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unlawful desires; and by this time the monsters and nor by reference and careful re-perusal could dis diseases will be numerous and intolerable, when cover, any other meaning, either in Milion or Taylor God's heavy hand shall press the sanies and the in- but that good men will be rewarded, and the impen. tolerableness, the obliquity and the unreasonableness, itent wicked punished, in proportion to their disposi. the amazement and the disorder, the smart and the tions and intentional acts in this life ; and that if the sorrow, the guilt and the punishment, out from all punishment of the least wicked he fearful beyond our sins, and pour them into one chalice, and mingle conception, all words and descriptions must be so far them with an infinite wrath, and make the wicked true, that they must fall short of the punishment tha: drink of all the vengeance, and force it down their awaits the transcendently wicked. Had Milton slated unwilling throats with the violence of devils and either his ideal of virtue, or of depravily, as an indi. accursed spirits."

vidual or individuals actually existing ? Certainly not That this Tartarean drench displays the imagina. Is this representation worded historically, or only hytion rather than the discretion of the compounder; pothetically ? Assuredly the latter! Does he express that, in short, this passage and others of the kind it as his own wish, that after death they should suffer are in a lad taste, few will deny at the present day. these wortures ? or as a general consequence, deduced It would doubtless have more behoved the good from reason and revelation, that such will be their bishop not to be wise beyond what is written, on a fate? Again, the latter only! His wish is expressly consubject in which Eternity is opposed to Time, and a fined to a speedy stop being put by Providence to death threatened, not the negative, but the positive their power of inflicting misery on others! But did he Oppositive of Life; a subject, therefore, which must name or refer to any persons, living or dead ? No! of necessity be indescribable to the human under. But the calunniators of Milton dare say (for what standing in our present state. But I can neither find will calumny not dare say ?) that he had Laup and nor believe, that it ever occurred to any reader to Stafford in his mind, while writing of remorseless ground on such passages a charge against Bishop persecution, and the enslavement of a free country, Taylor's humanity, or goodness of heart. I was from motives of selfish ambition. Now, what if a not a little surprised therefore to find, in the Pur- stern anti-prelatist should dare say, that in speaking suits of Literature and other works, so horrible a of the insoleruies of trailors and the violences of rebels, sentence passed on Milton's moral character, for a Bishop 'Taylor must have individualized in his mind. passage in his prose-writings, as nearly parallel to HAMPDEN, HIOLLIS, Pym, Fairfax, IRETON, and Milthis oi' Taylor's as two passages can well be con- TON? And what if he should take the liberty of conceived to be. All his merits, as a poet forsooth-all cluding, that, in the after description, the Bishop was the glory of having written the Paradise Lost, are feeding and feasting his party-hatred, and with those light in the scale, nay, kick the beam, compared individuals before the eyes of his imagination enjoy. with the atrocious malignity of heart expressed in ing, trait by trait, horror after horror, the picture of the offensive paragraph. I remembered, in general, their intolerable agonies? Yet this bigot would have that Milton had concluded one of his works on Re. an equal right thus to criminate the one good and formation, written in the fervor of his youthful, im- great man, as these men have to criminate the other. agination, in a high poetic strain, that wanted metre Milton has said, and I doubt not but that Taylor with only to become a lyrical poem. I remembered that equal truth could have said it, “ that in his whole in the former part he had formed to himself a perfect life he never spake against a man even that his skin ideal of human virtue, a character of heroic, disin- should be grazed." He asserted this when one of his terested zeal and devotion for Truth, Religion, and opponents (either Bishop Hall or his nephew) had public Liberty, in Act and in Suflering, in the day called upon the women and children in the streets of Triumph and in the hour of Martyrdom. Such to take up stones and stone him (Milton). It is spirits, as niore excellent than others, he describes known that Milton repeatedly used his interest to as having a more excellent reward, and as distin- protect the alists; but even at a time when all guished by a transcendent glory: and this reward lies would have been meritorious against him, no and this glory he displays and particularizes with an charge was made, no story pretended, that he had energy and brilliance that announced the Paradise ever directly or indirectly engaged or assisted in Lost as plainly as ever the bright purple clouds in their persecution. Oh! meihinks there are other and the east announced the coming of the sun. Milton far better feelings, which should be acquired by the then passes to the gloomy contrast, to such men as perusal of our great elder writers. When I have from motives of selfish ambition and the lust of per before me on the same table, the works of Hammond sonal aggrandizement should, against their own light, and Baxter: when I reflect with what joy and dear persecute truth and the true religion, and wilfully ness their blessed spirits are now loving each other abuse the powers and gifts intrusted to them, to it seems a mournful thing that their names should bring vice, blindness, misery and slavery, on their be perverted to an occasion of bitterness among us. native country, on the very country that had trusted, who are enjoying that happy mean which the human enriched and honored them. Such beings, after that 100-MUCH on both sides was perhaps necessary to speedy and appropriate removal from their sphere of produce. “ The tangle of delusions which stified and mischief which all good and humane men must of distorted the growing tree of our well-being has de sa course desire, will, he takes for granted by parity of tom away! the parasile weeds that fed on its ve. reason, meet with a punishment, an ignominy, and a roots have been plucked up with a salutary violene retaliation, as much severer than other wicked men, To us there remain only quiet duties, the constant as their guilt and its consequences were more enor. care, the gradual improvement, the cautious uninous. His description of this imaginary punishment hazardous labors of the industrious though contented presents more distinct pictures to the fancy than the gardener—to prune, to strengthen, to engrafi, und extract from Jeremy 'Taylor; but the thoughts in the one by one tv remove from its leaves and freslo latter are incomparably more exaggerated and hor-shoots the slug and the caterpillar. But far he sific. All this I knew; but I neither remembered, it from us to undervalue with light and senseless

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detraction the conscientious hardihood of our prede- even by the Schoolmen in subtlety, agility and logic cessors, or even to condemn in them that vehemence, wit, and unrivalled by the most rhetorical of the to which the blessings it won for us leave us now fathers in the copiousness and vividness of his exneither temptation or pretext. We antedate the pressions and illustrations. Here words that confeelings, in order to criminate the authors, of our pres-vey feelings, and words that flash images, and words ent Liberty, Light and Toleration.” (THE FRIEND, of abstract notion, fiow together, and at once whirl

and rush onward like a stream, at once rapid and If ever two great men might seem, during their full of eddies; and yet still interfused here and there whole lives, to have moved in direct opposition, though we see a tongue or isle of smooth water, with some neither of them has at any time introduced the picture in it of earth or sky, landscape or living name of the other, Milton and Jeremy Taylor were group of quiet beauty. they. The former commenced his career by attack- Differing, then, so widely, and almost contrarianting the Church-Liturgy and all set forins of prayer. ly, wherein did these great men agree? wherein The latter, but far more successfully, by defending did they resemble each other? In Genius, in both. Milton's next work was then against the Pre-Learning, in unfeigned Piety, in blameless Purity lacy and the then existing Church-Government-of Life, and in benevolent aspirations and purposes Taylor's in vindication and support of them. Milton for the moral and temporal improvement of their felbecame more and more a stern republican, or rather low-creatures! Boih of them wrote a Lacin Accian advocate for that religious and moral aristocracy dence, to render education more easy and less painwhich, in his day, was called republicanism, and ful to children; both of them composed hymns and which, even more than royalisin itself, is the direct psalms proportioned to the capacity of common conantipode of modern jacobinism. Taylor, as more and gregations; both, nearly at the same time, set the more sceptical concerning the fitness of men in general glorious example of publicly recommending and supfor power, became more and more attached to the porting general Toleration, and the Liberty both of prerogatives of monarchy. Froin Calvinism, with a the Pulpit and the Press! In the writings of neither still decreasing respect for Fathers, Councils, and for shall we find a single sentence, like those meek Church-Antiquity in general, Milton seems to have deliverances to God's mercy, with which Laud acenled in an indifference, if not a dislike, to all forms companied his votes for the mutilations and lotheof ecclesiastic government, and to have retreated some dungeoning of Leighton and others !-- nowhere wholly into the inward and spiritual church-commu- such a pious prayer as we find in Bishop Hall's nion of his own spirit with the Light, that lighteth memoranda of his own Life, concerning the subtle every man that cometh into the world. Taylor, with and witty Atheist that so grievously perplexed and a growing reverence for authority, an increasing gravelled him at Sir Robert Drury's, till he prayed to sense of the insufficiency of the Scriptures without the Lord to remove him, and behold! his prayers the aids of tradition and the consent of authorized were heard; for shortly afterward this Philistine interpreters, advanced as far in his approaches (not combatant went to London, and there perished of indred to Popery, but) to Catholicism, as a conscien- the plague in great misery! In short, nowhere shall tious minister of the English Church could well ven- we find the least approach, in the lives and writings tire. Milton would be, and would utter the same, of John Milton or Jeremy 'Taylor, to that guarded to all, on all occasions: he would tell the truth, the gentleness, to that sighing reluctance, with which whole truth, and nothing but the truth. Taylor the holy Brethren of the Inquisition deliver over a would become all things to all men, if by any condemned heretic to the civil magistrate, recommeans he might benefit any; hence he availed him- mending him to mercy, and hoping that the magis. self. in his popular writings, of opinions and repre- trate will treat the erring brother with all possible sentations which stand often in striking contrast with mildness !—the magistrate, who too well knows what the doubts and convictions expressed in his more would be his own fate, if he dared ofsend them by philosophical works. He appears, indeed, not too acting on their recommendation. severely to have blamed that management of truth The opportunity of diverling the reader from my. (istom falsitatem dispensativam) authorized and ex- self to characters more worthy of his attention, has emplified by almost all the fathers: Integrum omnino led me far beyond my first intention ; but it is not Datoribus et cætus Christiani antistibus esse, u dolos unimportant to expose the false zeal which has occarer sent, fola veris intermisceant et imprimis religionis sioned these attacks on our elder patriots. It has kartes fallant, dummodo veritalis commodis el utilitati been too much the fashion, first 10 personify the inserviant.

Church of England, and then to speak of different The same antithesis might be carried on with the individuals, who in different ages have been rulers elements of their several intellectual powers. Mil- in that church, as if in some strange way they conton, austere, condensed, imaginative, supporting his stituted its personal identity. Why should a clergytruth by direct enunciations of lofty moral senti. man of the present day feel interested in the defence ment and by distinct visual representations, and in of Laud or Sheldon? Surely it is sufficient for the the same spirit overwhelming what he deemed false- warmest partisan of our establishment, that he can hood by moral denunciation and a succession of pic- asseri with truth.—when our Church persecuted, it tures appalling or repulsive. In his prose, so many was on mistaken principles held in common by all metaphors, so many allegorical miniatures. Taylor, Christendom ; and, at all events, far less culpablo eminently discursive, accumulative, and (to use one was this intolerance in the Bishops, who were mainof his own words) agglomerative ; still more rich in taining the existing laws, than the persecuting spirit images than Milton himself, but images of Fancy, afterwards shown by their successful opponents, who and presented to the common and passive eye, rather had no such excuse, and who should have been than to the eye of the imagination. Whether sup- taught mercy by their own sufferings, and wisdom by porting or assailing, he makes his way either by ar- the utter failure of the experiment in their own case. gument or by appeals to the affections, unsurpassed, We can say, that our Church, apostolical in its faithe primitive in its ceremonies, unequalled in its liturgical England, in a tolerating age, has shown herself erni forms; that our Church, which has kindled and dis- nently tolerant, and far more so, both in Spirit and in played more bright and burning lights of Genius and fact, that many of her most bitter opponents, who Learning, than all other Protestant churches since profess to deein toleration itself an insult on the the Reformation, was (with the single exception of rights of mankind! As to myself, who not only know the tines of Laud and Sheldon) least intolerant, the Church-Establishment to be tolerant, but who when all Christians unhappily deemed a species of see in it the greatest, if not the sole safe bulwark of intolerance their religious duty; that Bishops of our Toleration, I feel no necessity of defending or palchurch were among the first that contended against liating oppressions under the two Charleses, in order this error; and finally, that since the Reformation, to exclaim with a full and fervent heart, ESTO PER when tolerance became a fashion, the Church of | PETUA!

The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.


Facile credo, plures esse Naturas invisibiles quam visibiles in rerum universitate. Sed horum omnium familiam quis nobis enarrabit ? et gradus et cognationes et discrimina et singulorum munera ? Quid agunt ? quæ loca habitant ? Harum rerum notitiam semper ambivit ingenjum humanum, nunquam attigit. Juvat, interca, non diffiteor, quandoque in animo, tanquam in tabula, majoris et melioris mundi imaginem contemplari: ne mens assuefacta hodiernæ vitæ minutiis se contrahat nimis, et tota su bsidat in pusillas cogitationes. Sed veritati interea invigilandum est, modusque servandus, ut certa ab incertis, diem a nocte, distinguamus.-T. BURNET: Archæol. Phil.





The bride hath paced into the hall, The wedding-
Red as a rose is she;

guert heareth the An ancient Mari- It is an ancient Mariner,

bridal music; but ner meeteth three And he stoppeth one of three :

Nodding their heads before her goes the Mariner congallants bidden to

By thy long gray beard and glitter- merry minstrelsy.

tinueth his tale. a wedding-feast, and detaineth ing eye,

The Wedding-Guesthe beat his
Now wherefore stopp'st thou me? breast,

Yet he cannot choose but hear;
“ The Bridegroom's doors are open'd And thus spake on that ancient man,

The bright-eyed Mariner.
And I am next of kin;
The guests are met, the feast is set: And now the STORM-BLAST came, and the ship drawn


by a storm toward Mayst hear the merry din.” Was tyrannous and strong :

the south pole.
He holds him with his skinny hand: He struck with his o'ertaking wings,
“ There was a ship," quoth he. And chased us south along.
" Hold off! unhand me, gray-beard with sloping masts and dripping prow,

Eftsoons his hand dropt he.

As who pursued with yell and blow

Still treads the shadow of his foe, The wedding- He holds him with his glittering eye

And forward bends his head, guest is spell

The Wedding-Guest stood still, The ship drove fast, loud roar'd the bound by the eye

blast, of the old scafar. And listens like a three-years' child ; ing man, and con- The Mariner hath his will.

And south ward aye we fled.
strained to bear
his tale.
The Wedding-Guest sat on a stone,

And now there came both mist and
He cannot choose but hear;

And thus spake on that ancient man,

Aud it grew wondrous cold;
The bright-eyed mariner.

And ice, mast-high, came floating by,

As green as emerald.
The ship was cheer'd, the harbor And through the drifts the snowy clifts The land of ice,
Did send a dismal sheen:

and of fearful Merrily did we drop

sounds, where no Nor shapes of men nor beasts we Below the kirk, below the hill,

living thing was ken

to be seen. Below the light-house top.

The ice was all between. The Mariner tells The Sun came up upon the left, The ice was here, the ice was there, how the ship sail- Out of the sea came he!

The ice was all around : ed southward

And he shone bright, and on the right It crack'd and growld, and roar'd and with a good wind and fair weather, Went down into ine sea.

howl'd, sill it reached the Higher and higher every day,

Like noises in a swound ! line

Till a great sen.

bird, called the Till over the mast at noonAt length did cross an Albatross :

Albatrose, came The Wedding-Guest here beat his Thorough the sog it came ;

through the snow breast,

As if it had been a Christian soul, fog, and was reFor he heard the loud bassoon. We hail'd it in God's name.

ceived with great

joy and hospital 70


It ate the food it ne'er had eat, Day after day, day after day,
And round and round it flew. We stuck, nor breath nor motion;
The ice did split with a thunder-fit; As idle as a painted ship
The helmsman steer'd us through! Upon a painted ocean.


And lo! the Al And a good south-wind sprung up Water, water, everywhere,

And the Albabatross proveth behind;

And all the boards did shrink :

tross begins to ba a bird of good The Albatross did follow,


Water, water, everywhere, omen, and followeth the ship as it And every day, for food or play, Nor any drop to drink. returned north- Came to the mariner's hollo! ward through fog

The very deep did rot: 0 Christ! and floating ice. In mist or cloud, on mast or shroud, That ever this should be !

It perch'd for vespers nine; Yea, slimy things did crawl with legs
Whiles all the night, through fog. Upon the slimy sea.

smoke white,
Glimmer'd the white moon-shine. About, about, in reel and rout

The death-fires danced at night;
The ancient Mari- “God save thee, ancient Mariner! The water, like a witch's oils,
Der inhospitably From the fiends, that plague thee Burnt green, and blue and white.
killeih the pious

thus! bird of good

A spirit bad folWhy look'st thou 'so ?"-With my And some in dreams assured were

lowed them: one cross-bow

Of the spirit that plagued us so ; of the invisible in-
I shot the ALBATROSS.

Nine fathom deep he had follow'd us habitants of this
From the land of mist and snow.

planet, -neither

departed souls PART IJ.

nor angels ; conThe Sun now rose upon the right: cerning whom the learned Jew. Josephus, and the Platonic Out of the sea came he,

Constantinopolitan, Michael Psellus, may be consulted. They Still hid in mist, and on the left

are very numerous, and there is no climate or element without Went down into the sea. And the good south-wind still blew And every tongue, through utter behind,

But no sweet bird did follow,

Was wither'd at the root ;
Nor any day for food or play

We could not speak, no more than if
Came to the mariner's hollo!
We had been choked with soot.

The shipmates, in

their sore distress His shipmates cry And I had done an hellish thing, Ah! well-a-day! what evil looks

would fain throw out against the And it would work 'em woe :

Had I from old and young !

the whole guilt on ancient Mariner, For all averr'd, I had kill'd the bird Instead of the cross, the Albatross the ancient Marof good-luck. That made the breeze to blow.

iner :-in bian About my neck was hung.

whereof they Ah wretch ! said they, the bird to

bang the dead slay,

sen-bird round That made the breeze to blow !


his neck.

one or more.

But when the fog Nor dim nor red, like God's own THERE pass'd a weary time. Each cleared off, they head,

throat justify the same. The glorious Sun uprist :

Was parch'd, and glazed each oye. and thus make themselves ac

Then all averr'd, I had kill'd the bird A weary time! a weary time! complices in the That brought the fog and mist.

How glazed each weary eye, crime.

The ancient Ma"T was right, said they, such birds to When looking westward, i beheld

riner beholdeth a slay A something in the sky.

sign in the eleThat bring the fog and mist.

ment afar off

At first it seem'd a little speck,
The fair breeze The fair breeze blew, the white foam And then it seem'd a mist;
Continues; the

It moved and moved, and took at last
ship enters the
Pac.fic Ocean and The furrow follow'd free; A certain shape, I wist.
sails northward, We were the first that ever burst
even till it reach- Into that silent sea.

A speck, a mist, a shape, I wist! es the Line.

And still it neard and near'd: The ship hath Down dropt the breeze, the sails dropt As if it dodged a water-sprite, beea suddenly down,

It plunged and tack'd and veerd. lecs.med. "T was sad as sad could be ; And we did speak only to break

With throats unslaked, with black At its nearer apThe silence of the sea!

lips baked,

proach, it seem

eth him to be a We could nor laugh nor wail;

ship ; and at a All in a hot and copper sky,

Through utter drought all dumb we dear ransoin he The bloody Sun, at noon,


freeth his speech

from the bonds ou Right up above the mast did stand, I bit my arm, I suck'd the blood,

thirst. No bigger than the Moon.

And cried, A sail ! a sail !

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With throats unslaked, with black One after one, by the star-dogged One after an
lips baked,


other, Agape they heard me call ; Too quick for groan or sigh, A flash of joy. Gramercy! they for joy did grin, Each turn'd his face with a ghastly

And all at once their breath drew in, pang,

As they were drinking all. And cursed me with his eye. And horror fol- See! see! (I cried) she tacks no more! Four times fifty living men

His shipmates ows: for can it be Hither to work us weal ; a ship, that comes

(And I heard nor sigh nor groan),

drop down dead
onward without Without a breeze, without a tide, With heavy thump, a lifeless lump,
wind or tide ? She steadies with upright keel! They dropp'd down one by one.

The western wave was all a flame, The souls did from their bodies fly,- But Life-in-
The day was well-nigh done, They fled to bliss or woe!

Death begins her
Almost upon the western wave And every soul, it pass'd me by

work on the an-
Rested the broad bright Sun; Like the whizz of my CROSS-BOW!

cient Mariner.
When that strange shape drove sud-

Betwixt us and the Sun.
"I FEAR thee, ancient Mariner! The wedding

guest feareth that It scemeth him And straight the Sun was fleck'd I fear thy skinny hand!

a spirit is talking but the skeleton with bars,

And thou art long, and lank, and to him; of a ship.

(Heaven's Mother send us grace!) brown,
As if through a dungeon-grate he As is the ribb'd sea-sand.*

With broad and burning face.

" I fear thee and thy glittering eye,

And thy skinny hand so brown."-
Alas! (thought I, and my heart beat Fear not, fear not, thou Wedding. But the ancient


Mariner assureth
How fast she nears and nears!
This body dropt not down.

him of his bodily
Are those her sails that glance in the

life, and proceed-
Alone, alone, all, all alone,

eth to relate his

horrible penance. Like restless gossameres ?

Alone on a wide wide sea!

And never a saint took pity on And its ribs are Are those her ribs through which the My soul in agony. seen as bars on

the face of the
setting Sun,

Did peer, as through a grate ; The many men, so beautiful! He despiseth the
And is that woman all her crew ? And they all dead did lie :

creatures of the

calm. The spectre- Is that a DEATH, and are there two ? And a thousand thousand slimy woman and her Is DEATH that woman's mate?

things death-mate, and no other on board Her lips were red, her looks were

Lived on; and so did I.
the skeleton-ship.
Like vessel, like

I look'd upon the rotting sea, And envieth tha:
Her locks were yellow as gold :
And drew my eyes away;

they should live,
Her skin was as white as leprosy,
The Night-Mare LIFE-IN-DEATH was And there the dead men lay.
I look'd upon the rotting deck,

and so many lie

dead. she,

Who thicks man's blood with cold. I look'd to Heaven, and tried to pray ; Death, and Life The naked hulk alongside came,

But or ever a prayer had gush'd, in-Death have diced for the And the twain were casting dice;

A wicked whisper came, and made ship's crew, and “ The game is done! I've won, I've My heart as dry as dust. sbe (the latter)

won !” winneth the an

I closed my lids, and kept them close, cient Mariner. Quoth she, and whistles thrice.

And the balls like pulses beat; No twilight The Sun's rim dips ; the stars rush For the sky and the sea, and the sea within the courts

and the sky,
of the sun.
At one stride comes the Dark;

Lay like a load on my weary eye
With far-heard whisper, o'er the sea

And the dead were at my feet.
Off shot the spectre-bark.

The cold sweat melted from their But the curee liv.
At the rising of We listen'd and look'd sideways up!


eth for him in the be moon, Fear at my heart, as at a cup, Nor rot nor reek did they ;

eye of the dead [me

My life-blood seem'd to sip!

The look with which they look'd on
The stars were dim, and thick the Had never pass'd away.

The steersman's face by his lamp An orphan's curse would drag to Hell

A spirit from on high ;
gleam'd white;
From the sails the dew did drip-
Till clomb above the eastern bar

For the two last lines of this stanza, I am indebted to Mr.
The horned Moon, with one bright Wordsworth. It was on a delightful walk from Nether Stowey


to Dulverton, with him and his sister, in the Autumn ot' 1797 Within the nether tip.

that this Poem was planned, and in part composed.


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