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Published Weekly

January 3, 1903

Vol. 73

No. 1

A substantial gain cated, as determined by the notes interA Triumph for International Arbitration

for the cause of in- changed between Great Britain, Germany,

ternational arbitra- Italy, Venezuela, and the United States, tion; and therefore for the world's peace have not yet been announced; but it is and advancing civilization, is found in understood that they will be included in a the agreement to submit the Venezuelan protocol which is now being arranged; dispute to the Hague Tribunal. The that they will not involve in any way the willingness, one may even say eagerness, Monroe Doctrine; that if Venezuela shows of all the parties concerned to submit the reasonable willingness to conciliate the case to President Roosevelt was highly Powers, and perhaps to furnish some kind gratifying to our pride as a Nation, and of guarantee for the payment of an adverse was an honest tribute to Mr. Roosevelt's award, the blockade now existing will be fairness, ability, and integrity. But of far withdrawn before the investigation of the greater importance than such considera- arbitrators actually begins. President tions is the indorsement of the principle Roosevelt and Secretary Hay have exerted of arbitration through a permanently con- a decisive influence in the negotiations stituted international court. It may now which have led to the happy determination reasonably be hoped that the time is at to refer the matter to the Hague Tribunal; hand when disputes between nations will and again they have deserved the praise be submitted to the Hague Tribunal and appreciation of the American people almost as a matter of course, and that its without regard to party. It is thought scope and power may be greatly extended. that our Minister, Mr. Bowen, may appear In addition to this prime reason for con- in the negotiations as the accredited repregratulation it may be added that there sentative of Venezuela, but not of the are special reasons why arbitration by United States. The English papers pretty this country alone was not desirable in generally agree that President Roosevelt's this case. In a sense the United States course in declining to act as arbitrator is indirectly involved in everything con- was wise from his point of view and that nected with South America, and it is of the United States, although from the better that it should not be asked to English standpoint they regret it. The adjudicate questions relating to the right week in Venezuela itself was an uneventof interference by foreign nations in ful one when it is considered that, theVenezuela · for the protection of the oretically at least, a state of war exists. property rights of their subjects; that The blockade is being enforced, but apit should not put itself in danger of parently with mildness as regards neutral being regarded by foreign Powers as a vessels. For instance, the mail steampolice force to aid in the collection of ship Caracas, plying between the United debts for them in South American coun- States and Venezuela, was allowed to tries; that it should not, by a possible land mail and passengers at La Guayra, adverse decision, make itself disliked in although it was compelled to leave the the South American countries over which, harbor immediately thereafter. There in an international sense, it must exercise have been no hostilities of any kind; some right of guardianship; and that it and both President Castro and the comshould not, through a judicial decision, manders of the foreign forces now in pass upon what may be its own future Venezuelan waters are evidently trying action. The exact points to be adjudi- to maintain quiet and avoid collision until the diplomatic negotiations are com- American people, having emancipated pleted.

Cuba, set for themselves the task of mak

ing it an American community, with all If the New York“ Timeswhich that implies; or will they leave Cuban Reciprocity

correctly reports Senator .Cuba a Spanish-American community to Burrows, of Michigan, he affords a strik- retrograde to the condition of Hayti? ing illustration of the unstatesmanlike The real prosperity of a people depends tendency in certain quarters, to leave the far more upon their industry than upon great National and even international their politics; and their politics is largely questions to be decided by purely local important for the bearing which it has interests. After saying that in his State upon their industry. The welfare of there are sixteen beet-sugar factories, every man is bound up with that of his representing a stock valuation of $12,000, neighbor; the welfare of every commu000, and that the beet.growers are going nity is bound up with that of its neighboron January 8 to hold a convention to ing community. If we attach Cuba to decide whether a reduction of twenty per

us by commercial ties, if we extend our cent. on Cuban sugar will seriously injure arterial system to her, so that the lifetheir business, he proceeds as follows: blood of commerce will flow freely back In case the decision of the beet-growers

and forth between her and America, shall be that the ratification would be injurious American capital will go to Cuba, Amerto their industry, I do not suppose any Repub- icans will migrate there, the population lican who advocates the protective tariff will

will increase in number and improve in support the treaty. It is not to be assumed that a treaty would be ratified providing for quality, the same transformation will be the easier entry of certain American manufac- effected there that was effected in Loutures into Cuba at the sole expense of another isiana, and there will not be slavery to industry of this country. This is not the reciprocity contemplated in the Republican

retard the process. In contrast with the National platform.

provincial $12,000,000 policy of Senator

Burrows, we put here the statesmanlike To see a Senator of the United States

view of General James H. Wilson, in his practically abdicating his function, which

address delivered last October before the is to legislate for the whole Nation, and

Commercial Club of Chicago. We quote leaving a convention representing one in

from it a few sentences. The whole dustry, in which his constituents have a special interest, to determine for him how speech is well worth careful study: he shall act and vote in the United States The simple fact is that Cuba does not come Senate, is not an altogether admirable to us as a beggar, but with full hands, asking spectacle. It will seem to most readers

us for fair exchange, which will not aly enrich

her, but add greatly to our own prosperity. of the press—we should think it would

It has been stated that of every ten dollars we seem so to the beet-sugar growers of enable her to make out of her products, she Michigan—to mark a decided deteriora- will for years give us nine as profit upon the tion from the days of Webster and Clay I believe that this statement is within the

goods she will take from us in exchange, and and Cass. General Cass was not a great limits of probability. man; but he would hardly have notified the public that he was waiting till a con

But when I consider our own commercial vention representing $12,000,000 worth and political interests in Cuba, I am fully perof stock held by his constituents told him further, and, anticipating the annexation of

suaded that it would pay for us to go still how to vote. He would have been more Cuba, which must come in the end, give her likely to go to the convention when it met at once absolute free entry for her natural and to tell them what their interests, bound manufactured products into the United States,

in exchange for free entry for ours into Cuba up as they are with the interests of the

under the protection of a common tariff as whole country, required.

against the rest of the world.

This absolute freedom of inter-State trade Cuban reciprocity means What Cuban

we think of too little and value too lightly. Reciprocity Means

a great deal more than It lies at the very foundation of our National Senator Burrows seems

prosperity and glory, and we owe to it much to imagine. The question before the

of our preponderating influence in the com

mercial world. If granted to Cuba by treaty Senate is really simply this: Will the or by an Act of Congress, it would do more, in

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my judgment, than any other measure which worthy of serious consideration, but the could be devised.to extend our foreign trade, substitution of this for the two-platoon and not only to enrich and make Cuba prosperous and happy, but to fill her up with system is in the line of the modern Americans, and thus hasten her preparation movement for the reduction of hours of for incorporation into the Great Republic. labor. The fact that it would require an What statesmanship calls for is a treaty increase in the police forces is not a with Cuba by which she would leave serious objection. The fact that it gives America to determine all her foreign longer rest and larger opportunities relations, including her tariff system, and for the policemen in family life seems America would take down all tariff barri- to us to outweigh the objections against ers between her and America. Whether it. We are doubtful about the recompolitical annexation is ever to come, it mendation that policemen should conwill be time enough to consider by and by. tinue to have a right to appeal to the Commercial annexation might well be court; for the review of their cases when perfected to-day. True statesmanship the decision of the police tribunal is would endeavor to make Cuba at once against them. These appeals in the past American, in her industry, her schools, have had the effect to reinstate on the her liberties. No real imagined force, on technical grounds, men who had interests represented by $12,000,000, or been discharged for good and sufficient any other amount, should be permitted to reason. This right of appeal has also the stand in the way of such a consummation. effect to weaken discipline by depriving

the head of the police force of power to

discharge except in cases where legal The organization and evidence admissible before courts of law The Police in New York administration of the can be secured. It appears to The police in New York City is a matter of Outlook that some modification of the more than local interest, because it ought methods of military tribunals in the army to furnish an object-lesson to other cities. would be an improvement on the present For this reason the report of the special system. On this subject, however, The Commission, consisting of ex-District Outlook must report that the general Attorney Philbin, Colonel Partridge, and judgment of experts, including Mr. PhilGeneral A. D. Andrews, made to Mayor bin, the former District Attorney, and Mr. Low last week, recommending certain Jerome, the present District Attorney, elements in a reorganization of the police, and including also all the members of the deserves general consideration, and those Police Commission, sustains the proposal who have to do with police organization that justice requires a continuance of the in other municipalities would do well to system of appeals from police tribunals to secure this report in full and give it care- the courts. The ground of their judgful reading. The Commission-Commis ment is thus stated : sioner Partridge dissenting-recommends To intrust the removal of members of the the establishment of the three-platoon police force, without an appeal to the courts, system—that is, as we understand it, the to such police officials as we have sometimes division of the police into three watches had and may again have, would be to make it

possible for a corrupt head of the department of eight hours each; a chief of the police to exercise a tyranny that would create a to be placed in direct control of the force, demoralization most detrimental to public under the title General Inspector; a single welfare. Experience has shown that the courts Police Commissioner, but with a term of where it was manifest that serious errors had

have only failed to sustain the Commissioner office to be fixed at fourteen years, the prevented the accused from having a fair trial. Commissioner being irremovable except on charges made and proved; and, as now, the members of the police force to have

Almost simultaneously

The New the right of trial and dismissal and the

Police Commissioner

with the

report of right to appeal to the courts for a review

this presentation to the of their cases after trial before the police Mayor comes the resignation of Comtribunal. Most of these recommendations missioner Partridge, and the appointment appear to The Outlook wise. The objec- of General Francis V. Greene in his place. toas to the three-platoon system are well General Greene will bring to the office military experience, a large knowledge of City, where business is mainly in a conmen, and familiarity with the city and its gested center and the new trolley. lines wants, and it is said that he made the have merely brought more distant suburbs condition of his acceptance a change in within easy reach of this center, the result the law, in accordance with the recom- of the extraordinary growth of street-car mendation of the Police Commission, fix- travel has been to produce an overcrowding his term of office at fourteen years ing of cars altogether intolerable. Durand making him irremovable except on ing the holiday season the annoyance to charges. We shall look with interest to which women were subjected stirred the see whether he is able to overcome the whole city, and the energetic Merchants' serious defects in the police administra- Association and the Mayor demanded of tion of New York City, without greater the street-railway companies a series of power of discipline than the Police Com- reforms by which the situation should be missioner now possesses. We shall be relieved. Mayor Low put the emphasis surprised if he is able to do so without a of his demands upon the surely practicachange in the policy of municipal admin- ble expedient of running as many cars istration for which the Commissioner is throughout the day as are run during the not primarily responsible. The enact- “ rush hours," and with this demand for ment of laws against vice, and particu- the public he coupled the demand that larly against liquor selling, by the general the motormen on the trolleys should be sentiment of the State, the enforcement protected by vestibules. When horses of which would be contrary to the general were used, he pointed out, the companies sentiment in the city of New. York, has had an excuse for not vestibuling the front led to the adoption of a policy of enforcing platforms, but with the substitution of electhe law in some cases and not in others, tric power the vestibules can no longer leaving the police captains to determine, be in the way. The Merchants' Associawhen they should and when they should tion added to these demands a very not enforce it. Such a policy is fatal to sharp one calling for “accommodation for discipline and often to honesty, and is every passenger, or the enforcement of a prolific source of blackmail. If the a 'no seat, no fare”” ordinance. With the laws against vice are to be enforced only spirit which prompted this last demand when the violation of them becomes a we are in the fullest sympathy, but the public nuisance, the principle should be demand itself is extreme. Passengers clearly enunciated by the Mayor, and insist upon crowding on cars when there the responsibility should be assumed by is nothing but standing room and hardly him. We do not believe that any Com- that, and it is not fair—even if it is conmissioner can prevent the police from stitutional-to require the roads to carry being co partners with vice by sharing them without pay. If anything is to be its profits, unless either the Legislature done along this line, it is much more changes the laws against vice, so framing feasible to adopt the suggestion of Mr. them as to make them possible of impar- M. N. Forney's recent pamphlet on “ The tial enforcement, or the Mayor and Com- Overcrowding of Cars," demanding ordimissioner combine in a policy, frankly nances establishing the principle “no seat, avowed, which shall clearly and intel- half fare." Such an ordinance would be ligibly define the extent to which and the essentially fair, and although it would limits within which the police can be require elevated roads to provide conductcalled on to enforce the present laws. ors to give back half-fare slips to stand

ing passengers, it would also speedily im

pel them to increase the number or size Americans have long been of their cars. Certainly the constitutionOvercrowded Street-Cars

the greatest street-car riding ality of such an ordinance is not open to

people in the world, and this attack, as the company would have a greater form of National extravagance-or econ- profit from carrying crowded standing pasomy where time and strength are money, sengers at half fare than from carrying has been greatly developed during the comfortably seated ones at full fare. past few years of financial prosperity and principle laid down by the Supreme Court street-railway expansion. In New York of Iowa, and cited by Mr. Forney, fully

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