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out of the way, though it constantly pursue the design and scope of the apostle.
Sixthly, Though this epistle was written to the Hebrews, and immediately for their use, yet it is left on record in the canon of the Scripture by the Holy Ghost, for the same general end with the other parts of the Scripture, and the use of all believers therein to the end of the world.
This use in our Exposition is also to be regarded, and that principally in the parænetical or hortatory part of it. That then which is dogmatical, and the foundation of all the exhortations insisted on, may be two ways considered.
1. Properly, as to the special and peculiar tendency of the principles and doctrines handled, and so they specially intend the Jews, and must be opened with respect to them, their principles, traditions, opinions, objections; all which must therefore be considered, that the peculiar force and efficacy of the apostle's reasonings with respect to them, may be made manifest. And from the doctrinal part of this Epistle so opened, the exhortations that arise do chiefly respect the Jews, and are peculiarly suited unto them to their state and condition.
2. Again, the doctrines treated on by the apostle may be considered absolutely and abstractedly from the special case of the Jews, which he had in his eye, merely as to their own nature, and so they are many of them of the chief fundamental principles of the gospel. In this respect, they are grounds for the application of the exhortations in the Epistle, to all professors of the gospel to the end of the world. And this must guide us in our Exposition. Having to deal with the Jews, the doctrinal parts of the Epistle must be opened with special respect to them, or we utterly lose the apostle's aim and design ; and dealing with Christians, the hortatory part shall be principally insisted on, as respecting all professors : yet not so, but that in handling the doctrinal part, we shall weigh the principles of it, as articles of our evangelical faith in general, and consider also the peculiar respect that the exhortations have to the Jews.
Now whereas, as was said, many principles of the Jews are partly supposed and taken for granted, and partly urged and insisted on to his own purpose by the apostle, we must in our passage make some stay in their discovery and declaration, and shall insert them under their proper heads where they occur, even as many of them as are not already handled in our prolegomena,
The general scope and design of the apostle in this whole Epistle, hath been before declared, and needs not here be repeated. In this first chapter, he fixeth and improveth the principal consideration that he intends to insist on throughout the Epistle, to prevail with the Hebrews unto constancy and perseverance in the doctrine of the gospel. And this is taken from the immediate Author of it, the promised Messiah, the Son of God. Him therefore in this chapter he at large describes; and that two ways. 1. Absolutely, declaring what he is in his person and offices, as also what he hath done for the church. And, 2. Comparatively, with respect unto other ministerial revealers of the mind and will of God, especially insisting on his excellency and pre-eminence above the angels; as we shall see in the explication of the several parts and verses of it. Ver. 1, 2.-Πολυμερώς και πολυτροπως παλαι ο Θεος λαλησας τους πα
τρεσιν εν τοις προφητεις, επ' εσχατων των ημερων τετων ελαλησεν ημιν
εν υιω, ν εθηκε κληρονομον πανίων, δι' και και τες αιώνας εποιησεν. Many of these words being variously rendered, their true grammatical sense and importance is to be considered, before we open the meaning of the whole, and the aim of the apostle in them ; in which way we shall also proceed throughout the whole Epistle.
Dloupesquisa 1995 592. Syr. In all parts, or by many parts. Multifariam, Vulg. Eras, A. Montan. diversely. Multis vicibus, Beza; which our's render, at sundry times. Mogopar is sortior divido, to part, to take part, to divide ; whence is picos, the part of any thing, and tourices that which consisteth of many parts; and non vjengws, by many parts; which is also used as a team pigs, for alternis vicibus, sundry changes. The word properly is, by many parts ; fully, by several parts at seceral times, as our
translation intimates; yet so that a diversity of parts and degrees, rather than of times and seasons, is intended.
xai FoAvtqotws. 1937 4321. Syr. in all forms. Multisque modis, Vulg. Eras. A. Montan. Beza, many ways; or as our's, in di
Tadas. D'7P 72. Syr. ab initio, from the beginning; Olim, the Latin translations, of old, formerly, in times past ; taha is olim, quondam, pridem, jamdudum ; any time past that is opposed, uçtı, or vv, to that which is present ; properly, time some good while past, as that was whereof the apostle treats, having ended in Malachi four hundred years before.
TOIS Tateari. 1970% Dý. Syr. with our fathers ; to the fathers.
SY TOUS #COPATAIS. X32. Syr. in the prophets ; so all the Latin translations, in prophetis.
' spesqwv 78TW, . in those last days; ultimis diebus hisce ; ultimis diebus istis ; in these last days ; novissime diebus istis, Vulg: last of all in these days. Some Greek copies have st' so XATOU TRY spesqwo Txtov, in extremo dierum istorum, in the end of these days, the reason of which variety we shall see afterwards.
sv iww, as before in the prophets ; not by his Son, but in the Son. The emphasis of the expression is necessarily to be retained, as the opening of the words will discover.
785 awas, mundos, secula : Dinbyn. Syr. the ages, times, worlds. In the remaining words there is no difficulty, as to the grammatical signification : we shall then read them, Ver. 1, 2.-By sundry parts, and in divers manners, God having
formerly (or of old) spoken unto the fathers in the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us in the Son, whom he
hath appointed heir of all, by whom also he made the worlds. The apostle intending a comparison between the Mosaic law and the gospel, referreth, it unto two heads. First, To their revelation and institution, whence the obligation to the observ. ance of the one and the other did arise; and, secondly, To their whole nature, use and efficacy. The first he enters upon in these words, and premising that wherein they did agree, he distinctly lays down the several things wherein the difference between them doth consist; both which were necessary to complete the comparison intended.
That wherein they agree, is the principal efficient cause of their revelation, or the prime Author from whom they were. This is God. He was the Author of the law, and of the gospel. He spake of old in the prophets, he spake in the last days in the Son. Neither of them were from men : not one from one principle, and the other from another ; both have the same
divine original. See 2 Tim. ii. 16. 2 Pet. i. 16--21. Herein they both agree.
Their difference in this respect, namely of their revelation, he refers to four heads, all distinctly expressed, saving that some branches of the antithesis, on the part of the gospel, are only included in the opposite espressions that relate unto the law.
First, they differ in respect of the manner of their revelation, and that in two particulars. 1. The revelation of the will of God under the law was given out by divers parts; that under the gospel at once, or in one dispensation of grace and truth. 2. That in divers manners; this one way only, by the Spirit dwelling in the Lord Christ in his fulness, and by him communicated to his apostles.
Secondly, The times and seasons of their revelation : that of the law was made of old, formerly, in times past ; this of the gospel in these last days.
Thirdly, The persons to whom the revelation of them was made. That was to the fathers, this to us.
Fourthly, and principally, The persons by whom these revelations were made. That was by the prophets, this by the Son. God spake then in the prophets ; now he hath spoken in the Son.
The whole stress of the apostle's argument resting on this last instance, he omits the prosecution of all the other particulars, and enters on the further description of this immediate revealer of the gospel in whom God spake, the Son, and lays down in general, · 1. The authority committed to him, “ God made him heir of all."
2. The ground and equity of committing that great power and trust to him, in those words, “ by whom also he made the worlds.” And thus he opens his way to the farther declaration of his divine and incomparable excellencies, wherein he is exalted far above all, or any that were employed in the revelation or administration of the law of Moses, and the holy worship instituted thereby.
All these particulars must be opened severally, that we may see the intention of the apostle, and the force of his argument in the whole. And some of them must necessarily be somewhat largely insisted on, because of their influence upon the ensuing Discourse.
First, That wherein the law and gospel do both agree is, that God ó Ows, was the author of them both. About this there was no difference, amongst the most of them with whom the apostle treated. This, therefore, he takes for granted. For the professing Jews did not adhere to Mosaic institutions, because God was their author, and not the author of the gos