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H. of R.)

Salt.--Removal of the Indians.

(May 15, 1830

committee about five hours on the various questions pre Mr. MARTIN. Rather than consume the time of the sented by the bill, and connected with our Indian relations. House in taking the yers and pays, he would withdrav When he concluded,

his motion : but On motion of Mr. STORRS, of New York, the commit Mr. DAVENPORT, of Virginia, renewed the motion; and tee rose.

The question was taken on suspending the rule, and de

cided in the negative by yeas and Days: yeas, 67—naye, 90. SATURDAY, MAY 15, 1830.

REMOVAL OF THE INDIANS.
SALT.

The House then resolved itself into the Committee of the Mr. TALIAFERRO moved that the House take up the Whole on the state of the Union, Mr. WICKLIFFE in the resolution laid on the table by him yesterday, proposing chair, and resumed the consideration of the bill " provid a repeal of the duty on salt.

ing for an exchange of lands with the Indian tribes within Mr. EARLL, of New York, demanded the yeas and pays the several States and territories, and for their removal op the question of consideration, and they were ordered. west of the Mississippi river."

Mr. BARRINGER rose to state that he had a substitute Mr. STORRS said, that, if he bad believed that the real for the resolution, which he should offer when in order. object and only effort of the bill were to further the policy

Mr. CONNER called the attention of the Chair to a re- of providing a country beyond the Mississippi for such of solution on this same subject, which he had laid on the the Indian tribes as might be inclined, of their own free table at an early period of this session; which, he presumed, choice, to remove there, be should bave cheerfully given would preclude the present one, while that was unacted on; bis support to the measure. For (said Mr. S.] I heartily but

respond to the opinion expressed by the honorable metThe SPEAKER, on a reference to Mr. C.'s resolution, ber at the head of the Committee on Indian affairs, wbə stated that it did not cover the ground of the present obe spoke yesterday, (Mr. BELL] that po pbilanthropie nian sufficiently to preclude its previous consideration. can look at the condition to which these unfortunate per

The question, “ Will the House now consider the reso- ple have become reduced, by a combination of circumlution ?" was then put, and decided in the afirmative by stances which now press upon them in some quarter the following vote: yeas, 90-Days, 76.

with intolerable severity, without fervently wisbing that Mr. TALIAFERRO then rose, and said it was not his they were already removed far beyond the reach of the purpose to enter into any discussion of the resolution. His oppression-and, I was about to say, the example of the purpose she said] would be fully answered in having put white man. I hope that I am too well aware of the reThis proposition into the possession of the House. This sponsibility of the country to the opinion of the world, course was dictated to him by several considerations, by and too sensible of the duties we owe to these people, to the late period of the session, and by the late elaborate be found resisting any measure here, which may really debate of the question by the House. It would, after that improve their condition, or encouraging them to reject any full and recent discussion, be a trespass on, if not an insult propositions of the Government which may be offered to to the House, were be now to go into an argument of the them for their free acceptance or refusal. But, sir, question. Declining, therefore, to enter into a discussion although the bill now before you presents nothing on its of the subject, he rose to do what he had never before face, which, on a superficial examination, appears to be done in his life. He had for forty years been in some legis- objectionable, yet we cannot shut our eyes, if we would, lative body or other, and in all that time he had never to the circumstances which have brought this subject be moved an adjourdment, had never called for the yeas and fore us at the present session. The papers before the pays, or for the previous question. As, however, the pro- House have convinced me that it is chiefly intended ad position which he had submitted was simple and distinct

, expected to come in aid of the measures recently take untrammelled with any other matter, and fully understood, by the States along the southern line of the Union, ir he would call for the previous question.

removing the Indian nations within their limits from the Mr. VINTON moved a call of the House.

country which they now occupy; and, finding a purpose Mr. DAVIS, of Massachusetts, asked for the yeas and so unjust to these people, and so mischievous to the repuDays on this motion, and they were ordered.

tation of the country, lurking under it, I cannot give it my Mr. BARRINGER requested Mr. TALIAFERRO to with countenance or support. draw his motion for the previous question, to allow bim to I shall leave it entirely to others to examine that poliey submit his substitute, understood to embrace a gradual which affects to improve the moral condition of the lereduction of the salt duty, a reduction of the duty od mo dians by removing them into the western forests, and lasses, and some other modifications of the tariff

, which dismiss that part of the subject with the single remark, would probably meet with general approbation.

that the President has furnished us, in his message at the Mr. TALIAFERRO was proceeding to explain why be opening of the session, with a fair commentary upon that did not accede to the request of the gentleman from North scheme of Indian improvement. He says, that, - profesCarolina, when the Chair reminded him that no debate was sing a desire to civilize and settle them, we have, at the in order pending the questions which had been made. same time, lost no opportunity to purchase their lands,

The call of the House was sustained by year and nays and thrust them further into the wilderness"—that, " by 90 to 76; but

this means they have not only been kept in a wandering It appearing by the vote that the House was pretty full

, state, but been led to look upon us as unjust and indiffer the call was dispened with, on motion of Mr. STRONG. ent to their fate. Thus, though lavish in its expenditure

Here the hour allotted for the consideration of resolu- upon the subject, Government has constantly defeated its tions having elapsed,

own policy; and the Indians, in general, receding further Mr. MARTIN said, if any thing was to be done on the and further to the West, lave retained their savage basubject of this resolution at all, during the session, it must bits.” He then recommends to us that we should set be done at once. He therefore moved that the rule be apart an ample portion of our western territory, beyond suspended, and the discussion allowed to proceed. the limits of Missouri and Arkansas, for the reception of

The SPEAKER The gentleman is aware that it re- all the tribes of Indians now within the States-about quires two-thirds of the House to suspend a rule. sixty thousand-secure them the country, where he saya Mr. MARTIN. I am aware of that, sir.

they may enjoy Governments of their own choice, and Mr. VINTON demanded the yeas and pays op suspend- where “the benevolent may endeavor to teach them the ing the rule.

arts of civilization, and, by promoting union and harmony

Ir. MAY 15, 1830.]

Removal of the Indians.

(H. of R.

matter.

#a among them, to raise up an interesting commonwealth, The last administration was then required by Georgia, in put destined to perpetunte the race, and to attest the humanity a tone at least decisive of her intention, to persevere in her and justice of this Government."

own views of the obligation of the compact of 1802, to We are fortunately able, sir, to ascertain clearly the extinguish the Cherokee title to the lands held by them ter state of things which has induced the Executive to recom- within that State, and which were covered by the treaty af mend this policy to us so earnestly at the present time. of Holston. The administration repeated its efforts in

There can be no mistake in the history of our relations good faith, to induce the Cherokees to treat; but they with certain Indian nations, which has brought this sub- resisted all the temptations held out to them, refused to

ject before us at this session. It is fully spread upon the enter into any negotiation, and claimed, on their own part, o official documents of the House for some few years past; the protection of the plighted faith of the Government. ## und I shall proceed to call your attention to such parts of It was time for the

administration to pause, at least--and theu as, I trust, will lead us to the only safe and honor examine well the ground on which the Government stood. e able conclusion to which we ought to conie upon this whole The scenes of 1825 were still fresh in the recollection

of all. The blood of Maclutosh and his fellow-chief was By the fifth article of the treaty of New York, of the yet scarcely dry upon tbe enrth, and the smoke of their 7th of August, 1790, the United Sintes solemnly guaran- habitations bad scarcely ceased to curl above the tops of tied to the Creek nation all their lands beyond the bound the forest. But the Government continued its efforts in ary then established. The treaty of Holston, of the 24 the true spirit of its obligations to Georgia, until it became of July, 1791, with the Cherokee nation, was also entered evident that it was in vain to hope or look for success. into, under the administration of General Washington, for The Cherokees remained inflexible, and the perseverance the

purpose of quieting forever the collisious wbich bad of Georgia placed the administration in a situation in which taken place between that pation and the adjoining States. it was more probable that they might soon be called on to After fixing a new and definite boundary between their preserve the faith of the country plighted to the Chero

lands and these States, and obtaining from the nation its kees, in the solemn pledge given to that nation, under the w express acknowledgment that they were under the protec- administration of General Washington, for the integrity of

Lion of the United States, and of no other sovereigo what their country. ever; that they should bold no treaty with any foreign In this condition of things, Georgia put forth her ultipower, individual States, or with iodividuals, and stipulat- matum, and passed her resolutions of the 27th December, ing for the restoration of prisoners, the treaty contains the 1827. In these she declared her right to extend her aufollowing article:

thority over the whole Indian country; to coerce obedienco "ART. 7. The United States solemnly guaranty to the to it; and openly asserted that she could rightfully take Cherokee nation all their lands not hereby ceded." possession of the Cherokee lands at her own will and plea

By the compact with Georgia, of the 24th of April, sure. During the last year, she bas followed up these 1802, on the surrender of her claims to the country west claims, and annexed their country to the adjacent coun: of ber preseut limits, the United States stipulated to ex. ties; she has extended ber laws over the Cherokes, and tinguislı, at their own expense, for the use of Georgia, the coupled with them a peculiar code, framed for that purludian title to their lands within that State, as early as it puse, and applicable to the Indians only. Of the operation could be peaceably obtained, on reasupable terme.” and character of these laws, I shall say somethipg before I This article of the compact also recited, that, for acquiring sit down. a part of these lands, the President (Mr. Jeffersou) had There has been some complaint, on the part of Georgia, directed that a treaty should be immediately held with that, from the commencement of her collision on this subthe Creeks. There seemed to be no doubt, therefore, ject with the former administration, she has been much originally, between the parties to this compact, as to the misunderstood, and often greatly misrepresented. It is mauner in which it was to be executed on the part of the fair and caudid, therefore, that, on this occasion, and in General Goveroment. This treaty was accordingly bolden this House, the principles on which she has relied to supou the 16th of June, 1802, and the kings, chiefs, hend port ber measures, should be stated by herself; that she men, and warriors of the Creek nation, assembled in should be heard in her own words; and that, if she fails to Council, ceded to the United States an extensive tract of be convinced, the doctrines on which she bas rested her country. The commissioners plenipotentiary, who held pretensions may be no longer mistaken, or her principles this treaty, were nominated to the Senate, and their ap- misrepresented. I shall not trust myself to state them pointments confirmed. By apotber treuty with the Creeks, from recollection, and must ask the committee to indulge (Novenber 14th, 1805,) they ceded other lands to the me in reading some extracts from the proceedings of her United States, which also passed to Georgia. Other trea- Legislature in 1827. A joivt committee of that body, to ties have followed with this nation, not essential to be now whom the Governor's message relating to the acquisition considered, until the administrations of Mr. Monroe and Mr. of the Georgia lands, at present in the occupancy of the Adams, when they persisted in refusing to sell any more Cherokee Indians, and the absolute and jurisdictional right of their lands. Georgia had, in the mean time, strenuous of the State to the same," bad been referred, reported ly required of the General Government the fulfilment of that they bad giren that subject the most mature and deits pledge under the compact of 1802.' But all the efforts liberate consideration, and accompanied the report with of the Government to induce the Creek nation to part an elaborate exposition of the principles on which they with their lands bad failed, until the execution of the ar- founded certain resolutions submitted with it. The wbole ticles at the Indian Springs, in 1826, by MacIntosh and argument is finally recapitulated, with a comprehensivesome other chiefs, who assumed to represent the Creek Dess and clearness which relieves me from reading the pation on that occasion. We all know the melancholy whole report. catastrophe which immediately followed, and wbich all " Before Georgia," says this report, " became a party of must wish could be for ever forgotten. The calamities to the articles of agreement and cession of 1802, she could which befell the Creeks filled them with terror. They rightfully have possessed herself of those lands, either by were in some degree quieted, after great difficulty, negotiation with the Indians; or by force; and she had deand very painful measures, on the part of the General Go. termined to do so ; but by this contract she made it the duty vernment, towards Georgia ; and found, ut last, that their of the United States to sustain the expense of obtaining for only bope of peace and future security was iu listening to her the possession, provided it could be done upon reathe benevolent councils of the administration. They sonable terms and by negotiation. But, in case it should finally surrendered the remnant of their lands to Georgia. become necessary to resort to force, this contract with the

H. OF R.]

Removal of the Indians.

(May 15, 1830.

Dow

United States makes no provision; the consequence is, that all hazard, and without regard to terme, to procure said Georgia is left untrammelled, at full liberty to prosecute lands for the use of Georgia. her rights in that point of view, according to her own dis " Resolved, That the policy which has been pursued by cretion, and as though no contract had been made. Your the United States towards the Cherokee Indians, bas not committee, therefore, arrive at this conclusion, that, ante- been in good faith towards Georgia; and as all the difficul. rior to the revolutionary war, the lands in question belong ties which now exist to an extinguisbment of the Indian ed to Great Britain ; that the right of sovereignty, both as title, have resulted from the acts of policy of the United to dominion and empire, was complete and perfect in her; States, it would be unjust and disbonorable in them to take that the possession of the Indians was permissive; that they shelter behind these difficulties. were mere tenants at will; and that such tevancy might Resolved, That all the lands appropriated and unaphave been determined at any moment, either by negotia- propriated within the conventional limits of Georgia, be tion or force, at the pleasure of Great Britain ; that upon long to her absolutely ; that the title is in ber; that the In the termination of the revolutionary war, and by the treaty dians are tenants at her will; that she may at any time she of peace, Georgia assumed all the rights aud powers in pleases determine that tenancy, by taking possession of relation to the lands and Jodians in question, which there the premises ; and that Georgia has the right to extend ber tofore belonged to Great Britain ; that since that time she autbority and laws over the whole territory, and to coerce bas not divested herself of any right or power in relation obedience to them from all descriptions of people, be they to the lands now in question, further than she has in rela- white, red, or black, within her limits." tion to all the balance of ber territory; and that she This report and these resolutions were agreed to by both at full liberty, and bas the power and right to possess ber branches of the Legislature, approved by the Governor, self, by any means she may choose to employ, of the lands transmitted to the President under the late administration, in dispute, and to extend over them her authority and laws. and are among the papers of this House. They were sent Although your committee believe that the absolute title to here by the President,

' in 1828, in answer to a resolution the lands in controversy is in Georgia, and that she may offered by a gentleman from Georgia, (Mr. WILDE.) rightfully possess herself of them, when and by wbat means I have not beed able to ascertain whether or not the she pleases, yet they would not recommend an exercise of late administration complied with the suggestion contained that right until all other means fail. We are aware that in this report, that these proceedings of the State of Georthe Cherokee Indians talk extravagantly of their devotion gia should be laid before ihe Cherokee bation ; but the pa to the land of their fathers, and of their attachment to their pers on your table will enable us to judge how far the pre homes; and that they have gone very far towards convinc sent administration has, iu furtherance of the policy and ing the General Goverument that negotiation with them, views of Georgia, changed the former policy of the Go with the view of procuring their relinquishment of tiile to verument, and apprised the Cherokees of the nature and the Georgia lands, will be hopeless; yet we do confidently extent of the Georgia title to tbeir lands, and what the believe that they have been induced to assume this lofty probable consequences would be of their “ remaining re bearing, by the protection and encouragement which bave fractory." been afforded them by the United States; and that they Against all these pretensions of Georgia, the Cherokee will speak a totally different language, if the General Go- nation buve protested to the present administration as well vernment will change its policy towards them, and apprise as to the last. They have asserted the inviolability of their them of the nature and extent of the Georgia title to their treaties, and invoked the faith and demanded the proteclands, and what will be the probable consequence of their tion of the Government. They have received the answer remaining refractory.

of the present Secretary of the Department of War and "Your committee would recommend that one other, the President. They have finally appealed to this House, And the last appeal be made to the General Government, and offered their memorials here as their last refuge from with a view to open a negotiation with the Cherokee In the calamities which they believe await them after we shall dians upon the subject; that the United States do instruct bave turned them away. Speaking of their case, the Presi their commissioners to submit this report to the said In: cent says in bis message: "A portion, however, of the dians ; that if no such negotiation is opened, or if it is, and southern tribes, having mingled much with the whites and proves to be unsuccessful, that then the next Legislature made some progress in the arts of civilized life, bare late is recommended to take into consideration the propriety ly attempted to erect an independent government within of using the most effectdal measures for taking possession the limits of Georgia and Alabama. These States, claimof and extending our authority and laws over the whole ing to be the only sovereigns witbin their territories, er of the lands in controversy. Your committee, in the true tended their laws over the Indians, which induced the spirit of liberality, and for the purpose alone of avoiding latter to call on the United States for protection. Under any difficulty or misunderstanding with either the General these circumstances, the question presented was, whether Government or the Cherokee Indians, would recommend the General Government had a right to sustain these peoto the people of Georgia to accept any treaty that may be ple in their pretensions." made, between the United States and those Indians, It is to be deeply regretted that before the Presidest Becuring to this State so much of the lands in question as assumed the power to decide against the Cberokee uation, may remain, after making, reserves for a term of years, the interesting questions, which were thus presented under for life or forever, in fee simple, to the use of particular the constitution, laws, and public treaties of the country, Indians, not to exceed in the aggregate one-sixth part of he had not submitted the whole nintter to Congress as bis the whole territory. But if all this will not do; if the constitutional advisers, or at least to the Senate, with the United States will not redeem her pledged honor; and if view of disposing of these difficulties by amicable negotiathe Indians continue to turn a deaf ear to the voice of tion. It seems that it was expected at one time that this reason and friendship; we now solemnly warn them of would bave been done. The Superintendent of Indian the consequences. The lands in question belong to Geor- Affairs, in the War Department, in a letter of the 11th of gia-she must and she will have them. Influenced by the April

, to the Cherukee delegation says: “The Secretary of foregoing considerations, your committee beg leave to offer War is not now prepared to decide the question involved in the following resolutions :

the act of the Legislature of Georgia, to which you refer, in " Resolved, That the United States, io failing to procure which provision is made for extending the laws of Georgia the lands in controversy as early as the same could be done over your people after the first of June, 1830. It is a ques. upon peaceable and reasonable terms, have palpably vio- tion which will doubtless be the subject of congressional lated their contract with Georgia, and are now bound, at linquiry, and what is proper in regard to it will no doubt

MAY 15, 1830.]

Removal of the Indians.

(H. OF R.

be ordered by that body.” I regret that this dis position tion of the United States. The treaties of this Governo of the subject had been made. These questions might ment, made with them from its first organization and under I doubtless have been safely trusted to Congress. But it every administration, to which they have solemnly ap- . this was ever the intention of the Government, it appears pealed for their security against these fatal encroachments to have been soon abandoned. On the 18th of April, and on their rights, have been treated as subordinate to the within a week after Colonel McKenney's letter, the Secre- laws of these States, and are thus virtually abrogated by tary of the Department of War informed the Cherokee the Executive Department. The President has assumed delegation, that, since that communication to them, be bad the power to dispose of the whole question, and the mesconversed freely and fully with the President, and had sage proposes to us little more than to register this exeI been directed by him to submit to them bis views on the cutive decree. This has seriously embarrassed the whole

whole subject. He then explicitly tells them that their subject. It is to be feared that insuperable obstacles have 1 claims to the protection of the Government, under these been thus iuterposed to the fair and unbiassed action of treaties and the laws of the United States, against the the House, and the full and free expression of its opinion. operation of the laws of Georgia, could not be recognised. We are called upon and constrained to act under a moral I shall not pow call the attention of the committee to the coercion, extremely unfavorable to an impartial examinadoctrives assumed by this department, further than to read tion of the question before us., I well know the strength one or two extracts from this letter to the Cherokee de- of the moral influence of any opinion of the Executive legation.

Department of this Government, and I feel the weight of * To all this," says the Secretary, "there is a plain and it on this occasion. But I hope that this House feels too obvious answer, deducible from the known history of the deeply its own responsibility to the country, to suffer this country. During the war of the revolution, your nation influence to be felt bere against the solemn convictions of was the friend and ally of Great Britain ; à power wbich its judgment. But these questions must now be examined then claimed sovereignty within the limits of what con- bere. We must adopt the measure before us, and in that stituted the Thirteen Únited States. By the declarn- way sanction all that bas been done, and all wbich shall tion of independence, and, subsequently, the treaty of 1788, follow, or reject it, and leave the responsibility to those all the rights of sovereignty pertaining to Great Britain who have assumed it. It is the more to be lamented that became vested respectively in the original States of this this decision of the Executive was made so bastily, since Union, including North Carolina and Georgia, within whose there was no necessity of acting definitively upon it beterritorial limits, as defined and known, your nation was fore Congress would have contened. The laws of Georgia then situated. If, as is the case, you have been permitted were not to bave gone into operation immediately. If the to abide on your lands from that period to the present, first determination which seems to have been taken had enjoying the right of soil and privilege to hunt, it is not not been unfortunately abandoned, and the States conthence to be ivferred that this was any thing more than cerned had been frankly advised that this subject was to be a permission growing out of compacts with your natiou, referred to Congress, we should have been left free to denor is it a circumstance whence now to deny to those vise sone prudent and just course, by negotiation or legisStates the exercise of their origival sovereignty." After lation, which might bave quieted all parties, and preserved further explaining to the Cherokees the views of the the public faith uublemished. It is uvfortunately now too President, the Secretary continues: “ But suppose, and it late to expect that any such course could be proposed with is suggested merely for the purpose of awakening your the slightest hope of success. There is no reason to bebetter judgment, that Georgia cannot and ought not to lieve that the Executive Department is desirous to retrace claim the exercise of such a power, what alternative is its steps, and it is decisively avowed that these States have presented ?" He then explicitly says that if any collision unalterably determined to proceed to the extremity of a sbould arise, even on this admission that Georgia was thus strict execution of these laws in the face of the guaranties in the wrong, the claims set up by them under their of our treaties. We must meet the case then bere as we treaties for protection, cannot even then be recognised; find it. The message has invited us to examine it freely; and as to the interference of the Executive under the laws and, if I am not greatly mistakeu, the decision of this of the Union or these treaties, he adds, “ The President House upon the measure now before it will involve mo. cappot and will not beguile you with such an expectation;" mentous consequences, for good or evil, to the reputaand finally tells them, No remedy can be perceived, tion of the country. While we have been sitting in these except that which frequently heretofore has been submit- seats, deliberating on this matter, or rather sleeping over ted for your consideration à removal beyond the Missis. it, the intercourse laws have become a dead letter in the sippi, where alone can be assured to you protection and statute book. While the Cherokee delegation have been peace. It must be obvious to you, and the President bas at our door, anxiously waiting to know the fate of their iustructed me again to bring it to your candid and serious nation, bands of profligate men bave intruded themcousideration, that to continue where you are, within the selves upon their people, and seated themselves down territorial limits of an independent State, can promise you upon their lands. I know that this is not done under the nothing but interruption and disquietude.". About the authority of Georgia, or by the countenance of the authosame time, I find that in a talk delivered by the President rities of that State, but our agent bas informed us that to the Creek nation, through their agent, he told them that these intruders have taken courage in their aggressions, where they now reside, their " white brothers" always from the laxity of opinion prevailing in regard to Indian cluimed the land, and these lands in Alabama bappen to be rights. ., A state of violence, disreputable to the country, the lands of the United States. He further informed them exists there. Blood has already been shed. One of the that big “ wbite children" in Alabama had extended their Cherokees has been slain in open day. The forces of the laws over their country, and that, if they remained there, Government have very lately been sent there to preserve they must submit to these laws. I believe, sir, that this the public peace, and there are some thousands of lawless bill owes its origin, at this time, to this state of things, and adventurers prowling through their country, digging for that its chief policy is to co-operate with these States in Cherokee gold, and quarrelling among themselves for the the acquisition of the benefits which they expect to attain division of the spoil. I am not at all surprised that ontto themselves by the removal of the Indians.

rages of this sort have been renewed there. They were By the course adopted by the Executive, and the princi- to have been expected, and are nothing more than the ples on which he has thus assumed to act on his own re obvious consequences which must have certainly followed sponsibility, without cousulting Congress, these Indian pa- the least relaxation of the foriner policy of the Govero. tions have been substantially placed without the protec- ment. The protection wbich these unfortunate people

H. OF R.]

Removal of the Indians.

(MAY 15, 1830

bave demanded of us, has failed to secure them against general interest of the country requires it to be done, but these evils.

we have in that respect pursued a liberal policy towards By surrendering the question of sovereignty, the Exc-them. We have purchased in these States about forts cutive has, for all substantial purposes, virtually surren- millions of acres. There bave been surveyed for sales. dered the treaties too. The intercourse laws of the which have rapidly progressed, vearly nine millions in United States are nullified with them. For until this was Miesissippi, and more than twenty-two millions in Alabama done, the right of these States to extend their laws over before 1827. the Cherokee nation and their country was not sustain I have been inclined to think, sir, that, under all the able. It has become necessary, therefore, for those who circumstances, some of the new States were admitted into justify what has been done, to go one step further, and the Union before they had acquired a sufficient populatima deny the validity of the intercourse laws and the trea- and strength to support their State governments with ties too. That ground has accordingly been taken, and advantage and convenience to themselves. I am Dot Dot gravely attempted to be sustained. if it be well founded disposed to complain of it. I bave cheerfully voted for in any principles of our political system, there is indeed the admission of them all since I bave bad the hopor of no redress for those who have trusted to us. We sball a seat in this House, and an enlightened policy required have epspared them in our toils. We bave allured them that we should have dealt generously with those by wbode on to their destruction. These unsuspecting victims of enterprise our inmense forests bad been reclaimed from their generous confidence in our faith must be left to the waste in which they lay, and who bad carried with, bear the calamities which threaten them as they can, or them, and are still extending to our remotest borders, our perish under them. They bave grievously complained free institutions, our laws, and I hope, our virtues toe. of us, and the country has deeply felt the reproaches of There can be po inore cheering sight to any patriotie man, our good faith, which these complaints could not have and the friends of free government every where can bare failed to inspire in an enlightened and christian commu- do surer confidence in the stability of our institutions, and nity. The obligations of our treaties have never been so the triumph of that consoling exumple which we bold on understood or acted upon before. The events wbich have to mankiud of the blessings of regulated liberty, than to followed bave shocked the public feeling, and agitated view the success of that policy which has planted around the country. It requires no skill in political science to us that flourishing circle of free States. But their early interpret tõese treaties. The plainest man can read your admission into the Union impused upon them the burden Bolemu guaranties to these pations, and understand them of supporting independent governments when they were for himself. I can tell the gentleman from Tennessee, not yet well able to bear taxation, and while their resources [Mr. Bell] that be is greatly mistaken in supposing that were too much exhausted in payments for the public de the excitement which prevails is nothing more than a main. These circumstances have given rise to pressing puliug sensibility, or that it is to be attributed to religious claims upon us. But it was our fault, if there was any, fanatics or aspiring politicians. The memorials ou your as well as theirs, avd has imposed upon us the duty of pur tables will show you the names of the warmest friends of suing a liberal policy towards them, wbich I think we bare this administration. Able civilians and sound statesmen been disposed to fulfil honorably. The great extent of believe you to be in the wrong. Pious men of all de public lands within their limits has been made a source of Dominations have been afflicted by what has passed, and uneasiness in some quarters. While we bave been dealthe consciences of the purest patriots in the country have ing generously with them here, insidious attempts have been wounded.

beep made to mislead their feelings, and entice them into In my humble opinion, sir, Georgia has had no reasod false views of their rights, and lax notions of political mo! to complain of us, or to accuse the General Government rality. Restless meu and artful demagogues bave laid of a disinclination to promote her interests as far as it hold of this matter to serve their private ends, by teaching ! could have been done in the true spirit of our engnge- them to contemn their own good faith, and to look upos ments to ber, and without violating our good faith to the the General Government as a bard master. Cherokees. To say nothing now of ber origival title to [Mr. LEWIS, of Alabama, requested Mr. STORRs to Field the country west of her present limits, (for we assumed the floor, that he might say a word in regard to that that to be in her by the compact of 1802,) we made her State. M. S. gave way, and Mr. LEWIS said that if the what was then considered and accepted as a fair com- gentleman from New York included the State of Alabams pensation for its surrender. We have since burdened iu bis remarks, he would inform the House, that though a the treasury with a heavy charge from the proceeds of report was once made in her Legislature, to which Mr. S what we acquired, for the extinguishment of private may have referred, yet it was promptly rejected in both claims under titles derived from her Legislature. The branches by very large majorities. annount paid to these claimants and to Georgia was seven Mr. STORRS said that he had no reference to the State millions and a quarter of dollars. In the execution of this of Alabama. He was not aware that such a report had compact, I am informed that we have since extinguished ever been made in ber Legislature, and was glad to fisi the Indian title within her limits to more than twelve mil. that it was disposed of there in a manner so honorable tu lions of acres, and at an enornious expense. I am ready the character of the State. Mr. S. said that be owed st

. now to vote any further amount that may be necessary to apology to the committee for introducing this topic at all carry it into effect bouorably, in the spirit in wbich it has on the present occasion. He had seen doctrines started always beeu executed. This is to be done by treaty. in some quarters on that point, which were calculated te The very delay which has taken place in its complete exe- do mischief; but he believed that they might safely be cution, from the second year of Mr. Jefferson's adminis. left to there probationw hich they would be sure to meri tration to this time, (independently of its obvious meaning with from the good sense and integrity of the people of on the face of it,) conclusively shows the sense in wbich those States to whom they bad been addressed.] it has been understood and acted upon under all adminis Mr. S. resumed. In the message of the Executive, is trations. There can be no administration, nor any one forming us what had been done, be has given us his redhere, who does pot feel and acknowledge our obligation sons, too, for the course which has been taken on his part to execute it faithfully. But Mississippi and Alabama We are thus enabled to examine the principles op which stand in a different relation to us. As we extinguish the that department has acted, and to determive more satisIndian title to the lands in these States, they become the factorily how far they sanction the doctrines which have domain of the General Government. We have entered been there assumed.' While the President has very justly into no engagements with them to do this faster than the said that it would be as cruel as unjust to compel the la

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