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tween the same points.” In many cases hearing that the department already has to the person unlawfully favored has become advance certain other classes of cases the only shipper between the two points, of less public moment. What the Attorand the whole provision is rendered hope- ney-General particularly desires, of course, lessly ineffective. Similarly, the penalties is a final decision from the Supreme imposed by the act against the carriers Court upon the constitutionality of an act granting the discriminating rates “have of Congress debarring from inter-State been held by the courts not to be appli- commerce the products of corporations cable to any carrier that is an incorporated attempting to monopolize trade by plainly company.” Only the agent who makes unreasonable acts. If the Supreme Court the unlawful concession can be punished, decides that Congress has this power, the and he “is usually the only person by way will be open to develop anti-trust whom it can be ascertained that the rebate legislation so as to require the same pubhas been paid, and when he has testified licity from oil, steel, and other manufacin relation to the matter he has thereby turing trusts that this act requires from obtained amnesty from prosecution.” the railroads that are engaged in interAttorney-General Knox would have the State transportation. The present prolaw changed so that the incorporated com- gramme does not claim to be complete. It panies and the beneficiaries could both be is distinctively a plan for protecting propunished, and the right of the courts to ducers against unfair competition from enjoin such practices be made certain. the trusts, rather than for protecting conHe would also have the law provide that sumers against unfair prices; yet, as the the published rates of railroads must in all Attorney-General says in conclusion, the cases be adhered to, and that where traffic adoption of the legislation proposed "will is transported at less than those rates all make a long first stride in advance." the participants should be punished. Thus far the Attor

The action of President “ Predatory" Competition ney-General's rec

Roosevelt in sending to

Negro Office-Holders ommendations re

the Senate the nominalate only to the discriminations practiced tion of Dr. Crum, a colored physician of by the railroads through which the indus- Charleston, as Collector for that port, and trial trusts have been favored. He pro

the closing of the post-office at Indianola, poses an additional provision directed Miss., because the postmistress, a colored against the discriminations which the woman, was threatened with violence, have industrial trusts the selves practice when called forth wide discussion throughout they "sell below the general price of a com

the South, and some violent expressions modity in particular localities, or otherwise of opinion. In December, in answer to in particular localities wantonly seek to

the protests of several citizens of Charlesdestroy competition." The products of

ton against the appointment of Dr. Crum, such combinations he would exclude from

President Roosevelt stated his position in crossing State lines. In order to get all

a few words: the information necessary to correct trust

I do not intend to appoint any unfit man to abuses, he recommends the creation of a

office. So far as I legitimately can, I shall

always endeavor to pay regard to the wishes new commission charged with the duty of and feelings of the people of each locality, but investigating the operations of corpora- I cannot consent to take the position that the tions “engaged in inter-State commerce,

door of hope—the door of opportunity-is to and armed with the power to require purely upon the grounds of race or color.

be shut upon any man, no matter how worthy, witnesses to testify and to produce the Such an attitude would, according to my conbooks, papers, contracts, and documents victions, be fundamentally wrong. If, as you bearing upon the points investigated. hold, the great bulk of the colored people are Finally, in order to secure prompt de

not yet fit in point of character and influence

to hold such positions, it seems to me that it cisions from the Supreme Court upon is worth while putting a premium upon the cases arising under the anti-trust laws, effort among them to achieve the character the Attorney-General asks. that his de- and standing which will fit them. partment be given the same authority The Outlook sees no reason to change its to advance such cases to their final opinion that the President's attitude on

To Prevent

The President ard

the general question was right, and one to larger industrial opportunities, leaving which will commend itself in the long run to the future the settlement of his politito the best people of the South. The cal position when he shall have secured reaction of the South against the injustice a foothold as a citizen. As a rule, a and misery of the reconstruction period Federal officer ought to be persona grata was inevitable; and it is not surprising in the community in which he holds that it has gone so far as to affirm that office, and there are very few communities under no circumstances shall any colored in the South in which it would be wise, man be elected to hold any office. It is either for the whites or for the blacks, clearly impossible for the President of that a negro should be appointed to a the United States to accept such a princi- Federal position. There is no inconsistple as this; to discriminate against the ency between the conviction that the negro simply because he is a negro would United States Government cannot exclude be inconsistent, not only with the funda- from official position a negro because he mental principles of the Republican party, is a negro and the conviction that, at but with the fundamental conceptions of present at least, negro appointments in a republican government. Mr. Roose

Mr. Roose- the South ought to be few and made with velt, although a man of fortunate condi- great good judgment. In the Indianola tions as regards social and educational matter it is difficult to see how the opportunities, is pre-eminently an expo- President could have taken any other nent of the American doctrine that a man action ; that seems to have been simply shall be treated as a man, no matter what a recrudescence of race prejudice in its his position, his religion, or his color. To worst forin. Nothing has been urged bar a whole race from holding any posi- against the postmistress except the fact tion under the United States Government that she was a negro. She had held is so plainly a flat contradiction of the office for some time, and, as far as can be spirit and principles of that Government learned, had discharged her duties to the that to state the proposition is to refute itsatisfaction of the community; she does

not appear to have been in any sense an

offensive person. Under these circumThe Race Question

The race question in stances, the endeavor to drive her out of

the South involves such her position by threats of violence was great difficulties, and demands for its cowardly and ought to have been met by solution so much patience, knowledge of the President as it has been met; and actual conditions, and such far-seeing this, we believe, will be the sentiment of statesmanship, that it ought to be the the best people of the South. policy of the United States Government, as it is certainly now the sentiment of the North, to aid the thoughtful men of

One of the most impor

Reciprocity Legislation the South in their endeavor to put the

tant legislative events relations of the two races on grounds of

“Third House" in Washington last justice, mutual respect, and law. The week took place, not in Congress, but in Outlook is in pronounced sympathy with the parlors rented by the American Beet the best men of the South, who are Sugar Association, where, by a vote of dealing at first hand with as appalling a 3 to 2 (or 12 to 2, counting the proxies problem as any man ever had to face. held by Mr. Oxnard), resolutions were It believes that these men ought to be adopted withdrawing opposition to Cuban aided in every possible way; it recognizes reciprocity, provided the proposed twenty the existence of the inflammable material per cent. reduction in the tariff on Cuban in many parts of the South which occa- goods is strictly limited to a five-year sionally breaks forth in acts of violence period. If this limitation is securely and in incendiary sentiments; and it pledged them, the Association advises its believes that the Government ought, so constituents that they have less to lose far as possible, to co-operate with those from the twenty per cent. reduction than men, who are growing in numbers in from the continuance of the agitation in every State, who are endeavoring to favor of helping Cuba. At the same help the negro to better educational and time, however, the Association declares its

by the

inflexible opposition toward the proposed Senator Lodge has, we are glad to say, tariff concession to the Philippines grant- apparently changed his opinion since last ing the products of the islands a reduction autumn, when he opposed free coal on the of seventy-five per cent. instead of twenty- ground that it would endanger the unity five per cent. of the Dingley rates on and logic of protection of American indusimports from foreign countries. Although tries. The absurdity of saying that a man this concession has been sanctioned is protecting himself when he freezes to unanimously by the House, it is feared death because he will not use the coal that the beet-sugar opposition may defeat offered to him by his neighbor would be it in the Senate. The chief obstacle to amusing if it were not exasperating at the adoption of the Cuban reciprocity such a time of public suffering. treaty now lies in the opposition of the cane-sugar Senators from Louisiana. Although more than two-thirds of the

Day after day last week Senate are ready to vote for the treaty, a

Crimes Against the Coal Commission

Non-Union Workers few bitter opponents may keep the vote

heard the testimony of from being reached at this short session. a score of non-union workmen who had

been the victims of cruelties of every

description because they remained at The scarcity of coal still work or went to work after the strike The Duty on Coal

continues to be the cause had been declared. The boycotting and of a great deal of public suffering and assaults testified to before the Commisinconvenience. Not only are factories sion were in some respects less revolting being in some cases shut down and in than the petty persecutions and terrorism some cases run upon half-time, but it is from which no physical injury resulted. reported that in some communities coal Take, for instance, the case of Thomas is being sold to those consumers only Washaiski, of Hazleton, a clerk for Pardee who have a physician's prescription--that & Co., who was married on September is to say, those who can prove that the 16, and whose experiences of that day, as coal is absolutely necessary to preserve told to the Commission, were summarized health. Some of the transatlantic steam- in the press despatches as follows: ers which sail from the port of New York

On the night of the wedding a small crowd have been delayed in their departure from gathered at the Catholic Church, and as the lack of coal. There is every indication bridal party entered the edifice Washaiski of a widespread and rapidly increasing and his bride were called “scabs." Coming demand for the abolition or suspension

out after the ceremony, he was assaulted by the

waiting crowd, which had greatly increased. of all duty on coal for a long enough time The driver of the carriage was not permitted at least to relieve the present crisis. The to take the couple home, and the witness Legislature of Rhode Island has passed

sought refuge in the parochial residence, and

the bride was escorted home in a trolley-car a resolution demanding such suspension

by friends. While in the parochial residence from Congress. Senator Lodge has intro- the crowd remained in the vicinity, calling the duced a resolution into the Senate, and bridegroom vile names and yelling “scab” at Representative McCall a bill into the the rector of the church because he had per

formed the ceremony. Later on, the witness House, providing for the suspension for

said, he managed to get away from the house, ninety days of all duty on coal, and for and spent the night in the colliery, being afraid the suspension of duty on Canadian coal to go to his home. The bride spent an anxious beyond that time, provided the Dominion

night, as some unknown persons came to the

house and threw stones at the place. Government shall enter into reciprocity in this respect. The action of the Rhode In one case of assault testified to before Island Legislature and of the Massachu- the Commission the victim stated that setts Senator and Representative makes his assailants were two union men, who the question now a non-partisan one; no had been tried and convicted for the protectionist, with Rhode Island and crime. Commissioner Parker inquired Massachusetts earnestly working for the whether they had been expelled from the abolition of coal duty, can say that the union, and the head of the local union, on demand comes simply from those who being brought upon the stand, testified wish to attack the protective system. that he did not know whether they had

The Erie Canal

been or not, but that the unions and indi

In his annual message Govvidual strikers had done all in their power

ernor Odell, of New York, to disperse crowds and help keep the expresses for the first time since his peace. Chairman Gray sharply repri- re-election his views regarding the imnianded the witness for his apparent provement of the Erie Canal. He explicreadiness to wait for convictions by the itly reaffirms his “belief in the thousandcivil authorities before disciplining his ton barge plan.” He acknowledges, men. “Do you think,” he exclaimed, however, that the plan for the lake route " that you can have effective discipline (described in The Outlook for December unless you make investigations yourself 20), which he has heretofore favored, is, and bring the men up and punish them in the judgment of those who have given in some way? I ask you, as a member of the matter study, impracticable. He there. the order and as a man who would be fore concludes in favor of the enlargement glad to see your order come up out of the of the present route, with some variation. mire and the clouds that are around the Though he thus simplifies the question baser parts of it into the sunlight and into by putting the weight of his influence on the air of free government and a free the side of the route which is most country.” This remark of the Chairman generally favored, he introduces a new stirred Mr. Mitchell, who came to the complication by making an estimate of defense of his union by declaring that the cost far in excess of former estimates. the union had no right to expel men for He declares that the improvement will crimes of which they had not been con- involve the expenditure of $255,000,000. victed, and protesting against the assump- If Governor Odell were opposed to all tion that the union organization was canal improvement, he could have taken responsible for the acts it had been unable no more effectual means to discourage the to restrain. He contended, as had his people of the State from undertaking it ktorneys, that if the union was on trial than by suggesting the possibility of such for the outrages, there should be some enormous expense. It makes the project evidence connecting the union with them. appear to require a vaster outlay than the Mr. Mitchell at one time took part in the Panama Canal. The fact is that this cross-examination of a witness--the Sheriff estimate includes interest for fifty years of Lackawanna County—who testified that and a twenty per cent. margin for error, the union in several instances had ren- and allows also for the deepening of the dered him material help in preserving Champlain Canal to twelve feet. Inasorder. General Wilson, of the Commis- much as estimates upon which Governor sion, in cross-examining the same witness, Odell bases his figures already include a brought out the fact that the deputy ten per cent. margin for contingencies, sheriffs employed were not paid by the and interest for eighteen years, and as the county, but by the coal companies. This deepening of the Champlain Canal is no explanation surprised Chairman Gray, who essential part of the project, State Engineer said most justly: “I am not familiar with Bond's estimate of $123,200,000 seems such an un-American law. When the much nearer the probability than Governor county or State relinquishes the duty of Odell’s. At any rate, there is no such maintaining and protecting life and prop- reason for dismay at the bigness of the erty and keeping the peace, then they are undertaking as the message of Governor open to criticism.” The result of the Odell would seem to imply. week's testimony, however, was extremely hurtful to the prestige of the union, which had plainly failed to instill into great

Apart from his recomqumbers of its followers the conviction

The Franchise Tax mendation of a costly

Assailed that it as well as they were discredited by

canal and his argument outrages against its opponents. The against it, the most striking feature of Outlook believes that the greatest enemy Governor Odell's message is his plan for that the trades-unions have to face to-day the abandonment of the franchise tax is not the criminal aggressions of capital, law adopted under Governor Roosevelt's but the criminal acts of their own mem- administration. This law, it will be re

called, simply provided that the value of

bers.

municipal franchises should be assessed ket values is the method applied in the like real estate. Governor Odell reports taxation of the property of individuals, that some corporations can bear this and all who care for equal taxation wish burden without serious results following. the same method applied to the taxation of But, as is well known, the continued in- corporations. It is greatly to be regretted crease of street railroad traffic and the that Governor Odell's disappointing recdemands for lighting, water, telephone, ommendations upon canals and taxation and other public utility facilities have per have practically withdrawn public attention haps brought into existence many corpo- from his excellent recommendation of rations which cannot bear the excessive legislation against combinations to prevent burden which is now imposed under the enlistments in the National Guard. Such present law.” In our view, this is as bad combinations are clearly against public reasoning as has often appeared in a policy, and combinations against public Governor's message. The franchise tax policy, whether of labor or capital, should imposes no burden upon corporations be prohibited by the public. which merely earn a fair rate of interest on the capital actually invested. In such cases the franchise has given no additional

The municipal situations value to their property, and the tax upon

"Catering to the
Better Element"

in the several important it amounts to nothing. It is only where

cities of Pennsylvania prethe franchise gives to the securities of a sent, as usual, some extraordinary features. corporation a market value far in excess In Philadelphia the Republican machine, of the capital invested that the franchise after four years of almost uninterrupted tax becomes important. To say that any vic:ories, has made an important and uncorporation cannot afford to pay taxes expected concession to public opinion in upon the surplus value given to its prop the proposed nomination of District Attorerty by public privilege is preposterous. ney John Weaver for Mayor, who has The argument, furthermore, is made worse more than met reasonable expectation in by the lines calling attention to the recent the discharge of his duties and has earned great increase in the demand of the pub-, the commendation of the independents. lic for the services of municipal monop- It seems strange, but it is none the less olies. Had there been a decrease in these true, that the Republican party organizademands, there would have been an argu- tion in Philadelphia should be able to ment for tax reduction, but the increase is make a nomination for Mayor which the an argument for increased taxation. The Municipal League would support; and Governor's argument that the franchise yet this is just what has happened. The tax will yield less than anticipated does League has decided to recommend that if not affect the justice of the law, and only District Attorney Weaver shall be made further weakens the force of his protest the Republican candidate for the Mayoragainst the burdensomeness of the new alty, he should be supported by the law. The Governor's argument that the Municipal League. In making this recState, and not the municipality, ought ommendation it was declared that the to receive the tax on the value from League was not unmindful of the fact municipal franchises only needs to be that Mr. Weaver's nomination will be due stated to expose its weakness. His final to methods and influences which are contention, however, that taxes on the radically wrong. It is manifest, however, earnings of municipal monopolies would that under existing conditions in Philadelbe fairer than the tax on the value of phia an attempt to oppose the candidate their property does demand a word of on this ground alone would be un wise. comment. Taxes on earnings cripple Mr. Weaver has made an admirable. corporations not yet paying their running record as an honest and energetic District expenses, and place unjust burdens upon Attorney, and this is certainly a reason new enterprises. Taxes on market values for believing that as Mayor of Philadelfall but lightly upon corporations making phia he will appreciate his splendid opporsmall profits, and rest chiefly upon those tunities to redeem the character of the city holding monopoly privileges. Further government by securing the enforcement more, and finally, the assessment of mar of the laws and protecting the interests of

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