« 上一頁繼續 »
Steel Works at Pittsburg, the Cramp Works usual beverage. Then I have spoken to and the Baldwin Locomotive Works at numbers of employers on the subject of Philadelphia, the Patent Office and the men being late at work on Monday mornPresident at Washington. It may be ings, as is so much the case in towns like thought surprising that the owners of these Northampton, England, where there is various works were willing to show them practically no work done on Mondays, and to this body of inquisitive strangers, yet in even on Tuesday morning the men do not only one instance was permission refused appear to have recovered from the effects to inspect a factory. If a similar body of of the holiday. Such a thing would not Americans had gone on a like quest through be tolerated in the States; the regulations Great Britain or the Continent, I don't appear everywhere the same—a strict think everything would have been thrown record is kept, wages are docked if men are open to them as it was done here. It late, but that does not mean that they are speaks volumes for the supreme confidence allowed to make a practice of coming late. of the Americans in themselves that they This is not tolerated. A repetition of took the attitude expressed by one of these offenses and dismissal follows. “We them to me in the words,“ See all you like won't keep men who drink or who come and welcome, and beat us if you can." late as the result of it—that's all there is to
Each delegate had been supplied by it,” were the words of one of them. When Mr. Mosely with a list of questions to be we come to look at statistics, we find that answered, which form an excellent guide what has been impressed and borne in on for their investigations. The delegates us so forcibly by what must necessarily showed great diligence and industry at be rather cursory observation is borne their task; they worked hard and compiled out by figures. The British workman voluminous note-books recording their drinks just twice as much as the Amerobservations, and so much were the note- ican. Per head of the population the books in evidence that at one factory- consumption is as follows: the Carnegie Steel Works, I think it was
United Kingdom United States. those who were conducting them around
English Gallons. English Gallons, Beer .............. 30.00
12.60 “ kicked," and the note-books had to be
93. shut up. The questions the delegates had Wine............. .39 to study were divided into:(a) Early train
1.00 ing of the workers ; (6) General condition Absolute Alcohol.. 2.08 of workers outside the factory; (c) Rela I have taken the alcoholic strength of tions between employers and employed; wine at 15 for both countries, and the (d) General questions which relate mainly strength of beer at 4 for the United States to the working of the Civic Federation of and 5 for the United Kingdom. Reprethe United States, and the desirability of sented in money, we spend annually more establishing such an organization in Eng- on drink than in the United Statesland. Many of the questions are beset £58,500,000 more on beer alone. with difficulty, while the answers to others “I guess you put a brake on your progstand out with obvious clearness, and a ress with your beer," was a remark I month in the country would give the heard the other day. Several large emanswer as well as a year. This applies to ployers I spoke to were emphatic in their many of the questions under section (6); opinion that beer was bad to work on. for instance, take question 32 : “Is the They think that it is heavy and acts as a American workingman more sober than sedative ; dulls rather than stimulates. the British ?" Without going into the One would think that to the bracing air question of actual sobriety, it is unques- of this country it would be even more tionably clear that the American drinks suitable than in England. One often less than the British workman. In some speculates whether a sedative would not factories visited by delegates in the course be of advantage to some of these feverish of their circular tour, beer or spirits are workers, especially in New York, this “City absolutely forbidden up to the conclusion of Unrest.” Whatever difference of opinion of working hours; where that rule is not there may be regarding answers to some put in force, men very seldom drink of the other questions, there can be none beer at their midday meal. Coffee is the to this, as to whether the American or
British workman drinks the most. We are on the subject. Similarly accurate or not concerned here with what might be conclusive answers can hardly be obtained done with the sixty-six millions if we were on the other questions as to whether the to reduce our drink bill to that of the American is thrown out of employment at Americans, which would enable us, for an earlier age. There is perhaps even a instance, to establish a fund for old-age still greater objection on the part of pensions, together with paying off the American employers to take on men adnational debt in about eighteen years; vanced in years than there is in England. but in the comparison of the working At the same time observant visitors power of these two competitors we are here, not excluding these Mosely delegates, concerned in considering whether the one, fail to recognize the fact that many of the as the American put it, is not handicapping men engaged in arduous employments himself, or putting a brake on his prog- after a few years take up other employress, with this load of beer.
ments less arduous. The puddlers of One of the points on which the dele Pittsburg, for instance, never remain long gates of the Mosely Commission are unani- at their very highly paid but extremely mous is as to the advisability of our having severe work. After from three to five an organization established in England years of it they go off with their savings similar to the Civic Federation, and they to a more easy occupation, and thus the will recommend the various unions they impression is given that the men get represent to take steps to carry out that superannuated at an early period. From object. There are few of the other forty- the lowest to the highest, men change one questions set for them to answer on their occupations with more facility here which they will all agree; there are some than in England. The workingmen who that it will be almost impossible to answer. strain their vitality to the utmost at high * Is it true that the average life of the pressure at highly paid employments American workman is shorter than that frequently retire to the cultivation of a of the English workman ?” Connected small farm, or to occupations in which their with this question there are others, as acquired skill is applied to making some to whether the American does a larger labor-saving machine do the hard work for amount of work in early manhood, but them. How often during thus pilgrimage deteriorates young, thus shortening his have I heard the delegates say that the working years, and is thrown out of work men do not really work harder here than at an early age. To get at the facts re- in England! Here they are often human garding the average life of the workman attachments to machines ; they press the here, I consulted some of the actuaries of button, the machine does the rest ; they the leading life insurance offices, among have just to see that the well-lubricated others Mr. Emory McClintock, of the machine does the work smoothly, without Mutual Life Insurance Company of New stop or blunder or hitch. In many York. He very kindly placed all the cases, instead of being the l uman handle available figures at my disposal, but ad- of the machine, they would in England mitted that there were none which would have been the working parts; the wear exactly answer my question. An investi- and tear would have come more directly gation is now being made by a number of on their muscles and nerves. insurance offices acting together, in which there was a considerable amount of the various trades and occupations are difference of opinion among the delegates being classified, but the results will not be of the various unions as to the amount totaled up until next June. If this were that was to be learned in America in published, it would be a help to answering their respective trades. The men conthe question accurately, but at present a nected with ship building saw nothing to final answer is not obtainable. The opin- learn here, and went away satisfied with ion of an authority such as Mr. McClintock the superiority of the English ship-building should carry weight, howeyer. He is yards. The representative of the brickclearly and emphatically of opinion that layers said that the American bı icklayer the average American workman lives laid more bricks in a given time, but that longer than the English, and in this he the American style of work would not be tolwas supported by the others I spoke to erated in England. The walls are so thin that they would be condemned as unsafein conflicting detail. The workman is very England, and the bricks are laid parallel much the same man on either side of the to each other with mortar between instead Atlantic. His environment is what alters, of being locked together as in England. stimulates, or retards his potentiality. British architects insist that they must There was a strange story told me the overlap in every layer. The flimsier work other day to the effect that the Westingof the American naturally does not take house Company brought over a large as much time. English employers could number of American workmen to the facnot expect us, it was pointed out, to get an tory they had opened in England, and equal amount done when the work was that, after a short time, they found that much more complicated. The payment the work of their imported men could in the two countries worked out on the be beaten by men taken from the neighaverage to show that the American got as borhood of the works; that the Englishmuch for two and a half days' work as the man on his own ground, in fact, beat British for a week. The representatives the imported American. These facts, of several other trades, however, were told me as they were by Americans, greatly struck with what they saw, notably appear to me very significant, but fall in with the appliances here in the way of with some of the conclusions that strike labor-saving machines. "We have no home as the lessons of this Commission. machine like that; we do that by hand,” We do not take sufficient account of many were remarks one often heard when going factors in this great problem. First of around with them. In this country, where all, the climate. Look at the quickening so many factories are of recent erection, effect of this bracing atmosphere on the it is not surprising that they should be more lethargic peoples. Jules Verne filled with new machinery, but there were wrote a book, “Dr. Ox's Experiment," interesting scrap-heaps to be shown in I think it was called, which describes the many that the delegates visited which galvanizing effect on a lazy German town proved how quick the American manu- of supplying oxygen through pipes to the facturer is to throw out anything that has inhabitants. After passing the statue of been improved upon. The English manu- Liberty and landing at the Battery, facturer is much slower to move in this every immigrant must experience somerespect, and he is inclined to hold on to thing of the sort. A great stimulating, an antiquated machine as long as he can vivifying, energizing quality is in the air of get any work out of it. There were some the country. One need not drink chamconclusions arrived at incidentally by the pagne here—one breathes it. Look at the delegates, on which they formed very effect on the Irish or Italian immigrant. definite opinions, although they did not The population of Ireland is exceeded exactly come within the scope of the here in the numbers of Irishmen, and Commission. The representative of the Irishmen have accomplished immensely plasterers, who is a member of the London more here than on the other side, while County Council, thinks that England has the lazy Italian develops into a plodding, nothing to learn from the States in the strenuous worker that Italy never knew. way of civic government. They all The essence of democracy he breathes thought the telephone service of the large also, and the workman of to-day may be the cities admirable in comparison to that in employer of to-morrow. The employers England, but formed a different opinion are more accessible to their employeesof the postal service, one of them experi- there is less of a dividing margin. Quesmenting by timing the delivery of letters tion 19 of the delegates' catechism is, “ Are which he posted in New York to himself, there greater opportunities for the workwith results that showed the service in ingman to rise in America than in EngLondon to be immensely superior. land ?" "Ten thousand times more,"
Taking in the whole situation, seeing was the enthusiastic answer of one who what one can of the workmen at work, in his progress from having been an immitalking to these visiting workmen who grant workman to being a millionaire are experts in their various trades, just a can speak from the personal knowledge few great conclusions force themselves of personal experience. When, in considhome on the mind through a throng of ering the environment of the workers, we come to consider the standard of their progeny of generations of workers toil in comfort in either country, I unhesitatingly a confined area under conditions that say it is higher here-higher because it have become almost inherited. There is a is more civilized. The well-paid British good deal of brag and boast and surfaceworkman probably has more good beef show of energy on the one side, on the to eat, more good beer to drink, but there other appearances of being hidebound is a smaller percentage of baths in his by labor traditions and conditions. I house, and the American workman has a doubt if the average workman works one larger supply of literature in the form bit harder in the new country than in the of cheap books, magazines, papers, etc., old. Expeditions like this commission or, if it may be said that the English work- cannot but work for good. Nations and man has an equal supply, the American is continents cannot be brought too closely unquestionably the larger consumer of in conference, like the other day when it. The various co-operative methods by representatives of the biggest industries which the American workmen get at of America and England debated all the their amusements are interesting; they afternoon about an eight-hour day. An club together for lectures, concerts, thea- eight-hour day for the workers of the ters, excursions, etc. Their versatility and world there is a flag-pole for the unions quick-moving adaptability for going from to rally to. The world has become too one employment to another more easily small a place for anything less effectual than in old countries are remarkable, but than world conferences. Ten hours in have also their drawbacks. Their very Germany, eight hours in Britain, is anindependence has its penalty. It is too omalous. The capitalists have here their much to say that America has lost the idea Morgan. Who is to be the Pierpont of the family home as it is known in Eng- Morgan of the Labor Trust of the world ? land, but is not the tendency in that The delegates will each bring back to his direction?
trade a number of detail suggestions and This all seems drifting away from the a mass of information; but the general Mosely Commission; but I think it is not verdict will not be in pointing out any The great lessons of the quest will be great superiority in favor of America. found to be learned, not from any special They have been much impressed with the panacea that touches the spot in a detail high pitch to which both capital and labor of piece-work or time-work, but in the have been organized here. The lesson to great conditions naturally upspringing be learned from this might naturally make from, on the one side, men working on for conflict in hard-fought strikes; but they the surface of a virgin continent across have recognized in the Civic Federation an whose breast « Fecundity” is writ large organization that could bring arbitration with fullest meaning. On the other, the to bear on and to avert such conflicts.
If We but Knew
By Clarence Hawkes
By Justin McCarthy Aatiror of " A History of Our Own Times," "The Story of Gladstone's Life,” etc. CAMES BRYCE is universally recog- for any quality of mere eloquence which
nized as one of the intellectual forces adorns the exposition. In a certain sense
in the British House of Commons. James Bryce might be described as belongWhen he rises to make a speech, every one ing to that Parliamentary order in the front listens with the deepest interest, feeling of which John Morley stands just now: sure that some ideas and some instruction but of course John Morley has thus far are sure to come which no political party had more administrative experience than in the House can well afford to lose. James Bryce, and has taken a more disSome men in the House of Commons tinct place as a Parliamentary and popuhave been orators and nothing else; some lar leader. Of both men, however, I have been orators and instructors as well; should be inclined to say that their public some have been Parliamentary debaters speeches lose something of the praise more or less capable; and a good many fairly due to them as mere displays of have been bores. In every generation eloquence, because of the importance we there have been a few who are especially all attach to their intellectual and educaregarded as illuminating forces. The tional influence. House does not think of measuring their I may say also that James Bryce is not influence by any estimate of their greater first and above all other things a public or less capacity for mere eloquence of man and a politician. He does not seem expression. It values them because of the to have thought of a Parliamentary career lessons which they teach. To this small until after he had won for himself a high order of members James Bryce undoubt and commanding position as a writer of edly belongs. Now, I do not mean to history. Bryce is by birth an Irishman convey the idea that such men as these and belongs to that northern province of are not usually endowed with the gift of Ireland which is peopled to a large extent eloquent utterance, or that they cannot by Scottish immigrants. We are all rather deliver speeches which would entitle them too apt to think of this Ulster province to a high rank among Parliamentary as essentially un-Irish, or even anti-Irish, debaters, no matter what the import of in tone and feeling, although some of the the speeches might be. My object is to most extreme among Irish Nationalists, describe a certain class of men whose men like John Mitchell for instance, were Parliamentary deliverances are valued by born and brought up in Ulster, and in members in general without any special more recent days some corspicuous Home regard for their form, but only with regard Rulers have sat in the House of Comto their substance, for the thoughts which mons as representatives of Ulster conthey utter and not for the manner of the stituencies. James Bryce has always utterance. James Bryce would be con- been an Irish Nationalist since he came sidered an effective and even a command- into public life, and has shown himself, ing speaker in any public assembly, but whether in or out of political office, a nevertheless, when the House of Commons steady and consistent supporter of the and the public think of his speeches, these demand for Irish Home Rule. Indeed, are thought of mainly for the truths they I should be well inclined to believe that tell and the lessons they convey, and not a desire to render some personal service
in promoting the just claims of Ireland 1 This forms the sixth of a series of articles on living
for a better system of government must in The Outlook for August 16; the second, on Lord have had much influence over Bryce's Salisbury, in The Outlook for September 6; the third,
decision to accept a seat in the House of Commons.
Bryce began his education in the UniSir William Harcourt, John Redmond, John Burns, versity of Glasgow, from which he passed
The first, on Mr. Ballour, was printed
on John Morley, in The Outlook for October 4; the fourth, on Henry Labouchere, in The Outlook for October 18: the fifth, on Lord Aberdeen, in The Outlook for November I. 1902. Other subjects of articles will be Sır Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Michael Hicks-Beach,