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government notes and bonds, and burns methods are matters of public history, they them up, he gives it to the Government. are as proper subjects for economic and If he leaves it to his children, is it more ethical teaching in Chicago University as moral for them to take it for personal in Williams College. The graduate of uses than for a board of trustees to take Chicago Theological Seminary is morally it for public uses? Was Christ wrong as free to condemn dishonest and despotic when he suffered the woman that was a methods in business as the graduate of sinner to anoint his feet with ointment Union or of Princeton, and is as much which it is quite certain she had bought under obligation to do so. There is no with the wages of her sin? Ordinarily condition implied in the acceptance of an the best thing a sinner can do with his ill- unconditioned gift for public uses except earned wealth is to give it to the com- that it shall be used for the public by the munity; the fact that it is ill earned is no institution to which it is given. If a reason why it should not be devoted to liquor-dealer desires to take a high-priced the public service. It is rather an added pew in a church, shall the trustees refuse reason why it should be so devoted. We to rent it to him lest the minister be afraid are not here concerned with the question to preach on temperance? This would whether Mr. Rockfeller and Mr. Carnegie be to insult the minister. If a railroad have earned their wealth by righteous or desires to advertise in a newspaper, shall unrighteous methods, or part of it by the manager refuse to take the advertiserighteous and part of it by unrighteous ment lest the editor fear to demand govmethods. We simply affirm that, first, it ernmental regulation of railroads? This is not the business of boards of trustees would be to insult the editor.

A proto determine whether wealth offered for fessor who should refuse to condemn public use has been righteously or un- the violation of economic and ethical righteously earned; and, second, if it has laws because some patron of the uni. been earned by unrighteous methods, the versity is publicly reported to have viobest thing that the owner can do with it lated those laws would be grossly ụnfit is to give it to the public, save in the very for his chair. A preacher who should rare cases in which it is practicable to refuse to condemn dishonesties in business return it to the original owners.

because some of his pewholders are The supposed principle that trustees reported to be guilty of such dishonesties should trace to its source wealth which ought to be drummed out of the pulpit to they receive for public uses rests on the the tune of the rogue's march. We do false presumption that if wealth acquired not believe that there is any such cowardice by unrighteous means is accepted for in the pulpits and the professors' chairs public use it cannot be freely used for the as the report of Professor Bascom's address public by those who have accepted it. implies. But in so far as there is any The report before us does not indicate such cowardice, the remedy is not to be that Professor Bascom gave any reasons found in laying upon boards of trustees for believing as matter of fact that the the wholly impracticable task of tracing lips of the professors in the Chicago wealth to its source for the purpose of University, or those of the graduates of ascertaining how far it has been rightits theological school, are sealed. Appar- eously accumulated, but in inspiring the ently this conclusion is based, not upon hearts of teachers, preachers, and editors any evidence that the first do not teach—and the editors need it quite as much and the second do not preach freely, but as the teachers and preachers—with a upon the assumption that they cannot loyalty to truth and a courage of convichonorably do so. In truth, they cannot tion which will make them never consider honorably do anything else. It is not, the question where the money comes from indeed, the function of a professor of which endows their chairs, furnishes their economics, whether in the Chicago Uni- pew-rents, or supplies the pecuniary versity or in Williams College, to decide resources of their journals. and teach whether Mr. Rockefeller per- If property is offered to a board of sonally made his money by ethical or trustees which does not belong to the unethical methods; that is a question for donor and which can be returned to its the courts of justice. But in so far as those lawful owner, they are not to accept it;

not because it was unlawfully acquired, ing unworthy motives to a benefaction but because it is unlawfully retained. If apparently worthy in itself, nor by attachconditions are attached to the gift incon- ing on suspicion dishonorable conditions sistent with its free use in the sense to to a gift which is in its terms free from which it is nominally dedicated, it is to be conditions. On the contrary, they will promptly declined. If there is a reason- best serve the highest ethical ends by able suspicion that conditions exist in the assuming, in the absence of evidence to mind of the donor which are not expressed, the contrary, that all gifts are intrusted to there may be occasions on which it would them to use for the public benefit in be legitimate for the board of trustees to accordance with their trust and with no avoid misunderstanding by some explicit other obligations than that trust implies, statement. But it is not their function to and by taking it for granted, if they are trace proffered endowments to their source, the trustees of an educational institution, nor to put the donor on trial, still less to that the teachers will be loyal to their own condemn him on public report without a consciences and to the truth, without regard hearing. They will not raise the ethical to the sources, real or supposed, from standards in the community, nor in the which the endowment of the institution is institution under their charge, by imput- derived.

The Impressions of a Careless Traveler



March 30. shuffleboard and ring-toss, yet the
HE event of to-day was going to terial is provided for those who do. We

church. The only Sunday service all drove over to Nice and then sepa

which the Prinzessin arranges for rated. B-- and H-started for the the passengers is an early matin ; we are Roman Catholic Cathedral on account awakened on Sunday morning by the band of the music of Easter Sunday, found playing“ Eine Feste Burg." That ends it too crowded, and finally went to a the religious services for the day, which Russo-Greek church. The Matron and I then goes on exactly as do other days, went to the English Church, where the except that the passengers do not get out service began with the Lord's Prayer—the shuffleboard and ring-toss, nor do I see Invitation to Prayer, the General Confesthe cards out in the smoking-room on sion, and the Absolution being omitted. Sunday evening. The first Sunday out, a I wonder why. Is Absolution taken for service was announced, but it had to be granted on Easter Sunday? Being a Pur. abandoned ; the weather was prohibitive. itan, to me all Sundays are Easter SunThe second Sunday there was a simple days. After service we met and took our service in the Social Hall; but as half the luncheon at a café-confectionery-bakerpassengers were German and could not restauran: ca mbination, where a delicious understand English, and half were Amer- meal was served to us at a cost, including ican and could not understand German, the tip to the waiter, of $2.11—that is, fiftyand there were neither prayer-books nor three cents apiece. The French do underhymn-books on board, the service limped. stand the art of giving delicious meals at I think the Hamburg-American line, which small prices—an art not yet acquired in seems to spare no expense in providing America, where “cheap and nasty" are comforts and even luxuries for its passen- terms almost inseparably connected in gers, might well recognize the fact that restaurants. there are a goodly number of ocean Then we took a carriage and drove over travelers who enjoy a Sunday service, the hills to Villefranche. By the shore and might provide service-books so that road the distance is about five miles; by passengers could arrange for a service if the Cornichi road, which we took, tha they wished to do so. The Directors may drive was at least double that distance. not care for Sunday services themselves, We climbed a thousand or twelve hundred but then I do not suppose they all play feet by one zigzag road to the top of a

hill, and drove down a thousand or twelve result was that we met them wherever we hundred feet by another zigzag to our went. In our tour about the city we were landing-stage. Bengaged in con- half the time in the Cook procession; we versation with our driver, asking him all came into the church or the palace to manner of questions, at our suggestion, find them there, or they came in to find as to places, trees, fruits, flowers, etc., and us there, as the case might be ; in short, he stopped and gathered some olives that we were, in spite of ourselves, Cookies, hung over the road and gave them to the as H- irreverently calls them. On ladies of our party. B—'s knowledge one or two occasions I had to explain to of French is but slight, and she laughed the doorkeepers as best I could not over her own linguistic blunders; but the knowing Italian-that I did not belong driver was immensely pleased at being with them, and had my own separate fee taken, as it were, into our party ; he gave to pay for our party. I may record here us a most cordial “ Bon voyage” when the fact that I have kept a careful cash we left him, and even when our rowboat account of the expenses of our shore was a considerable distance from the land- excursions at Madeira, Gibraltar, Genoa, ing-stage we could see him standing up in Nice, Monte Carlo, and Palermo, and find his carriage and waving his hat in adieus that we have had substantially what Cook to us. As I am making this entry I hear has given to his parties, and have paid the Cook party coming on board after about ten per cent. less. Ten per cent. their excursion to Nice and Monte Carlo. seems to me a small sum to pay Cook for In half an hour we weigh anchor and set taking off from one all the care and worry sail—except that we have no sails—for of a shore excursion—that is, from those Palermo.

to whom it is a care and worry.

April 1. I am sorry to have had only a day and Palermo is the first natural harbor we a half at Palermo; I should like to stay have seen since we left New York, and here for a month. The busy harbor, Palermo would not be a very safe harbor full of small craft, the opportunities for were its natural protection not improved boating, the environing hills-grass-covby great breakwaters. At Madeira, Gi- ered to their summit where they are not braltar, and Villefranche we anchored in absolutely precipitous ; the curious life in what were practically open roadsteads, the streets, with something at every turn and the harbor at Genoa was almost to attract the eye-peasant costumes, wholly artificial. We are attached by pannier-laden donkeys, donkey-carts carbawsers to a wharf at one side of the har- rying six or eight passengers, with one bor, but five or ten feet from the shore, small patient donkey tugging at the load, and are carried a mile or a mile and a half the attractive shops, the countrymen with in small boats to a landing on the other their rural wares; the abundant flowers side of the harbor—why, I do not know and fruits, especially the orange-trees I am told that on her first excursion the laden with oranges rich in color, fragrant, Prinzessin undertook to land her passen- appetizing; the soft climate, soft but not gers in her own steam launch and life- enervating; the warm, cool air (contradicboats, but met with so much opposition tion, but a harmony in reality) which from the local boatmen that she aban- caresses and at the same time invigorates; doned the attempt in the Mediterranean the excellent hotels, if I may judge from Sea, and left the local boatmen to carry my experience last evening in one of the passengers to and from shore. I am them where we took dinner with a friend glad of it. Their income must be poor who is staying here ; the many excursions and uncertain at the best; and it is worth in the vicinity from half a day to two or the quarter of a dollar to be greeted by three days in extent, all combine to make them with smiles and not with curses. Palermo seem like an ideal resting-place. Before leaving New York I had looked The ride along the seashore, the public up Palermo and laid out a day's excur- gardens, where the gardener was so taken sion. It perhaps confirms the practical with the Matron's interest in certain wisdom of the selection for the day that flowers that he made her up a bouquet and I hit upon the same route which Cook's presented it to her; the Palazzo Reale, agent had laid out for his party; but the with its chapel, in beauty second only to the Sainte Chapelle in Paris ; the ruined were permitted to see, and look off over cloisters overgrown with vines and wild those ramparts at the wonderful viewflowers; the uninteresting cathedral-it is the ravine below inclosed by mountain enough merely to catalogue these here; walls tapestried with grass and flowers, if I ever wish to recall them, Baedeker the plain beyond rich with grass and will do the rest. A funny experience at fruits, still further the city, the murmur of luncheon illustrated the disadvantage of whose ceaseless industry they could easily not knowing the language of the country. imagine if they could not hear, and yet When luncheon was over, I called for beyond the city the sea with its boundless my bill. As the courteous waiter started horizon and its treasures of infinite lifeoff, B- surmised from my extempo- all these uniting to call them to come out rized French that he was really going for from imprisonment and idleness to liberty a glass of beer! But the waiter never and toil—the sea calling them to life and smiled when the error was explained to liberty, the city and the plain to profitable him. I cannot say as much for the self- industry, the fruits and the flowers to the restraint of the others of our party. glad enjoyment of the good Father's gifts,

The most interesting object in Palermo the mountains to the worship of God in - was not in Palermo at all. It is the the temple not made with hands. How monastery and church at Monreale, a could they look unmoved upon all this mountain or rather hill perhaps a thou- and go back to their bare cells and their sand feet above the sea, and a few miles vacant life and their routine of ritual? I back from the harbor of Palermo. This suppose this is inexplicable to a Protestmonastery and church covers the summitant, because Protestantism instinctively of the hill, and round it clusters a poor measures the instruments of religion by little village, all of whose inhabitants, I their capacity to benefit man, mediæval should say, could be put into the church religion by their capacity to express revat any one service, and then twice as erence to God. The Puritans' church many more without overcrowding it. The was a “meeting-house " constructed and most striking feature of this church is employed for the instruction of an audifurnished by the mosaics, which afford a ence; the mediaval cathedral was a striking illustration of the incongruous monument reared as a memorial to the literalism of Scripture interpretations Almighty. The motive of the former which prevailed in the Middle Ages. might have been Ad beneficium humanitatis, These mosaics are intended to give to the motive of the latter was Ad gloriam the worshipers scenes from both Old Dei. The cathedral was no more built Testament and New Testament history. to benefit the worshipers who gathered Here is Noah's carpenter sawing the under its roof than the monument in the boards for the ark with what is very like cemetery is built for the benefit of the a modern saw; here Jacob's angels are one whose body lies beneath it. This seen descending a very short ladder- church was put on the hill where all one wonders why they did not jump, they might see the glorious monument which certainly would not have required their reverence had reared to God, and the wings--while the Father looks down upon monks offered their orisons as a tribute them and upon the sleeping Jacob through to their King. That the best way to an open window. I suppose they are render acceptable service to God is by very beautiful; they are certainly very rendering useful service to his children wonderful; but they are not at all credible. probably never entered their heads. Some It is difficult for a radical Protestant like thing such were the thoughts which came myself to get, and almost impossible for to me as I sat there in the church and him to keep, the point of view of a mediæ- afterward walked in the cloisters at val Christian. Why was this church built Monreale. Perhaps we Puritans have here on this hill-top ? Why did these reacted too far from the sacerdotalism monks gather in this monastery to do of mediævalism and need to retrace our nothing all day long but say their prayers, steps. Perhaps there is something in walk in these cloisters, cultivate the fruits this monumental piety which we need to and flowers in this garden, which, I sup- incorporate in our humanitarian religion. pose, in those times few but themselves I must think more of this. L. A.


A Study of American Workmen by British Workmen

By George Lynch Special Correspondent of the London “Daily Express,” Author of " The War of the Civilizations," " Impressions

of a War Correspondent," etc. HE tour of inquiry into industrial having made it under our flag, with the

methods and conditions in the keen business instinct of his race, did his

United States which has just part in the commercial struggle as he did been concluded by twenty-three of the before in the blood-spilling struggle. He members of Mr. Mosely's Commission has brought a hospital to the wounded in been very interesting. In England we war-he now sends a commission to the had been feeling the effects of New World strugglers in the commercial fight. There competition in many ways—tobacco and was a considerable amount of difficulty in beef trust ways, tube ways, bridge-building deciding as to who would be the best to ways, ocean ways; in every branch of constitute the commission. He eventually commerce the competition of the United settled on asking twenty-three secretaries States was being felt. In the great world of the leading trades-unions. There were struggle for trade we are hard pressed, if many advantages about asking the secrewe are not, as you say here, beaten back taries of the unions. If a selection had into second place, and a bad second at to be made from among the ordinary memthat. The facts were well worth ascer- bers, there might have been a certain taining. The elephantine aid of a Parlia- amount of invidious feeling among their mentary commission might be instinctively fellows in the giving of them a free trip sought by Britishers, but the importance to America with all expenses paid for of the subject asked for something more about three months. Then, on the return practical, immediate, and businesslike. of the commission, the secretaries of the So thought Mr. Mosely as he paced the various unions are in a better position paths of his old-fashioned fruit and flower than any one else to impart the results, garden, one of the most beautiful in and communicate throughout their unions England, punctuating his walks by prod- the conclusions they have arrived at. ding with the point of his stick at his I must say I was greatly struck, coming enemies the wasps, who were feeding on over on the steamer, with the broadmindedhis luscious peaches and nectarines that ness of the members I traveled with. I embroidered with fruit-beads the sunny was prepared to find them rather prediswalls. He had made his money in diamond posed in favor of British methods and dealing in Kimberley—had made enough hidebound with insular prejudice, but, on and had enough to spare for doing some- the contrary, found them approaching the thing in the world, when occasion should task before them with absolutely open offer

. He saw opportunity when war minds. They seemed prepared to look broke out in South Africa. He erected

He erected at everything impartially, and prepared a hospital in Natal, equipped it, and pre- to learn all that was possible in the time. sented it through Princess Christian to Mr. Mosely and the delegates made a the British forces in the field. There circular tour, in which they were afforded are various opinions about these South every opportunity for visiting and inspectAfrican Uitlanders who have made their ing some of the largest manufactories in pile out of diamond or gold mines, but the United States. Starting from New some of them, like Beit and Mosely, have York, they visited the American Locomocommanded admiration by their philan- tive Works at Schenectady, the works of the thropic generosity. The Jews are not a General Electric Company, and the powerfighting race; if they do not shed their house at Niagara ; they were the guests of blood, it is nice to see them shed their the Industries Federation at Buffalo, saw gold for the service of the country under the iron and steel works at Cleveland, the whose flag they have made it. Mosely packing-houses in Chicago, the Carnegie

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