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medans in the Sudan, the country still opportunities not only for those who deremains completely barred to the agents of sire to become specialists in archæology, the various missionary societies of Europe but also for those who wish to become and America. The societies which had better students and teachers of classical long since established stations in that part philology. When the School was foundof Africa were forced to abandon them ed, says Professor Seymour, of Yale twenty years ago by the Dervish insur- (Chairman of the Managing Committee rection; it has been understood that of the School, 1887–1901), the linguistic since then none of them have been study of Greek was more fashionable than allowed to resume operations, a rule oper- it is at present, and no one doubted that ating with equal impartiality against Prot- some of the students would be interested estant and Roman Catholic missions. in the study of modern Greek in its relaRumor has it, however, that an exception tion to the ancient language. Strange to to this rule has been made in favor of the say, however, none of the 127 American Copts, and that the latter are now endeav- students has as yet chosen this field of oring to Christianize the Sudanese; but research, although the characteristics of that the Copts receive no direct encourage the popular language are gradually fading ment from the British Government, which before the efforts of the public schools to simply tolerates their presence. In view of further the use of the literary language. the lack of exact information on the subject, In archæology the School has proved its The Outlook takes great satisfaction in usefulness : last year, for instance, more printing the following official statement American scholars were in Greece for from the British Government, which it has archæological study and research in conjust received in answer to a request for nection with the School than visited information. In a letter to The Outlook Sir Greece for a stay of more than two Reginald Wingate, Governor-General of months during all the years of the pinethe Sudan, says: “ There was no decree teenth century before the School was esissued by Lord Kitchener prohibiting tablished. It should be reaffirmed, says Christian missionary enterprise in the Professor Seymour, that the School does Sudan, but he made it a rule not to allow not aim solely, nor perhaps mainly, at Christian missionaries to work among the training specialists in arctæology; it deMohammedan population, though he of- sires also, and perhaps chiefly, to encourfered no objection to their working among age on the part of classical scholars archæthe pagan population. This rule is still ological study which will throw light upon observed, and there are Christian mission- their classical studies and give life to aries now at work south of Fashoda. No their teaching and interpretation of literadistinctive treatment is made between ture. A review of the two decades of Catholics and Protestants. The Copts work recalls many distinguished names exist in considerable numbers in the in scholarship, among others, of Professors Sudan, especially in Khartûm ; they have Baird, Goodwin, Allen, Packard, White their own clergy, but do not proselytize. (the present President of the ArchæologiIn this respect they do not receive treat- cal Institute which founded the School), ment different to that accorded to mem- Merriam, Waldstein, J. R. Wheeler (Chairbers of any other religion.” It should be man of the Managing Committee), B. I. added that this letter is received through Wheeler, Tarbell, and Richardson, the the Marquis of Lansdowne, British For- present Director of the School. The eign Secretary, and thus receives addi- Outlook has already called attention to the tional official sanction.
valuable excavations conducted by our School. These have not only added to the
world's sum of archæological knowledge, As the twentieth report but have given to the School a prestige not The American School at Athens
of the American School otherwise obtained. The expenditures for
of Classical Studies at these excavations have been about $16,000. Athens has just been published, the pres. For the new home of the School the Greek ent seems a fitting time for a survey of Government gave the building site; it imthe history of the School. It certainly is mediately adjoins the ground of the Brita fitting time to call attention to its ish school. The American School needs a larger income than it has at present; it on the life of Jesus of Nazareth, with the should have a permanent endowment of view that they should be “informed, and at least $150,000, with an additional in- not misinformed,” regarding it. The come of $100 per year from each of thirty query whether these were properly the American colleges and universities. subjects of investigation by the organiza
tion as such was freely argued, and the The organization known opinion of the Rev. Dr. Rosenau and other A Council of Jewish Women as the Council of Jewish rabbis who chanced to be present was
Women originated in Chi- asked. One of these was of the mind cago in 1893. The Congress of Jewish that what was most needed was the Women held as a part of the Parliament strengthening of the emotional side of of Religions at the World's Columbian feminine religion. No positive conclusion Exposition proved such an inspiration to was reached on this important subject; the Mothers in Israel, who never in all but the balance of opinion seems to have tre centuries of Judaism had been as a been against the study of the life and distinctly religious body “in congress work of “apostates " from Judaism. This, assembled," that it was determined at the however, is a considerable advance from final session to organize permanently as former standpoints of Hebrew orthodoxy. a national body. But, two sections having since been organized in Canada, the term national was necessarily dropped from
Thanks to the vigilant the title. The chief objects of the asso
Trained Nurses at
public spirit of the Nurses' ciation are the bringing about of closer
Settlement, an unusually relations among Jewish women, with a promising innovation has just been made view to the united study of Hebrew in New York Ci y's system of caring for history, literature, affairs, and conditions, the health of public school children. For and for the work of social reform and some time past the schools have been philanthropy. Two triennial meetings visited periodically by physicians, who have been held since 1893-one in New examine the children and send home those York, in November, 1896; the other in not well enough to be in school or who show Cleveland, in March, 1900; the thirdsigns of disorders likely to be epidemic. which took place in Baltimore early in Under the present efficient head of the December, was no less important and Board of Health, Dr. Lederle, this system interesting than the others. The ses- has been enforced so scrupulously that, sions were very largely attended; those while the health of the schools has been in the morning and afternoon being materially improved, the attendance in chiefly restricted to delegates and re- many of the poorer districts has been served for the transaction of business materially diminished. Children, for examand reports of the actual work of the ple, who had sore eyes have been sent Council, while the evening sessions held away and told to return when their eyes in the large auditorium were open to the were well, but have had such inefficient public, and were addressed by prominent treatment at home that when they remen and women, specialists in those mat- turned their eyes were still affected, and ters in which the organization is interested, they had to be sent away again. In this but not all of Hebrew birth. Among the way many fell behind their classes and speakers was Miss Jane Addams, of Hull dropped out altogether. Thus a seri. House, Chicago, on “ The New Social condition confronted the Board Spirit," which is, she says. preventive of Education, and it almost seemed as rather than curative. Social hygiene the interests of education were in rather than social medicine is needed by conflict with the interests of health. At the body politic; we reform by elimi- this juncture Miss Lillian D. Wald, the nating causes. A particularly interesting head of the Nurses' Settlement, suggested discussion followed the presentation of to President Burlingham, of the Board of the report of the Committee on Religion. Education, and Dr. Lederle, of the Health The works of Heine and Disraeli had Board, that two trained nurses should been studied by some sections, while a be assigned to school buildings in the certain rabbi had lectured to his people neglected districts, and should treat in
the schools all minor disorders, and to be seen, also, exactly how far the visit the homes of children requiring new system may be depended upon for more serious attention to instruct their continuous and unbroken working, and - mothers as to what should be done for for freedom from possible interruption. -them-how, for instance, boracic acid The Outlook has already described Mr. should be put on sore eyes, and simple Marconi's inventions, which, in the main, remedies administered for colds and other are of skillfully devised practical adaptatroubles. The plan was warmly wel- tions of principles already recognized. comed, and Miss Wald's associates who These adaptations and his immensely involunteered for the work took hold of it genious apparatus for making the wireless with en:husiasm. The results even system effective will deservedly place ceeded the high expectations at once Marconi's name among those of the greataroused, and in a few weeks nearly all est inventors of our century. the children who were out of school on account of various disorders were back again in their places. Furthermore, it The Mask of the Years was shown that one nurse who took hold of this work sympathetically and not per- The sunlight has marked the hours for functorily could, under normal condi- centuries on old dials in English gardens, tions, look alter the children in three or but there remains no record of their numfour great buildings, teaching the foreign- ber or their beginning. In the heart of born mothers to do most of the work with the earth there are ancient memories which out the expense of calling in physicians. have been deciphered ; and men have The plan has worked so well that the kept, for a part of their life in the world, a educational authorities have decided to register of their thoughts and deeds. But engage nearly a dozen trained nurses to no one knows when time began, nor does look after some forty buildings, and the any one foresee its ending. So accusinnovation promises soon to become an tomed are we to its divisions and subinstitution.
divisions that we forget that it has no real existence outside our own minds.
It is a universal convention, but it is only December 21, 1902, will a convention; something agreed upon The Triumph of
be a memorable date and accepted for convenience; an accomWireless Telegraphy
in the history of trans- modation to our limited vision and knowloceanic telegraphy. On that day formal edge. So long has this convention been inauguratory and congratulatory messages established and so universal is its acceptwere exchanged through the Marconi ance that we have fallen into the habit wireless telegraphy system between Cape of setting it in antithesis with eternity; Breton, Nova Scotia, and the Poldhu forgetting that it is only a very imperfect station at Cornwall, Great Britain. The attempt to bring eternity within the range Governor-General of Canada sent a mes- of our experience and to make it, if not sage to King Edward; a similar message comprehensible, at least usable. Time was transmitted to the King of Italy; and is one way of reckoning the bit of eternity one or more press despatches were also which our earth or our race remembers. successfully passed over the ocean with- There is nothing outside ourselves which out the intervention of cable or wire. It corresponds to it; it is a convenient and is stated that in a very short time the necessary fiction ; eternity is the only line will be in operation for commercial reality. purposes, and a low rate is thought to be The time-sense is of importance because possible because of the comparative cheap it helps us to give our lives order and to pess of the actual operating expenses after keep us in working relations with our a wireless system has been installed. It fellows; but it is the sense of eternity Leed not, however, be supposed that the which makes deep thinking and noble ciny of the cable is over; as a rule, great living possible. Time is a little section inventions have found for themselves new of the great whole which is eternity; it is uses and have supplemented rather than a detail in a great plan;, to live as if it supplanted former inventions, It remains were all of life, to see things as if their time-relations expressed their real signifi- eternal behind it; the graphic dramatic cance, to value our opportunities and force with which he delineates the deed, tasks and burdens as if they were related the masterful insight with which he relates to the years which we number, is to put a it to the man and his fortunes. part in place of the whole and to miss the In this double power the Bible is unique meaning and glory of living. It has been among the books of the world. Concrete, said of Dante that he saw life under the pictorial, historic, it flashes light at every aspect of eternity. When he looked at turn on the ultimate results and condithe seed, the tree stood before him ; when tions; picturing with marvelous vividness he saw the sowing, he saw in the same the sowing of the seed, it instantly disvision the harvesting ; in every act he closes the harvest. In this lies its perdiscerned a cause whose effect was pres- vading, prophetic quality; its steady disent, in every deed he foresaw the fruitage cernment of the things that are to come in power or in misery. He did not look because at every stage it lays bare the ahead; he simply looked into the heart of hidden process which, in the eye of the things; he saw things through the sense prophet, is accomplished as soon as it is of eternity. The greatness and the terror set in motion. So the Christ moves to of “ The Divine Comedy” lies in the fact his martyrdom with such certainty that that it destroys the fiction of time and long before the star shines over Bethlehem makes us suddenly aware that on this the agony of the cross is announced. very to-day, the hours of which are regis- The years come out of the great silence tered on dials in sunny gardens, we are in unbroken succession because we need in eternity.
their divisions in our endeavor to realize, In so far as art is noble and significant in daily experience, the continuity of it annihilates the sense of time and brings eternity. They give us something to us face to face with the beauty and the grasp and use; but they must not confuse terror of eternity. The Sistine Madonna or blind us to the truth that the life we sets the mother in the light of eternity, now live is eternal, and that while we and all heads are uncovered and all voices number our years and distinguish them are hushed in the sudden discernment of one from another, we are already in the meaning of motherhood in that lan- eternity. To-morrow is already in to-day;. guage of the spirit which is the speech the distant future is part of this swiftly of eternity, when all disguises are torn departing present. What we think and away and the divinity of true living is do in this brief instant we are and shall revealed. The “ Last Judgment " fills be in the far-off cycles to which we move. us with awe, not because it is a picture of Our deeds are not of the day; they are a great event to come in some distant age, of eternity. Below all the shiftings and but because it makes us aware that we changes, the moods and emotions, the are sifted, tried, and judged hour by hour, depressions and exaltations, something and that the great artist has dramatized indestructible is shaping itself as surely in a moment of time the eternal process. as below the bareness and icy bondage There are portrait-painters who have such of winter a vast life is organizing itself. power of divination, of penetrating the Our sorrows are registered by the days, mask of the countenance to the charac- but if the root of submission and faith is ter, that their canvases are revelations in them they are as certainly overpast as of the eternal elements in the nature of if already the shadows were gone and the the man or woman behind the touches and heavens were soft and gracious over our moldings of time. Whenever the soul heads. So far as the righteous are able comes into view, the man is seen under to look through the mask of the years, the aspect of eternity. It is one of the light is not only sown for them; it already highest services of art that it shows life floods the skies. So far as the high purunder the aspects of eternity; the fiction pose is deep-rooted and loyally held, nobilof time dissolves under the searching ity and strength and freedom are already glance of the great artist or thinker. achieved. So far as love is pure, unselfShakespeare's genius lies in the unique ish, and sacrificial, it is already safe power with which he gives us the feature against the ravages of death. Life is not of the time and the hidden soul which is yet at the flood, but it is ours as truly as
i we were in full possession of its un- taste, individuality, originality, they must bounded resources; the perfect stature is have a chance to become skillful. If yet afar off, but if the law of growth is they are to have conscience and joy in working in us, it is already ours as surely their work, they must be put in the way of as if we had completely attained. The having joy and conscience in their lives. Sorrows which the years bring the years Society must deal, in other words, with take away; they are of the time and the the workingman as a man; must build place, and we are not the slaves of time up his character, his intelligence, his skill, and place; but our joys, having their as a man before it can get the best out of source in the soul, are indestructible. In him as a worker. the darkest night we know that the day is It is not many decades since this truth, below the horizon; the shadow on the dial which has been slowly evolved out of the does not confuse us; we know that the economic experience of the last three hunsun is on the way, In our deepest griefs, dred years, began to be practically applied if we look into our souls, the joy of in the endeavor not only to make the eternal possession already stirs; it needs homes of workingmen wholesome, but to but the ripening of our faith and patience make their surroundings beautiful; not to bear its perfect Aower. The life of love only to give the factories solidity of strucis not counted by the years; once born in ture and proper light and air, but also to the heart, it abides forever. Sown in the make them attractive. When the suggesfurrows of time, it blooms in those immortal tion was first made that working people fields where no shadows wait to hide the needed the beauty of the world as other sun and no chill of death checks the people need it, and that business men eternal growth.
would do well to meet that need, the suggestion was scouted as sentimental, un
businesslike, doctrinaire. As a matter of Beauty for
Working fact, everything that makes men more People
efficient is in the last degree businesslike;
and the agitation for making working It has taken a good while to make men people's homes and factories attractive understand that, as the artist is condi- instead of ugly has steadily made progress, tioned on the strength, character, and until the time has come when many of quality of the man, so the workingman the foremost manufacturers in the country as a factor in the industrial world is con- not only cordially recognize the principle, ditioned on the force, energy, and char- but are doing their best to apply it. The acter of the man. In other words, work- magazine which has the attractive title of ing men and women are not simply hands, “ Home and Flowers" and is devoted they are complex human beings, whose “ to a more beautiful American life," has work is not a matter of routine, but is been securing the opinions of a number diversified by numberless differences of of leading manufacturers touching the temperament, strength, intelligence, and matter of making business plants attractcharacter. The best investment that ive. More than five hundred business the country can make economically is to men in all parts of the country were build up a high grade of working people— addressed, and of those replying the men and women, in other words, who are editor of “Home and Flowers reports not machines, but who have individuality, that ninety-five per cent. agreed that the health, vitality, conscience. Such work product of a factory or of a business of ing people are not produced under bad any kind is much more valuable when the sanitary, physical, and moral conditions. factory or office is clean, attractive, and They are not bred under the system which beautiful, and when the employees do regards them as so many hands to be paid their work amid surroundings which are so much money at the end of the week. orderly and artistic. If the best is to be gotten out of them, the The President of a large cutlery manubest must be given to them. If they are factory, for instance, puts the whole matto be intelligent, they must have oppor- ter in a paragraph when he says: “ The tunities which will enable them to gain more a man a man is, the more valuable the intelligence. If they are to have he will be to any concern and the more