to take refuge in France. When he was adhesion to the new régime until the King, allowed to go back to Spain, he returned who was destined to reign eleven years, temporarily to his old profession and had been six months on the throne. In became Professor in the Madrid School of 1881 Sagasta and Martinos Campos orEngineering, at the same time editing ganized the present Liberal party, which the radical-progressive “ Iberia.” In this overthrew the Conservatives and came latter capacity he continued his bold procinto power. From this time forward Spain lamation of Liberal principles, thereby knew many vacillations between Conservbringing himself into disfavor with the ative and Liberal Cabinets, which were Ministers of Isabella II. During the insur- invariably headed now by Cánovas, now rection of 1866 he was again obliged to by Sagasta. flee to France, but, on the overthrow of the despotic Queen (1868), returned to Spain, and, the constitutional guarantees being
The Spanish Cabinet
Sagasta and America suspended, when General Prim formed a
change of 1897 seemed provisional government, Sagasta, as Prim's the most important of all; it proclaimed ** familiar spirit," was appointed Minister Spain's last effort to retain (and now by a of Public Works, subsequently becoming broad policy which might have been sucMinister of the Interior, and finally cessful earlier) her hold upon her colonies Minister of Foreign Affairs, acting in the in general, and upon Cuba in particular. last-named capacity throughout the crit- Sagasta assumed the Premiership on the ical year of 1870. Colonel John Hay,
Colonel John Hay, distinct policy of the pacification of Cuba now Secretary of State at Washington, through autonomy—a policy opposed, not
only by all the Spanish Conservatives, winked at official corruption. He li but even by many Spanish Liberals. The simply and died poor--a striking c Premier's first act was to recall General ment upon the integrity which had Weyler, the infamous “butcher” Captain- tinguished a long record of opportuni General of Cuba, and to appoint as his for private gain irresistibly tempting successor the humaner and high-minded men of weaker fiber. General Blanco; but in everything Sagasta left no opportunity unexhausted to avert the coming war. Even he was powerless
The vexed Irish 1:
The Irish Land Question in the matter; and when the Manila dis
question has api aster capped the climax, he was forced to ently advanced a long step towards si resign. The sympathies of the courageous tion through the report of the Land Con Queen Regent, however, were firmly en- ence which was recently arranged by listed upon his side; and, largely through Earl of Dunraven and other landlords her aid, Sagasta was successful in forming the one hand, and, on the other, by Mes. a new Cabinet. He now abandoned his Russell (Independent), and Redmo former temporizing tactics and declared O'Brien, and Harrington (Nationalists), that the war should be fought to the bitter behalf of the tenants. The Conference end, though he knew better than any one ceived encouragement from Mr. Wyndha that from the start Spain's cause was Chief Secretary for Ireland, and, it is hopeless. When the war was over, per- derstood, from King Edward himself. haps the most difficult problems ever faced would seem as if the Committee rep by any statesman had to be met by the sented irreconcilable views; but, acco Spanish Premier. It is true that he was ing to its just published report, it i helped by the surprisingly phlegmatic made a unanimous declaration concerni national spirit in the face of the loss of future governmental aid in Ireland. T tens of thousands of men and of vast unanimity of this recommendation, ratl colonial possessions. But he met each than the terms of the recommendati new perplexity with such calmness, cour- itself, gives hope, such as has not be age, and straightforwardness that his cherished before, for future peace a Cabinet actually lasted for months after good will in what has often seemed to the close of the war. In 1901 a threat- an unnecessarily unhappy isle. Index ened Carlist insurrection led to the down- it is safe to say that the unanimous agri fall of the Conservatives, and Sagasta was ment on the land question by represen again called to power as the one man tives of landlords and tenants is the mo under whose influence the army would notable event that has occurred in I remain loyal to the Alfonsist monarchy. land for generations. The report ev In this task Sagasta's success was brilliant; meets the approval of extreme Tory lan and he himself had the satisfaction of lords in Ireland—the Duke of Abercor completing his long and devoted service the Marquis of Londonderry, Lords Clo to the Queen Regent by insuring the brock and Barrymore, for instance, who peaceful accession to the throne of her the outset apparently discountenancı young son, the present King. Sagasta the Committee, undoubtedly because th remained as Premier during most of the thought that no permanent settleme first year of the new reign, everywhere could be reached, as they considered the consolidating the power of the actual estates worth more than the tenants cou monarchy. It is believed that the admira- afford to pay. The rental to be dea ble Queen Regent herself could not have with is no less than $25,000,000. Accor preserved the succession to her son during ing to the report, the proposed settleme his minority if it had not been for the would be on lines of voluntary purcha unswerving loyalty of the great Liberal rather than compulsory sale, and woul statesman. Personally Sagasta was rather substitute a reduced installment of pu un-Spanish; he was unarrogant, unelo- chase-money for rent. In order to accon quent, ungraceful. If his apparently plish the aims of the Committee, th Mephistophelian subtlety was everywhere amount which the Imperial Governme acknowledged, so also was his personal would have to pay would be abol honesty, no matter how he may have $3,000,000 a year. The question, ther
fore, is: Will the British Treasury officials tion in Russian circles, and also some continue their rather haggling policy as concern on the part of the Turkish authorregards Irish matters, or will they insti- ities, who feared that other Powers might tute a broader-gauge system? To insure follow the example of Great Britain. The loyalty the Irish demand generous treat- other Power most feared by Turkey would ment, if for no other reason than that they be Germany, and hence there was conare a generous, if hitherto improvident, siderable relief at Constantinople at a people. Statistics, however, show that non-official announcement later in the they have been less improvident during week at Berlin that Germany does not the years which have elapsed since the propose to associate herself with Great passing of the Gladstone Land Act of Britain's protest, on the ground that the 1881. It is believed that public senti- Berlin Government “considered the Darment in the United Kingdom, once con- danelles equally with the whole of the vinced that permanency of settlement Mediterranean as outside its sphere of might be reached by legislation following politics.” This statement may be only the encouraging agreement just noted, temporary expedient or the part of might force the Treasury's unwilling hand. William II. He is aware as well as The unanimous recommendation, there any one that he is not only German fore, will at least enable the Chief Secre- Emperor but King of Prussia, which, as a tary for Ireland to introduce an Irish land member of the North German Federation, bill into Parliament at its next session. It was a signatory of the Treaty of Paris in should be the chief Government measure 1856. While the recent passage of the of that session.
Dardanelles may not amount to any more than previous evasions of the law, under
present conditions it has been an event Last week the British Gov- of sufficient import to compel a decline
ernment protested to the in English consols, financiers fearing the Turkish Government against the permis- phantom of possible international complision recently granted to four unarmed cations. The incident, they think, may Russian torpedo-boat destroyers to pass not be wholly unconnected with Balkan through the Dardanelles to the Black complications, especially with the expected Sea under the Russian commercial flag insurrection in Macedonia next spring. The British note declares that such a passage of the Dardanelles was a violation of existing international treaties,
The New German Tariff
By a summary use of and adds that if Russia is allowed to
closure, the German send war-ships into the Mediterranean Government has forced its tariff bill Great Britain will reserve the right to through Parliament, or rather it has forced demand that British battle-ships may be a tariff measure upon the German people, sent into the Black Sea. The treaties of more drastic and unworkable than was the 1856 and 1871 provide for the closing of measure originally proposed. That bill the Dardanelles to war vessels of all was due to the insistence of the Junkers countries. The present is not the first or Agrarians in Parliament, and the Govviolation. Russia has more than once ernment's support was popularly supposed smuggled war-craft through the straits to be paid for by a return support from under the guise of harmless merchantmen all agriculturists concerning certain govor transports carrying home time-expired ernmental undertakings. If the original troops. The Russian Government can bill was unwelcome to the entire manuhardly seriously maintain that a vessel of facturing element in Germany, the measwar entirely changes its character by ure just passed is still more unwelcome. merely dropping its armament and raising The coalition which has rallied to its a commercial flag. As, under treaty, support and defeated the Liberals by a England would be allowed to send war- vote of two to one has provoked sharp ships to the Black Sea if Russia is per- criticisms. Perhaps the most noticeable mitted to despatch her vessels into the has come from the venerable Theodor Mediterranean, the protest from the British Mommsen, who for many years has comGovernment caused considerable irrita- manded world-wide respect, not only on account of his History--now a classic-of a capital apprenticeship for the exal Rome, but also because he has been re- office to which he has been called; he garded as an authority on the history born in 1848, and is a son of Henry Das of constitutional development. Professor son, of Edinburgh. He was graduatec Mommsen differs from some German Trinity College, Oxford, and for some ye scholars in being as fearless in expressing served as curate at Dartford, Kent. For his opinions as he is erudite in forming five years following he was chaplain a
Germans have not forgotten the private secretary to Archbishop Tait, day when Bismarck caused him and the Canterbury, whose daughter he marri lamented Georg von Bunsen to be ex- He made the principal arrangements cluded from the Reichstag on account of the great Lambeth Conference of a their courageous strictures upon the Iron hundred bishops in 1878, and is con Chancellor's autocratic policy. Professor quently well known to the prelates of 1 Mommsen calls attention to the peril of Protestant Episcopal Church in this coi continuing any alliance between the Agra- try. He was also chaplain and private s rians and the Roman Catholic party of retary to Archbishop Benson. This w the Center, as under this alliance Ger- followed by his appointment as Fxamini many stands in danger of a renewal of Chaplain to Bishop Lightfoot, of Durha the old feudal régime. The country may During these years he was also one of t again be dominated by the great land- six preachers of Canterbury Cathedra owners and nobles acting in harmony and in 1883 became Dean of Windsor ai with the ecclesiastics. In this event the Domestic Chaplain to the Queen. I Constitution itself would be endangered; was Secretary of the Lambeth Conferen “its overthrow is rapidly progressing,” of 1888, and afterwards published a h says Professor Mommsen. In these very tory of the Lambeth Conferences. In 18! modern and progressive times it seems he was appointed Bishop of Rochest almost impossible that a Junker domi- and Clerk of the Closet in Ordinary nation-in other words, an aristocratic the Queen (in this capacity he ministert absolutism-could long obtain in Ger- to the venerable monarch in her la many. Already the new tariff measure moments), and in 1895, on Dr. Thorold has exercised a depressing effect on Ger- death, Bishop of Winchester. Durir man commerce and industry. Far from and since his years at Windsor Dr. Davi being discouraged by the passage of son has been intimately connected wil the bill, the Socialists in Parliament, who the Court; he was a close friend of ti were its chief opponents, feel that the late Queen, and is one of the recognize measure can endure only for a short time. advisers of the present King. Onth It would seem improbable that any reac- death of Dr. Benson the Archbishopr tionary agrarian coalition could stand for was offered to Dr. Davidson, but h many years in the path of the progress of health at that time was precarious, an manufacturing Germany, importing every he was obliged to decline it. Personall year $300,000,000 worth of manufactured courtly and urbane, the new Archbisho products, nearly $500,000,000 worth of is popular, not only with the Court, bi foodstuffs, and about $700,000,000 worth with the people. Unlike Dr. Temple of raw material for factory use. A tariff his experience has been gained wholl war is not a pleasant thing to contem- within the Church; like Dr. Temple, h plate anywhere, but of all protection is an ardent temperance reformer as we countries Germany can thus least afford as a great administrator. His quality to provoke it.
mind is well shown in the admirable biog
raphy of Archbishop Tait, his father-it Last week the Rt. Rev. law, published in 1891. Although Di The New Archbishop Randall Thomas Da- Davidson has been classed as “ Broad
vidson, D.D., Bishop Church Evangelical,” English Churchmel of Winchester, was appointed Archl.ishop of whatever party feel sincere satisfaction of Canterbury to succeed the late Most with his appointment-by far the mos Rev. Frederick Temple, D.D., who died important ecclesiastical preferment whicl in December. The new Archbishop is a Mr. Balfour, the new Premier, has beet comparatively young man, but has served called upon to recommend.
A Beecher Memorial It is proposed by Ply
It is proposed by Ply- in public life, in the individual character.
mouth Church of Brook- We hope the memorial fund will be raised lyn to erect a building which shall stand generously and quickly.
generously and quickly. But when it is as a memorial to Henry Ward Beecher. raised, we believe it should be so exThe idea of this memorial originated with pended as to express, in the most permaDr. Newell Dwight Hillis, the present nent and concrete form, the spirit which pastor of the church, who is working with actuated Mr. Beecher in his service to his energy and enthusiasm for its develop. church, to his country, and to his race. ment. Dr. Hillis proposes a Memorial Building that shall be a mausoleum, where objects associa.ed with Mr. Beecher, such
With the close of as his manuscripts and works of art illus- Twentieth-Century Fund the year 1902 the trating his life, shall be kept and displayed.
Twentieth - Century A fund has already been started to provide Thank-Offering Movement of the Methfor this memorial, and a committee of odist Episcopal Church came to a terminathe church has been selected to carry on tion. In various parts of the country the work of raising funds and creating meetings were held on the evening of public interest. Contributions should be December 31 commemorative of the sent to Theodore Miller, President of movement, and partaking largely of the the Brooklyn Trust Company, Brooklyn, aspect of a jubilee over the successful N. Y., who is treasurer of the fund. This accomplishment of the work as outlined suggestion to erect a building which shall by the Board of Bishops of that Church stand at once as a mausoleum to contain in their first announcement of the Twenthe body of Henry Ward Beecher, and as tieth-Century Movement four years ago. a shrine in which all the objects associated Dr. Edmund M. Mills, the Corresponding with his life shall be preserved, springs Secretary of the Commission having the out of a natural desire to commemorate movement in charge, has made a report one of the most important men in the covering several of the principal causes history of the country; a man whose for which the funds were contributed. influence in the support of the idea of The gifts to universities and colleges nationality and freedom was a large amount to $6,932,783; to theological semifactor in the crisis of the Civil War, and naries, $85,730; to institutions for secondwhose eloquent exposition of faith in a ary education, $1,132,100; making a total God of love was far-reaching in breaking for education of $8,150,61.3. Dr. Mills the bondage of the fear of a God of reports as the amount subscribed toward wrath. With the animating purpose of debts on church property, $9,003,596 ; this memorial of Mr. Beecher The Outlook toward philanthropies and charities, is in profound sympathy, but the matter $2,519,761; toward a permanent fund for is too important to let the question of the superannuated ministers of the Church, details go by without consideration and $604,000; toward churches in destitute perhaps discussion. Memorials ought in all communities, $379,000. This makes a cases to harmonize with the genius and grand total of $20,656,970. It should be spirit of the man whom they commemorate, stated that this vast sum does not repreand the question as to what is the best sent the whole amount raised under the form which a memorial to Mr. Beecher terms of the movement. Several large could take is one not merely of interest gifts in addition to those recorded by Dr. to his church and his personal friends, Mills have been made, but are not in his but to the public at large. It is worth tabulation because not officially reported ; while asking at this stage whether a but it is quite within bounds to say that memorial of Mr. Beecher's great services the final total will exceed the required to the country should not take what amount by a million and a half dollars. might be called a vital form, should not Among the educational institutions which be given the shape of perpetual benefi- received large contributions are Syracuse cence to the unfortunate, the struggling, University, $1,203,800; Ohio Wesleyan those who have to fight against adverse University, $1,092,806; American Uniconditions. Mr. Beecher was pre-emi- versity, $525,000; Cornell College, $405,Dently an apostle of freedom in religion,. 000; Allegheny College, $310,000 ; Wes